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Published monthly during the School Year, and designed especially to 

supply to teachers and students of geography fresh and interesting 

material with which to supplement the regular text-book. 


General Physkxsraphk: Processes J. W. Powell. 

General Physiographic Features J. W. Powell. 

Physiographic Provinces of U. S J. W. Powell. 

Beaches and Tidal Marshes of Atlantic Coast ... N. S. Shaler. 

Present and Extinct Lakes of Nevada I. C. Russell. 

Appalachun Mountains — Northern Section . . . Bailey Willis. 

Appalachun Mountains — Southern Section . . . . C. W. Hayes. 

Mt. Shasta — A Typical Extinct Volcano .... J. S. Diller. 

The New England Plateau W. M. Davis. 

Nugara Falls AND rrs History G.K.Gilbert. 

Subscription price for the ten monographs $1.50 

Five copies of each to one address 6.00 

Single monographs .20 

Remit with order to the 



^*-^ •' 

3 2044 097 0^ 388 





Adthob or GxooBAPHucB, ATLABza, Maps, Wall-maps, East Lsssoss in Populab Somrcs, autd Populab bcuircs Rxadxb 

oopvmaHT. issB. by jamcs montiith 




A ' z ' 

€lf 1 01 THE TOTTLC Qlk 

Thi8 Geography differs from other books on th-e subject^ in 

the following particulars:— 

It introduces tfie subject eiccording to the observational and 
deducHve metrwds, beginning with known facts, which 
are used as a stepping-stone to those which are un- 

It contains physical and industrial geography, systematic- 
ally arranged and attractively illustrated. 

Illuminated pictures of tf^ hemispheres represent the earth 
as in a painting, or on a relief globe. T9iC rtices of man^ 
kind, also, appear in color*,— their features, complexion, 
and characteristic costumes clearly identifying each. 

Its transcontinental views, the largest and most effective 
wood-cuts ever introduced into any school book, repre- 
sent the face of the country, with its mountains, plains, 
valleys, slopes, rivers, cities, etc. They are magnificent 
panoramas of the continents, from ocean to ocean, de- 
signed to teach, at a glance, more physical geography 
than several pages of text without such aids. {Seepages 
30, 94y 100, 118, and 12 J^) 

To prevent if^ury to the eye-styht of the teachers and pupils, 
the portion of each page to be studied is printed from 
large, clear type, prepared for this work. 

The foot-notes furnish the teacher with a fund of impor- 
tant and entertaining information, with which to 
vary and enliven the recitations. After the class has 
completed the regular lessons throughout the book, 
these notes may be used as supplementary'- lessons. 

This plan of teoct and foot-notes embraces two important 
features :— first, the labor of the pupil in studying the 
lessons is considerably diminished, while one third 
more information is furnished than is found in any 
other geography of like size and grade. 

The pronunciation and definition of difficult words have 
been inserted. They are in accordance with the new 
edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionarj^ {1886). 

The Maps contain several novel and valuable features. 

The names of tihe principal cities are engraved in especially 
large, bold-faced letters, making it easy for the pupil 
to find those included in the lessons. 

Bar. C<»mp. 

Compfirative area is shown on the maps of the continents, 
by diagrams of the State of Kansas, drawn on the scale 
of each map, and used as a common measure. 

Comparative latitude and extent are exhibited on the right 
and left margins of the maps. 

Ckrmparative temperature is marked by means of isotherms 
and degrees, Fahrenheit, printed in brown. The brown 
numbers in the inner margin indicate the mean annual 
temperature of places on the map proi>er, while those in 
the outer margin show that of the distant states, coun- 
tries, etc., therein named. Comparative temperature 
is indicated, also, by the depth of color in the mar- 
gins; the deepest red representing the hottest climate. 

Comparative time of day througtiout the world is given by 
means of clock-faces in the upper part of each map. 

Standard time in the United States is likewise shown. The 
red lines, separating the time divisions from one an- 
other, show where a traveler moves the hands of his 
watch forward, or backward, according to the direction, 
east, or west, in which he is going. 

Comparative elevation of surface is shown by sectional views 
under all the maps. 

The principal protluets, sea-ports, highlands, and lowlands^ 
are shown on small Physical Charts. 

OThe language lessons and written exercises furnish easy and 
interesting topical reviews. {For models, see pages 82 
and 43.) 

The directions in which rivers flow are shown by arrows ; 
the head of navigation on important rivers, by anchora 

Map Hrawing, combined with Comparative Area, is sim- 
plified, by the use of a construction frame, whose 
regular shape and dimensions are easily remembered ; 
it is an oblong diagram, representing the State of Kan- 
sas, 200 by 400 miles, in extent. On this frame every 
state and territory is, in turn, drawn ; also, many of 
the most important countries. {See page S7.) 

In the design and eocecution of tlie Maps and Illust rat ions, 
the best educational and artistic talent has been em- 
ployed*; and much credit is due to the efficient art 
department recently established by the publishers. 

J. M. 

Africa 122, 126 

Animal Kingdom, ~Man 21 

Asia 114,117 

Atmosphere 18, 19 

Aurora Borealis 19 

Austro-Hunoarian Monarchy . . . 98, 108 

Avalanche 17 

Balkan Peninsula 98, 113 

Belgium 110,111 

British Isles . . .... . . 102, 104 

Canada, Dominion of 84, 86 

Central America 88, 91 

China 116,120 

Circles, Equator, Meridians . . . . 8, 9 

Climate 19 

Clouds, Vapor, etc 16, 16 

Commercial Map 132 

Comparative Area 8, 29, 136 

Currents of the Ocean 14, 15 

Day and Night 8, 9 

Definitions, — Land 11, 12, 13 

Water 13-17 

Denmark 98,106,106 

Dew ^15- 

Distinguished Men .... 42, 57, 61, 69 

Europe 100 

Farther India 116, 121 


Form and Size of the Earth .... 7 

France 110 

German Empire 106 

Geysers 16 

Glaciers, Icebergs, etc 17 

Greece 100, 113 

Hemispheres 24 

Horizon 8 

India 116,120 

Industrial Geography 22 

Italy 98,109, 110 

Japan 116,121 

Language Lessons 32, 43 

Latitude and Longitude 9 

Lightning 19 

Map Drawing 37, 137 

Mathematical Geography .... 6-11 

Mexico 88,90 

Mirage 19 

Mineral Kingdom 19 

Motions of the Earth 8 

Netherlands 106, 108 

North America 28, 30 

Norway 98, 105 

Oceania .^ 129 

Physical Geography, — General . 6, 11-21 
Political Geography, — General . . . 6, 21 


Populations 134 

Portugal 98, 113 

Position of the Earth 91 

Projections of Maps 11 

Pronunolation of Names 138 

Rain 16 

Rivers and River Basins 17 

Russu 98,108 

Seasons 9,10 

Snow 16 

South America 95 

Spain 100, 113 

Sphere 6, 7 

Springs 16 

Standard Time 8, 29, 37 

Sweden 98,105 

Switzerland 110, 112 

Tides 14 

Topical Reviews 32, 43, 138 

Transcontinental Views, 30, 94, 100, 118, 124 
Turkey, Roumanl^, Sbrvl/i, etc. . 98, 133 

Vegetable Kingdom 20 

Waves 14 

West Indies ........ 88, 89 

Winds, Storms, etc 18, 19 

Written Exercises (Models) ... 32, 43 
Zones 10, 19 



United States, — General .... 38, 39 
Middle Atlantic States, Phys. Gbog., 46 
New England States, " . . 40 

North Central States, " . . 66 

Pacific States and Territories " . . 76 
Southern States " . . 54 

Alabama 58, 60 

Alaska 34, 83 

Arizona 74, 79 

Arkansas 58, 60 

Caufornla 74, 77 

Colorado 74, 79 

Connecticut 38, 43 

Dakota, North and South . . . . 70, 73 

Delaware 48, 50 

District of Columbdl 48, 51 

Florida 52, 56 

Georgia 52, 56 


Idaho 80,82 

Illinois 64, 68 

Indl^ Territory 62, 63 

Indllna 64, 69 

Iowa 70,72 

Kansas 70, 72 

Kentucky 64, 69 58, 60 

Maine 39,41 

Maryland 48, 50 

Massachusetts 38, 42 

Michigan 64, 67 

Minnesota 70, 72 

Mississippi 58, 60 

Missouri 70, 72 

Montana 80, 82 

Nebraska 70, 72 

Nevada 74,79 

New Hampshire 38, 42 


New Jersey 44, 47 

New Mexico 74, 79 

New York . . 44, 47 

North Carouna 52, 56 

Ohio 64,69 

Oklahoma 63 

Oregon 80, 82 

Pennsylvania 44, 47 

Rhode Island 38, 43 

South Carouna 52, 56 

Tennessee 58, 61 

Texas 62, 63 

Utah 74, 79 

Vermont 38, 42 

ViRGINLl 48, 51 

Washington 80, 82 

West Virginia 48, 51 

Wisconsin 64, 67 

Wyoming 80, 82 


THE ARCTIC REQION.-The fate of Sir John Franklin, a cele- 
brated Arctic explorer, who set out from England in 1845, to find a north-west 
passage, or oommercial route, from that countzy to Asia, but who never returned, 
has been reoently ascertained. 

Expeditions had, at various times, been sent In search of him, but it was not 
until Schwatka, an officer of the United States Army, accomplished his work, that 
all the members of the Franklin party were known to have perished. 

Schwatka met a native chief who had seen either the Ertibut^ or the Terror^ 
Franklin^s ships; and from him he learned that the ships had been abandoned and 
sunk, and that some spoons, knives, cooking utensils, books, and records had been 
taken by the natives. Not knowing the value or use of the books and records, the 
natives gave them to their children to play with. In this way, they were destroyed. 
Schwatka found a number of skeletons of the Franklin party, which he buried on 
King Wllliam^s Land, south-west of Boothia Peninsula. He reports a temperature 
in January, 1880, of 70<> below zero, and says his white men endured the cold as 
well as the natives, who call themselves Inuits. His course lay north-west from 
Hudson Bay. 

Lieutenant De Long, in the steam cruiser JeannetU^ which was fitted out 
by James Gtordon Bennett, entered the Arctic Ocean by way of Bering Strait. 
After two years, in which the party suffered greatiy, the Jeannette was crushed in 
the ice, and sunk in the Arctic, over 400 miles from the coast of Siberia, Jtme, 
1881. Some of the party, in an open boat, entered the Lena Kiver, and were 
rescued. De Long, with a number of his men, reached the shore, but perished 
from cold and hunger on the frozen wilds of Siberia. Others of his party have 
never been heard from. De Long discovered three small islands, which he named 
Bennett, Henrietta, and Jeannette. 

In the vicinity of Lady Franklin Bay, several large lakes and mountain 
ranges have been surveyed. 

The highest temperature recorded is 62<> Fahr. above zero; the lowest, 
66** Fahr. below zero ; at this time, the mercury remained frozen for fifteen con- 
secutive days. 

The tidal observations revealed some startling facts. At Lady Franklin 
Bay, the tides came from the norths but at Ca,pb Sabine and Melville Bay, the wave 
came from the aouih. The water of the flowing tide at Discovery Harbor was some- 
what warmer than that of the ebbing tide. The average temperature of the sea 
water at Lady Franklin Bay was 20** F., being three degrees below the freezing 
point of fresh water. 

The observations In magnetism were complete and interesting. The 
results show that in that latitude, the magnetic needle is constantly in a tremor, 
except during severe storms, when it becomes quiet. 

The farthest point north reached by T^ieutenant Lockwood and Sergeant 
Brainard, of the Greely party, was latitude 83** 24^, the highest ever attained 
by man. Fifteen miles north of this point, a high promontory was discerned, 
which was named Cape Bobert Lincoln. They explored the northern coast of 
G-reenland, 150 miles farther eastward than had ever been before. 

*This party, when opposite Cape Sabine, were compelled to abandon the small 
steam launch, and for thirteen days, during a terrible storm, drifted helplessly on 
an ioe-pack. After great suffering, they reached land, and proceeded to Cape 
Sabine, where they built winter quarters. Here they remained from September, 
1883, until July, 1884. Their supply of food became exhausted, and the party 
suffered horribly during their encampment at this place. All but nine of the 
party perished from exposure and starvation. 

The highest peaks In North America are in the vicinity of Mt. St. 
Elias. Their elevation above the sea level, according to recent measurements, is over 
19,000 feet. They are situated near the central part of the boundary between Alaska 
and Canada. 

OCEAN HYDROGRAPHY.— The surveys made by the Coast Survey 
Steamer Blake in the Gulf of Mexico, and along the eastern coast of the United 
States, have established a number of interesting facts.— 

The contour of the bed of the ffulf reveals the existence of a succession 
of terraces, or steps, of uniform width and depth, extending around the gulf some- 
what like the rows of seats in an amphitheater. The first of these terraces varies 
from thirty to one hundred miles in width, on which the depth of water is less 
than 500 feet. Then the bottom slopes quite abruptly to the next terrace, on 
which the water has an average depth of 2,600 feet. This terrace is not more 
than twenty or thirty miles wide. The slope to the next terrace is likewise quite 
steep, on which the average depth of water is about 4,000 feet. The descent to the 
next terrace is still more abrupt, and the depth of water thereon is about 10,000 
feet. This terrace is about one hundred miles in width. The lowest i>art of the 
bed is in the center of the gulf, where the depth la about 12,000 feet. 

Between Florida and Yucatan, Is a submarine ridge on which the 
depth of water nowhere exceeds 6,000 feet. From the lowest summit of this 
ridge, the island of Cuba rises with almost precipitous walls. Within five miles of 
either' of the Cuban shores, the depth of water is nearly 6,000 feet, while the slopes 
toward Yuoatan and Florida are uniform and gentle. 

The movements of water within the ffulf are found to be irrogular, 
and governed, to a great extent, by the wind. Along the northern shone, there 
is generally an eastward drift of water, caused by the prevailing winds. At times, 
this drift is not only arrested, but oocasionally reversed. The surveys of Com- 
mander Bartlett show conclusively that not only has the drift of the golf no 
connection with the Gulf Stream, but that the Qulf Stream cannot be said to begin 
in the Qulf of Mexico. The beginning of the Ghulf Stream cannot be placed farther 
west than Florida Strait. 

They further demonstrate that the Gulf Stream, as far north as the 
vicinity of Charleston, extends to the bottom— a depth of about 400 fathoms— and 
that the bottom, in this section of its course, is swept clean of slime and ooze, and is 
nearly barren of animal life. In the vicinity of Hatteras Inlet, the bottom is covered 
with shells, or skeletons of organisms, brought by the Arctic current, which is here 
an under-current. Opposite Charleston, there is a strong and well-known surface 
current from the north. After flowing on the surface for about one hundred 
miles, it disappears. This phenomenon is believed by Commander Bartlett to be 
due to the rising of the Arctic current to the surface. 

Central Africa, from the Qulf of Quinea to Victoria Nyanza, is a vast belt 
of forest. Owing to the tropical heat and great rain-fall, the vegetation is exceed- 
ingly dense and luxuriant. South of this forest is an open, grassy country, very 
fertile and inhabited by a superior race of natives, finely formed, vigorous, indus- 
trious, and having considerable sldll in agriculture and manufactures. Stanley esti- 
mates the number of these nati^^as at 60,000,000. 

In 1800 an agreement was reached between Germany and England, by which 
new and definite boundaries were arranged between English and German territory 
in the eastern, south-western, and western parts of Africa: free trade in the 
Congo State and vicinity was guaranteed to subjects of both nations ; Gtermany 
transferred to England her protectorate over Somaliland and Wltu, and aasented 
to that over Zanzibar; England agreed to infiuence the Sultan of Zanzibar to 
cede to Germany the strip of coast before farmed out to the German East Africa 

In the ssme year, French and Italian influence was strengthened in the north 
of Africa. 

Papua, or New Quinea, has been divided. Its western part belongs to 
Holland ; its north-eastern, to Ghermany ; and its south-eastern, to Great Britain. 
The names of two islands east of Papua have been changed : — New Britain, to 
Kew Pomerania; and New Ireland, to New Mecklenburg. Both belong to Ger- 

Brazil, an empire since 1822, became, in 1880, the Bepublic of the United 
States of Brazil. 

New states— admitted into the Union, in 1880.— North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Montana, and Washington ; in 1800, Idaho and Wyoming. 

The new Territory of Oklahoma was formed, in 1800, from the western 
part of Indian Territory. 

Attention is directed to the orthography and pronunoiation of many names 
heretofore misspelled, or mispronounced, by the public generally. These may be 
found in the Appendix. Among them are the following : 

The orthography, Bering^ is used in the Coast Survey, and other government 
publications. Commander Ivaw IvAirovrroH Bzanra uniformly spelled his name 
Bering^ as do his descendants, now living in Denmark. 

J. E. HiLOARD, Supt. U. a, Ooaa Surveif, 

Atteffony is the ortbogiaphy for fbe name of a^ 
county in New York; Alleghany, for the' 
namea of mocmtains and river; and AUs' 
gheny, for the name of a city in Pennsyl- 

Cancasufl, ke^kae&e. 

Caacaaian, kqka'eian. 

Chicago, eM k^ffd. 

United States of Oolombla, M UfrnfM d, 

Irkootsk' and Takootsk' not ou, 

"KaOSa^k&aySkf, not A« di tU', an island be- 
longin;; to Alaska- 

KBmchftt'ka, not techat, 
Koo'ril, not ku ri^. Island belonging to Japan 
La Paz, Id paJth\ capital of Bolivia. 
Lad'oga, not lad o^ go, a lake in Rnaaia. 
L08 Ang'fil 88, not anfje fik, hi California. 
Mackinac, mdifl nfh iiot mdkfhn ak, 
Mad'rid, U. 8.; Mad rid^ capital of Spain. 
Man i to bft', province in Canada. 
Mendoza, min dVthd, 
NOr'wIch, Oonnecticnt; n^/V, England. 
Saghalin, tdg&lin\ ialand east of Siberia. 
Tbfimea, Cor.if nicot ; rimt, England. 


1. You all know that the world we live in, is called 
the earth, — ^that we walk, ride, and sail on the surface, or 
outside, of the earth,— that the streets, roads, fields, rivers, 
and lakes are parts of the earth's surface, — that birds fly 
above it, and fishes swim below it, — and that it is com- 
posed of land and water. 

2. Whenever you learn from a teacher, a parent, a 
traveler, or a book, about the form of the earth, its 

movements, ita inhabitanta, or any facts relating to 
its surface, you are learning geography. 

3, Geography, therefore, is a description of the 
earth's surface, or of any thing which affects, or is affected 
by it. 

4. Land and water compose the earth's surface in the 
proportion of one fourth land U^ three fourths waten 

5. On the land, grow gras% plants, and trees, from 
which, either directly or indirectly, many kinds of animals 
and different races of people obtain thoir food, and without 
which no form of aniniHl lifp imilil r^xi^f ^hi the earth. 

6. Grass, plants, and trees could not live without 
water. This is supplied in a very wonderful manner, 
from the water of the earth's surface. 

7. The sun's heat evaporates a part of the water; 
that is, changes it into vapor, which rises in the air. The 
winds carry the vapor, or moisture, in the form of clouds, 
over the land. When this vapor enters air which is too 
cool, or unable to hold it, it is changed into drops and 
falls in the form of rain. 

8. Land and water, air and winds, heat and cold are 
working together continually to make the earth fruitful 
and beautiful for the abode of mankind. 







Adthob or Gboobaphob, Atlabbb, Maps, Wall-maps, East Lsasoss in Populab Somrcs, Ain> Popttlab bcmrcB Rbadxb 

ooPVRiaHT. lass. by jamcs montbith 






11. The motions of the earth are two, — ^a daily and a 

12. The daily motion is the rotation of the earth on 
its axis. It makes a rotation, with reference to the sun, 
in a day, which is divided into twenty-four hours. 

18. The succession* of day and night is caused by the 
rotation of the earth on its axia 

14. The earth turns on its axis from west to east ; but 
to an observer on the earth, the sun appears to move 
around the earth from east to west, daily. 

15. The sun shines on one half of the earth at a time, 
while the other half is in darkness. In the illuminated* 
half, it is said to be day ; in the dark half, night. 

16. As the earth turns on its axis, it constantly brings 
a succession of places to the light, and then carries them 
into the shadow. 

17. The time at which the sun first appears every 
morning on the horizon, is called sunrise; the time at 
which it disappears below the horizon, sunset It is evi- 
dent,* therefore, that an observer east of a given place 
will see the sun at sunrise before an observer west of that 
place. For instance, it is sunrise three hours sooner at 
Boston than at San Francisco.* 

18. The yearly motion of the earth is its journey 
around the sun. The earth makes a complete journey, or 
revolution, around the sun in 8 65 J days, turning on its 
axis 866i times. The time in which this revolution is 
made is called a year. 

19. The path of the earth in its journey around the 
sun, is called its orbit In shape, the orbit of the earth is 
an el lipse'.^ 


20. The direction in which the sun appears on the 
horizon in summer is east, or nearly so ; at its setting, it 
is west, or nearly so. With the right hand toward the 
east and the left hand toward the west, the face of the 
observer is toward the north; his back, toward the south. 

21. These directions are called cardinal* points; a 
direction midway between north and east is northr-east; 
between north and 

west, north-west; 
between south and 
east, southeast; and 
between south and 
west, south-west} 

22. Shadows, at 
noon, in the United 

States, fall toward ___^_ 

' ^^ i^^^mmmm^A jM i . ^.jy -.a.-' 

the north.2 

23. The positions 
of places on the 

earth and their dis- maeobb^b comp^bb. 

tances from one an- 
other, are determined by means of lines supposed to be 
drawn upon its surface." 

24. A circle is a figure bounded by a curved line, every 
part of which is equally distant from the center.* 

26. The great circles n. p. 
of the earth are those 
which divide it into two 

equal parts, called hemi- / ^^ \- 

spheres. Small circles are ^ ^ 

those which divide it into 

two unequal parts. (^.^ ^ 

26. The Equator is a \^ X 

great circle midway be- 
tween the North Pole and .^ , 

the South Pole. The Equa- 
tor divides the earth into s. p. 
the Northern Hemisphere "q^atob and pabaixei^ of latitudk. 

and the Southern Hemisphere. 

27. Parallels are small circles parallel to the Equator. 

28. Meridian circles are great circles that pass through 
the poles of the earth. Each meridian circle crosses the 
parallels at right angles. 

29. A meridian is one half of a meridian circle. Merid- 
ians extend from pole to pole. 

4. When the mm is on the hoziBon^ or just risins, in Callfomla, Oregon, and 
Washington Territory, it Ib one hour high, or above the horizon, In Colorado ; two 
hours high, in Wisconsin, IllinoiB, and Missiasippi ; and three hours high, in "Sew 
York and New Jersey. When the boys and girls on the Paoifln Coast of the United 
States are entering school at nine o^clock in the morning, those on the North 
Atlantic Coast are beginning to eat their dinners, or luncheons,^ at twelve o^clock, 
noon. You will learn more about this subject, In another lesson. 

6. The sun is not in the center of the ellipse, but near it. Hence, the dis- 
tance of the earth from the sun differs at different times. The earth is about 
3,000,000 miles nearer the sun in December, than in Jtme. 

1. These direotions are determined at sea by means of an instrument cskUed the 
mariner*s* compass. This instrument consists of a magnetized bar of steel attached 
to a circular card on which the names of the cardinal points are printed. The 
needle and card are balanced on a pivot, and inclosed in a metallic box with a 
glass top. No matter which way the magnetized bar is turned, it always rwlngs 


back and comes to rest in a direction nearly north and south. (Sm Nmv JPhftieal 
Otographiy, p. 40.) 

2. The nardinal jioints of the compass may be marked on the class-room floor. 

3. On maps, or representations of the earth's surface, the lines are real^ not 
Imaginaiy ; on the earth, each line is the circumference of a circle, or a part of it. 

4. Bvery drole (or circumference) may be divided into 360 equal parts, called 
degrees^ marked ("). Each degree may be divided into 60 mintito, marked (0. 
Each minute may be divided into 60 seoonde, and marked ('0. For instance, the 
expression 3« 20^ 28" is read,— 3 degrees, 20 minutes, and 28 seconds. To distin- 
guish these from minutes and seconds of iime^ the phrase qf arc is employed. Thus, 
30' is read,— 30 minutes of arc. An arc is part of a circumference. There are 
180" in one half of a circumference ; 00**, in one fourth ; and 46°, in one eighth. 

^ tueott'ikm, following in order. luneh^eon (lunch' un), a light meal at noon. 

UWmlfUU ed^ light thrown on it odr^ di nal, principal. 

ei/idmtf clear to the understanding. mar'i ner, a seaman, or sailor. 



80. The position of a 
place on the earth's sur- 
face is given in terms of 
latitude and longitude. 

31. Latitude is distance 
north or south of the 
Equator, expressed in de- 
grees, minutes, and sec- 
onds. Places north of the 
Equator are said to be in 
north latitude ; those south 
of the Equator, in south 

82. Latitude is reckoned from the Equator toward the 
poles. A place on the Equator is in lat. 0** ; the latitude 
of the North Pole is 90° N. ; of the South Pole, 90° S. 

around the earth. Pltk^es east of this meridian are in 
east longitude ; those west of it, in west longitude. 

37. The figures at the top of the maps in this book 
indicate longitude reckoned from Greenwich. On maps 
of the hemispheres, the degrees of longitude are usiially 
shown on the Equator." 

38. Certain circles used in geography, mark the posi- 
tion of the sun's rays, at certain times. They are called 
astronomical circles. 

39. The axis of the earth is not perpendicular to the 
plane of its orbit, but is inclined 23^ degrees from the 
perpendicular.* Therefore, when the North Pole leans 
toward the sun, as shown in diagram 1, the rays of the 
sun will illuminate the earth 23^ degrees beyond the 
North Pole.* 

Diagram 1.— Summer in the Northern Hendephere^ and witUer in the aouthem. Diagram M.^Winier in the Northern HenAephere^ and tummer in the doulhem. 


88. Degrees of latitude are shown by the figures at 
the sides of the maps. A degree of latitude is about 69.2 
miles, in length. 

34. Longitude is distance east or west from a given me- 
ridian, expressed in degrees (°), minutes ('), and seconds ("). 
This given meridian is called a prime meridian, 

35. The prime m^ridia/riy adopted by nearly every na- 
tion, is the meridian passing through Q-reenwich (grfin'Xj), 
near London, England. 

36. Longitude is reckoned from 0°, the longitude of 
the Greenwich prime meridian, to 180**, or half-way 

6. The lanffth of a degree of loncitode yaries with the siEe of the ruralleto 
of latitade, from at the poles, to about 69.2 miles at the E q uator. The maps 
show the length of a degree of longitude, on different parallels. 

40. This limit of the sun's light marks, at a, a, the posi- 
tion of the Arc' tic Circle, called, also, the North Polar Circle. 

41. The rays of the sun are then vertical,* at noon, 
on the earth's surface at 6, which is 23J^ degrees north of 
the Equator. This point shows the northern limit of 
places which may have a vertical sun, at noon, and 
marks the Tropic of Cancer. 

42. When, however, the earth has moved half-way 
around in its orbit, and the North Pole leans from the 
sun, as shown in diagram 2, the sun's rays extend 23^ 
degrees beyond the South Pole, thus marking, at e, e, the 
position of the Ant' arc tic, or South Polar Circle. 

0. The idane of the earth's orUt may be considered an imaginary surface 
on which the earth^s orbit is drawn. 
« per pen dkfular, exactly upright vtr*tie ai, directly overhead, or in the se'nith. 



43. The sun's 
rays are then ver- 
tical, at noon, at 
c, a point 23 J 
degrees south of 
the Equator ; this 
point shows the 
southern Umit of 
places which may 
have a vertical 
sun, at noon, and 
marks the Tropic 
of Capricorn. 

44. All places 
on the earth 
which are situ- 
ated at the Tropic 
of Cancer have a 
vertical sun, at 
noon, once every 
year — June 21. 
All places at the Tropic of Capricorn have a vertical 
sun, at noon, once every year — about the 21st of Decem- 
ber. All places between these tropics have a vertical sun, 
at noon, twice every year.' 

45. Change of seasons. — The axis of the earth pre- 
serves a fixed, unvarying direction, or nearly so, as the 
earth journeys around the sun. Because of this, it is 
evident that a given locality* will receive the rays of 
the sun more directly at one part of the year than at 
another, thereby causing successive changes of seasons. 

46. Zones. — Zones are belts into which the surface of 
the earth is divided by astronomical circles. They are 
parallel to the Equator. 

47. The Torrid, or hot, Zone is situated between the 
Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It extends 

23} degrees on 
each side of the 
Equator; its 
width is 47 de- 

48. The Tem- 
perate ZoneB lie 
between the trop- 
ics and the polar 
circles. The 
North Temperate 
Zone is north of 
the Tropic of Can- 
cer ; the South 
Temperate Zone, 
south of the 
Tropic of Capri- 
corn. Each tem- 
perate zone is 
43 degrees in 

49. The Frigid, or cold, Zones are situated within the 
polar circles. They 
are not belts, like 
the other zones, but 
circular portions of 
the earth's surface. 
Each has a polo for 
its center, and a polar /g 
circle for its circum- S- 
ference, or boundary, y; 
Each extends 2 3 } de- 
grees from the pole 
which it surrounds ; 
consequently, the 
diameter of each is 
47 degrees. 

NofiTM rwiaio 

•. p. 


7. To an observer at the Bqiiator, the sun is vertical, or directly overhead, at 
noon, on the 22d of March ; but on succeeding days, at noon, it appears to have 
moved a little northward. By the 21st of June, at noon, it is 23 Vi degrees north 
of a point directly overhead. The sun goes no farther north, however, but tum$ 
and appears to move southward, so that on the 22d of September it is again over- 
head, at noon ; and on the 21st of December, 23 ^ degrees south of a point over- 
head, after which, it again turns northward. 

The i>oint at which the sun api>arently tunu hack in its course, is called the 
tropic (from a Greek word, meaning to turn). The northern tropic is called Tropic 
of Cancer, because the sun appears to be in a group of stars, called Cancer ; the 
southern tropic is named also from a constellation,* known as Capricorn. 

To an observer at the North Pole, on the 22d of March, the sun appears to 
travel aix)und the horizon. Day by day, it mounts a little higher, imtil, on the 
21st of Jime, it is 23»/i degrees above the horizon, each day sweeping in a circle 
around the sky. Then it gradually sinks lower and lower during succeeding days, 
until, on the 22d of September, it again skims the horizon, and soon sinks below 
it, and thus disappears for six months. By the 21st of December, it is 23 H degrees 
below the horizon. It then turns, and, on the 22d of March, the observer again 
sees the sun. It is evident, therefore, that tho days and nights at the ix>le8 are 
each of pj y months duration. 

Tho great circle on the earth where tho sun is vertical at noon, every day in 
the year, is that which coincides with, or fall3 within, tho earth's orbit. It is 
railed tho Ecliptic. 

8. Tho wldJti of the temperate zones may be easily calculated. From eithwr ixile 

to the Equator, the distance is 00 degrees. From either pole to its iwlar circle, 
the distance is 23 ji degrees ; and from the Equator to either tropic, 23X degrees. 
Therefore, 00« less twice 23^^°, or 47°, equals 43», the width of either temperate 

Bladkboard Bzexoiaes on these points may here be made very interesting and 
impressive. Draw a circle one or two feet in diameter and divide it into 360 
equal parts, called degrees, as shown on diagrams 1 and 2 (p. 9). Opposite one side, 
draw straight, i>arallel lines to represent rays of light proceeding from the sun. 
Then draw, or mark, in the following order,— a line separating day from night, 
which is always ];)erpendicular to the plane of the earth's orbit. Mark a point 
234° from the top of this line, and in the direction of the sun ; from this point, 
draw a straight line through the center of the circle to the opposite side. This 
line will represent the axis of the earth, and tho two ]x>ints where it touches, or 
terminates at, the surface, will represent the North Pole and the South Pole. 
Draw the Equator at right angles with the axis. The rays of light extending 
precisely 23)i» beyond the North Pole fixes the ix)8ition of the Arctic Circle, and 
as they, at the same time, fall that distance short of the South Pole, they mark 
the position of the Antarctic Circle. 

If the earth's axis were i>erpendicular to the plane of its orbit, the limit of 
the sun's rays, on the earth's surface, would always be on a meridian. In that 
case, there would be no tropics or jwlar circles. 

Diagrams may be drawn on the blackboard showing the i>osition of the earth, 
and the circles, and zones, if the axis were inclined 10", 30", or 40", instead of 23X^ 
• von 9Ui ia' timi, a group, or cluster, of stars. lo cai'i tij, position, or place. 


















■ — 





A geographical globe is a sphere on which is 
a representation of the earth's surface. 

51. A map is a repre- 
sentation on a flat surface 
of a part of the earth's 
curved surface. 

52. A relief map shows 
the outlines of a continent, 
or other body of land, with 
its elevations and depres- 

53. A profile,* or sec- 
tional map, is designed to 
show the elevation of land 

or its depression below, the sea-level. 

A projection is the plan by which the meridians 

and parallels are drawn 
upon a flat surface.' 

55. North is in the di- 
rection of the top of a 
map ; and south is toward 
the bottom of a map, al- 
ways along the meridians. 

56. East is toward the 
right side ; and west, to- 
ward the left side of a 
map, always along the 


5 7. Up is from the center of the earth ; down,* toward it. 

58. The positions of places on a map, with respect to 
one another and to the points of the compass, will be 
made plain, when the map is on a table, or horizontal, 
with the meridians extending north and south. 

59. The scale of a map shows the ratio* of distances 
on the map, to the real distances on the earth. Thus, the 
scale, 1 : 80,000,000, means that one inch on the map 
represents 80,000,000 inches, or about 500 miles on the 
surface of the earth. {For a map on Mercator^s projectiorij see p. 15.) 






. ._ 1 

1 1 




1. The earth's surface contains about 197,000,000 
square miles. 

2. Of this area, a little more than one fourth (53,000,000 
square miles) is land, and three fourths (144,000,000 
square miles) is water. 

3. Most of the land is situated in the Northern Hemi- 

4. According to form, the land surface consists of con- 
tinents, islands, penin'sulas, capes, and isth' muses. 

5. According to elevation, it is subdivided into mount- 
ains, plateaus (pifi t6§'), or table-lands, plains, and valleys. 

6. A continent is the largest natural division of land. 

7. There are three continents^ namely: the Eastern, 
the Western, and the Australian Continent. Each grand 
division of land is also called a continent. ^^ 

8. An island is a body of land surrounded by water. 

9. A group of islands is often called an archipelago 
(^rkl parage)." 

10. A peninsula is a body of land nearly surrounded 
by water.^ 

11. A cape is a point of land extending into the water.^ 

12. An isthmus is a neck, or narrow strip, of land which 
connects two larger bodies of land. 

13. A coast is that part of the land which borders on 
a large body of water. 

9. The proJeotioiiB usually employed are the o&n' io, pol y o5n' io, and Mer oft'- 
tor**. In the eonie^ or Bonne% projection, both meridians and parallels are curved, 
the parallels being drawn around the same center. In the pol\feimic projection, the 
Equator is a straight line ; but the parallels are arcs of circles drawn from dif- 
ferent centers. The meridians are also curved. In MercaUfr'*$ (named after a 
German geographer who first employed it) projection, both parallels and meridians 
are straight lines. Maps drawn on the conic projection are distorted at the mar- 
gin, but the proportional areas are preserved. Most of the maps in this book are 
drawn on the conic projection. The polyconic is the most accurate projection for 
maps of small areas. Near the margins, however, direction is somewhat distorted. 
Mercator's projection is usually employed when it is desired to show the whole of 
the earth^s surface on a continuous map. The size of polar regions is greatly 
exaggerated* in maps drawn on this projection, but the directions are preserved. 

10. Each of the grand diviaioiiB, or oontinents, has, more or less, the shape of a 
triangle,— broad at the north and tapering to a point at the south. Europe has 
one mile of coast for every 100 square miles of area, while Africa has but one 
mile of coast for every 600 miles of area. Indentations of coast temper the cUmate 
of a country and, by creating good harbors, aid its commercial prosperity. 

11. Beafli are long, narrow inlands parallel to a coast. Key« are ledges of rooks 

near the surface of the water, or islands rising a little above the surface of the 
water. Spits are islands covered with water at high tide. 

The ohftiTiB of islands which are near and parallel to the coasts of continents, 
are partly submerged • mountain ranges. The Japan, Koo'rQ, and Philippine (JWip- 
pin) islands form such a range ; the Aleutian Islands are an extension of the Bocky 
Mountain System. Between the islands and the coast of the continent, the waters are 
shallow ; but on the seaward side of the chain, the bed of the ocean sloipes abruptly 
to a great depth. 

Cdr'al i slands are limestone reefs, formed from the skeletons of the coral 
iwlyps. The coral island is usually an irregular ring of land broken in several 
places. Sometimes there is a volcanic mountain in the center of the island, but 
oftener, a shallow lake. This ring-shaped island is called an a Ott' ; the lake, a la goon'. 

12. A peninsula projects from, or is connected with, a larger body of land, 
called the main-land. 

13. Headlands and promontories are high capes. Other names for capes Are 
points head^ naze (nose) ; Aorn, wiutf, and bUt are sometimes employed. 

• pr&Jtte (pro'fll, or pro' feel), outline. • i^, ascending; down^ descending. 

ex digger HU^ to make appear greater than reality, mtb merged^ under the water, 
ratio (rd'slAo)^ the relation which one quantity bears to another of the same kind. 


flTBAiT,~A rmmm i i iA,— A cArm,— 


14. A mountain is a high eleTation of laniL^ 

15. A mountaiii range is a fold, or wrinkle, in the 
earth's crtist, having great breadth and elevation.^ 

16. A mountaiii chain is a seri^ of two or more 
ranges which seem to be extensions one of another. 

17. A mountain system is a collection of ranges and 
chains, Ijing near one another." 

IS. The principal motsntain system of a continent is 
called its main axis. Thus, the Ande'an System is the 
main axis of South America. 

19. The height of a mountain is the distance of its 
summit above the level of the sea, on a vertical line^'^ 

20. A plateau, or table-land, is a large area of land 
having a considerable elevation.^ 

21. A plain is a laige tract of land, nearly or quite 

22. A valley, or basin, is a tract of land partly or 
whoUy surrounded by highlands. The narroiv strip of 
land through which a river flows, is also called its valley. 

23. A desert is a tract of land which is unproductive 
for want of sufficient moisture.* 

14. A peak is the tap of a hill, or a sin^ momttam ending in a p<Hnt. A batte 
(Mf) is a name given to an is'o lat ed peak in the w u i tam part of North America. 
In Scotland, the word ben fiignifWsB mountain. A hiU is an elevaaon of land, not 
oo hi^ as a mountain. 

15c If the sommit of the nKHintain range be iiregnlar and notched in appear- 
ance, the name siflRa («l ir* ri) (a Spanish word meaning «nr> is prefixed * to the 
name of the range ; as, Stara Xcaads JB*. 

Ift. Thus, the nmnerooa Tancea and chains of the western highlands of North 
America form the Bocky Mountain System; those along the fiawtcru coast of the 
TTnited States^ the Appalachian (^pm AT ctt on) Sjstem. 

Tha priTKapal moantam ijitiin of a continoit extends in the direction of 
its greatest length. 

The ranges which compose a nkoontain ssrstem are tisoally parallel to one 
another. Often, the parallel ranges are connected by short, cross ranges, or ** spurs,** 
thus inclosing basins, c^ *^parfc&" Mountains affect the climate of a country. 
Their snow<clad summits act as condensers, cooling the air, and sending down the 
moisture from the clouds; and, t h er eby , insuring an abundance of rain to a country 
that would otherwise be dry and barren. 

17. The bai^it of a momttain may be found either by ascertaining the tem- 
peflur e of water when it boila ou the summit of the mountain, or by obserring the 

height of the mercmy in a barometer.* In the former case, the boiling point of 
water, which is 212* F. at the level of the sea, is one degree less for about every 
533 feet of ascent. By the latter method, the movury in the barometer lowers a 
tenth of an inch for about evcxy ninety feet of ascent above the sea-leveL 

'DkB baae, or foot» of a mountain is its lowest part : the wiminit is the bluest 
part ; the erest of a range is the ridge troBt which the two sk^KS descend ; the 
trend of a range is its general direction. A paas is a break, opening, or narrow 
road, or way, crossing a mountain chain. 

18. A mea' a is an elevated table-land forming the top of a mountain. Fla- 
teaus are not always level highlands : they are usually rugged and mountainous. 

19. The plains of the Mississippi Valley are called pcaiiiBa ; those of South 
America, Danoa (iJ'nAr), pim'paf, and sri'Taa; of Bussia and Iberia, steppes 
{itept). The marshy, mossy plains of Xorthem Siberia, bordering the Arctic Ocean, 
are calkd ti&n'diaa. Prairies pampas^ llanos, and steppes are generally treeless 
plains^ They have a great depth of soil, and are oft«i extremely fertile. Such 
plains, before they are cultivated, are nearly alwajs covered with wild grasBes. 

20. Dea erts are generally level, but sometimes their surfisoe is hilly, or mountain- 
ous. Their coil is usually sandy. 

• te rtst'tf ter. an instrument for showing the weight or preaanre of the atmosphere, 
and the changes of weather. • frtjtm^^ put befbce. 


24. An o'asis is a fertile spot in a desert* 

25. A volcano is an opening in the earth's crust, 
through which lava, or molten* rock, steam, and various 
gases are forced.* 

26. The crater of a volcano is the cup-shaped depres- 
sion, or hollow, around the opening.^* 

27. The cause of volcanic eruptions is usually consid- 
ered to be the sudden formation of steam from the water 
that finds its xmy to heated portions of the earth's 

28. Earthquakes are tremblings, or vibrations, of a part 

21. An oasia ia gonerally underlaid by a basin-shaped stratom of clay, or of 
limestone. This holds the water that finds its way from surpounding highlands. 

22. The solid substances ejected, collect about the volcanic opening and build 
up a conical* mountain. Most of the volcanoes of the earth are situated in 
mountain ranges, and are near tho sea-coast. A chain of volcanoes extends along 
the entire coast that partly incloses the Pacific Ocean. 

23. Volcanic craters vary from a few rods to several miles, in diameter. 

24. A few volcanoes are constantly active, that is, emitting* steam and lava. 
Their eruptions, however, are not marked by great violence. Stromboli (8tr6m' bo H)^ 
in the Mediterranean Sea, is a volcano of this class. 

Others remain inactive for centuries, and then burst into most violent activ- 
ity. Ve su' vi us, near the city of Naples, in Italy, is a type of this clat«. 

of the earth's crust. They are sometimes due to volcanic 
action, being most frequent in volcanic regions and along 
the more recently formed mountain ranges." 


1. The waters of the earth form an irregular but con- 
tinuous body, called the ocean, or sea. 

2. Ocean waters are comprised in five grand divisions, 
each of which is called an ocean. These divisions are th6 
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic oceans. 

An extinct volcano is one from which all si^^is of volcanic activity have disap- 
peared. Nearly every oor' al island of Polynesia marks the site of a sunken, vol- 
canic mountain. There are noTv more than 1,000 volcanoes having well-deflned 
craters. Of this number, 350 are active. 

25. Such earthquakes are probably due to the same forces that cause volcanic 
eruptions. Earthquakes are, in many instances, caused by gradual shrinkage of the 
earth, in cooling. Sometimes they are caused by pressure of the air, or the water. 

Gradual changes of level in the earth's crust may take place without perceptible 
violence. The eastern coast of Oreenlani is sinking; the northern iiarts of Norwaif 
and Sweden are rising ; the southern part of Florida is sinking ; so is the bed qf Uu 
oeean in the region of Oceania 08h« d'rA a). 

• tnoWeAy melted. e mAt^ to send out. dbn'i cal^ like a oone. 




8. The Pacific Ocean has an area nearly equal to that 
of all the other oceans. It *is partly inclosed by the 
Eastern Continent on the west, and the Western Continent 
on the east. 

4. The Atlantic Ocean is between the Eastern Conti- 
nent on the east, and the Western Continent on the west. 

5. The Indian Ocean is partly inclosed by Africa, Asia, 
and Australia. 

6. The Antarctic Ocean surrounds the South Pole, and 
the Arctic Ocean surrounds the North Pole. Much of 
their surface is covered with ice throughout the year. 

7. The arms and passages of the ocean are called 
seas, gulfs, bays, straits, channels, and sounds. 

8. A sea is a body of water nearly or quite surrounded 
by land. 

9. A gulf, or bay, is a body of water extending into 
the land.* 

10. A strait, or channel, is a narrow passage of water 
connecting two larger portions of water.^ 

11. A sound is a shallow channel, or bay.® 

12. The bed of the ocean, although diversified* by 
plateaus and plains, is more nearly level than the surface 
of the land.» 

13. The color of the ocean varies. Shallow waters are 
green, while water more than sixty fathoms* deep is blue. 
Fresher waters are usually of a pale green, while those 
containing a larger percentage of mineral salts are blue." 

14. The temperature of the ocean, at the surface, 
varies according to latitude. In equatorial regions, it is 
about 80° F.; in polar regions, about 28*'F.»^ 


1. Waves are the alter' nate rising and falling of 
swells, or ridges, of water. They are caused by the wind. 
The wave itself moves forward, but the water does not; 
its only motion is its alternate rise and fall.® 

2. Tides are waves which, in mid-ocean, are about 
three feet in height, and several thousand miles in breadth. 

8. Tides are caused by the attractive forces of the 
sun and moon. There are two tide-waves every day, 
producing two flood-tides and two ebb-tides.® 

4. Ftood-tide is the rising of the water for six hours ; 
ebb-tide is its falling, during the next six hours. 

5. The tide-waves along the coasts of North America 
and Europe have an average height of four or five feet.** 

6. Ocean currents are streams of water flowing in the 
sea. They differ from the adjacent* waters in temperature 
and color. 

7. Ocean currents are caused by the heat of the sun, 
and the rotation of the earth.* 

8. Their direction is governed by the winds, the earth's 
rotation, and the form of the continents. 

9. As modified by the winds and the earth's rotation, 
the general directions of ocean currents are : 

In equatorial regions {See chart) ^ a steady flow of water 
\7estward, forming the equatorial current. 

10. In temperate latitudes, a general movement east- 

11. The velocity* of the equatorial current is about 
ten miles a day. 

12. The Gulf Stream is the principal current of the 
Atlantic Ocean. It is deflected* from the equatorial cur- 
rent, in the Car ib be' an Sea. 

13. The greatest velocity of the Gulf Stream is where 
it passes through Florida Strait. Here its velocity is 
nearly five miles an hour, and its temperature about 80"* F. 

14. Toward the north-east, its waters spread out and 
form an immense drift along the western coast of Europe. 

15. The winds, blowing over this drift, become warmed ; 
and, in turn, impart their heat to the lands over which 
they blow. 

26. A bicbt is an open bay; a firth, frith, fiord (fifdrd)^ or inlet, is a small bay 
usually having; steep shores. A roadstead is an open place where vessels may 
anchor at some distance from the shore. A harbor, or haven, is a small, shel- 
tered inlet where vessels may anchor. 

27. Minoh and belt are also used to designate narrow -paasagea of water. 

28. Shoals and banks are shallow parts of the sea. 

29. The average depth of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans is about 
16,000 feet. The depth of the Antarctic is probably somewhat less. The Arctic 
Ocean and all land-locked arms of the sea are much shallower. 

The deepest soundings attained are off the eastern coasts of the continents. 
East of the Kooril Islands, a sounding of 27,030 feet, and south-east of New- 
foundland, one of 27,480 feet, have been made. The G-ulf of Mexico and the 
Mediterranean Sea do not exceed 12,000 feet in their deepest parts. The Bed 
Sea is about 3,000 feet deep; the Baltic and North seas, about 600 feet; and 
Be'ring Sea, about 200 feet deep. 

30. Ocean currents contain an average of 3X per cent, of mineral salts, of 
which common salt is the principal. Th'ese salts are derived from the earth, 
and much of them has been conveyed to the ocean, by rivers. The projwrtion 
of salt varies. In parts of the Arctic Ocean, it is sometimes less than one per 
cent. ; in the Baltic Sea, about two per cent. ; in the Bed Sea, however, where 
the evaporation is enormous, there are 4.3 ix>unds of salt in every 100 of water. 
Carbonate of lime, neoessary for shell-flsh, is also carried into the ocean by rivers. 

31. The temperatore at the bottom, except where influenced by ocean currents, 
varies but little from SS" F. 

32. The top of a wave in shallow water, or during a gale, moves faster than 
its lower part. This causes the top of the wave to roll forward and break into 
surf, or foam. The ordinary waves of the North Atlantic are about ten feet 
in height from crest to trough. Waves are seldom more than fifty feet in height. 

33. When the sun and the moon exert their attraction in the same line, or 
direction, the tides rise a little higher, and fall lower, than usual. Such are called 
spring4ide8. But when the forces are at right angles, the water neither rises 
BO high, nor falls so low, as usual; such are called ngt^htides. 

34. In V-shaped, narrow passages which face the tide-wave, the water is piled 
up, because it can not spread out. The water rushes into the passage with a terrific 
roar. The bore, or ej/w (a'gra), as such waves are called, is often a wall-like wave, 
twenty feet in height, moving with the velocity of a railway train. 

35. "When water is heated, its bulk is increased. If water at 39 ** F., which 
just fln« a vessel, bo heated, it will expand, and some of the water run over. 
This occurs in the ocean. The water in tropical regions becomes heated, and 
its bulk being thereby increased, the water flows toward the polar regions. The 
cold, polar waters, which are correspondingly heavier, flow as under-currenta 
toward the Equator. 

^ di ver'Hfled, varied. /dth'om^ measure of six feet, adjd^oent^ next to, adjoining. 
vetb&ity^ swiftness. deJUot^ to turn from a straight line. 




16. The Kuro Siwo (k«5^'ro ss'vo), or Japan current, is 
the principal current of the North Pacific Ocean. The 
prevailing winds spread its waters in an immense drift 
along the western coast of North America. 

17. The Arctic currents are cold currents. Two of 
them issue from the Arctic Ocean, one along the eastern 
coast of Greenland; the other, along the western. 


1. The heat of the sun causes water to take the form 
of vapor. In this form, it mingles freely with the air. 

2. The amount of vapor which the air can contain 
depends upon the temperature of the latter. Warm air 
will hold much more than cold air. 

3. When the air contains all the moisture it can hold 
at a certain temperature, it is said to be saturated, or at 
the dew point} 

1. Water may be in thzee fonii»-4oUd, llqnld, or gaaeons {gdaf e tit). Heat changes 
ioe to water, and water to vapor, or to steam. Air takes up, or absorbs, a large quan- 
tity of the vapor of water, the amount depending on the temperature of the air. 
A cubic foot at 32* F. will hold a little more than 2 grains of water in the form of 
vapor. At SO*", it will hold 4 grains; at 70*, 8 grains; and at 90<*, it will contain 
nearly 15 grains. Hence, if air at 00«, which is taturaUd with moisture, be cooled 
to 70*, it will deposit all of the moisture in excess of 8 grains to the cubic foot. 

2. Dew may be deposited on any body that cools the surrounding air below 
tlie point of saturation. This is shown by the drops which form on the outside 
of a pitcher filled with loed wate^ 

4. K the air be cooled below the point of saturation,* a 
part of the vapor is condensed,* and becomes dew, fog, 
clouds, rain, snow, or hail. 

5. Dew is the moisture deposited on clear nights, when 
the air becomes chilled below the point of saturation.* 

6. When dew does not form, it is usually because the 
air contains no more moisture than it can hold, at the 
lowest temperature, during the night. 

7. A strong wind may prevent the formation of dew, 
because none of the air remains in contact with the ground 
long enough to be cooled below the point of saturation. 

8. Fog is partly condensed vapor, floating in the air 
near the earth's surface. 

9. Clouds' are partly condensed vapor, high in the air. 
They are usually between layers of air which differ in tem- 
perature. Clouds may be considered floating cisterns, or 
reservoirs* of water, which the air holds €Uid carries, that 
it may supply rain, or dew, to the dry land. 

3. dondi are olawsifled according to their forms. The dKntf, or feather 
clouds, are the light, fleecy clouds sometimes called " cat-tails *% or "mackerer^ 
clouds. CtL'muHu clouds are those which appear to be heaped, or piled n^ in 
masses. SMIftut clouds appear to be arranged in long, flat layers. The nUnfbvt^ 
or storm cloud, is shapeless and overcasts the sky. The lower part of the nim- 
bus consists of rain drops; the central portion, of mist; and the upper, of cloud- 
mist. The vapor in the atmosphere acts as a screen. Intercepting the fierce heat 
of the sun, during the day, and preyentlng its escape, at night 
^ titu rd*tkm, state of being soaked ; full. eon tUtmf^ to make more oloae. 

rmervoir (rta er ▼wor'), a place where any thing is kept In store. 



10. Rain is the cooled vapor which falls in drops, 
when the moisture of the air is rapidly condensed. 

11. More rain falls in 
the Torrid Zone than in 
any other part of the 
world ; and more falls on 
the coasts of continents 
than in the interior. 

12. Eastern coasts m 
the Torrid Zone, and 
western coasts in the 
temperate zones, receive 
more rain than other re- 
gions, because they face 
the rain-bearing winds, 

13. Many countries 
whose coasts face the 
south, receive copious 
rains from the periodical 
winds.* India, and other 
parts of Southern Asia, 
are notable* examples. 

14. Snow is vapor 

which passes into a solid 
form befor«j the moisture 
can collect in drops.* 

15. Hail m frozen rain. 
It is thought that hdl is 
formed at greut heights, 
and that the ruin-ih'ops 

are frozen while 
passing through 
a layer^ or body, 
of cold air. 



1* The water that rises from the sea in the form of 
vapor, is carried away by the winds, and falls on the con- 
tinents in the form of rain and snow.* 

2. A part of the water sinks into porous* ground; 
the rest evaporates, or else flows back to the sea 

3. A spring is a stream of water which issues from 
the earth, or from some underground reservoir in which 
rain-water has collected. 

4. The rain-water, in passing through the porous rocks 
and soil, often dissolves the soluble * mineral salts, such as 
common salt, soda, etc., and retains them. Such water 
forms mineral springs.^ 

r>. Spring waters often become warm, or hot, by con- 
tact with heated volcanic rocks which surround the reser- 
voir, or from the chemical decomposition of rocks. In this 
manner, hot springs are formed.' 

6. A geyser (gi'ser) is a hot, mineral spring, from the 
channel of which, jets of hot water and steam are forced 
high into the air at regular intervals. 

7. They are, in many instances, considered a form of 
volcanic action. 

8. The spouting of geysers is due to the formation of 
steam, deep in the channel of the spring. 

9» A river is a large stream of water flowing in a 
channel on the surface of the land. 

10. The water from so much of the rain and melting 
snow as does not sink into cre\aces* and porous ground, 
flows first in rills, or rivulets, brooks, and creeka* 

11. These small streams form larger streams, which 
unite to make a river, and the waters are again borne 
to the ocean, whence they came. 

4. Si^ow^flakes are crystals of wonderful symmetry and beauty. Sach is a 
crystal hjiviniBr six angles, or sides, and each angle is 60°, or some multiple of 00. 
Tf the temperature be above 20° P., or If the wind blow, the crystals are apt to 
be imperfect. They form to best advantage when the air is per- 
fectly still, and the temperature below 20° P. 

5. A portion of the water evaporates. In the cold regions of 
the Arctic Slope, nearly all of the rain finds its way back to the 
ocean. In the steppe rtgioM of the Torrid Zone, the water is removed 
only by evaporation. 

0. Galea' re OU8 springs are those which contain carbonate of 
lime; eoda eprtngs contain salts of sodium, or else ix) tas'si um ; 
chalybeaU (kaUVeate) eprinQt hold salts of iron in solution; mdphur 
«pHn^ contain hy^dro gen sul'phide (sul' phu ret ed hydrogen); aeUi* 
u hut gprinQB hold carbon di ox' ide (carbonic acid gas) in solution. 
SdUer^ FicAy (vesh'y)^and Congrtet waters come from springs of this 
j£?- class. In many parts of the world, notably in Calif omia and in the 

^ Caspian Sea Basin, are springs of petroleum^ and asphaUum^ or mhnenU 

pitch. The Island of Trinidad contains a large lake of this char- 

7. The temperature of spring water is usually about 60° or 

60° P.; but the water of some springs is hot, and even boiling. 

Nearly all hot springs are in volcanic regions, and the migority of 

them are mineral springs. The celebrated mineral springs of 

Saratoga, in New York, and Seltzer, in Gtermany, are cold. 

• periodieal wind, a wind blowing part of the year in one direction, 

and the other part in another direction, crhf to, narrow opening. 

p&r'ous^ having pores, or small openings. ndt'a bte, remarkable. 

sH'll Ue^ capable of being dissolved in fluid. creeks not crick. 



12. The channel in which a river, or other stream of 
water, flows, is its bed, A caflon (kAn yOnO, gorge, ravine 
(ravSnO, or gulch, is a channel or river-bed having steep, 
or precipitous, sides.® 

13. The source of a stream is the place where it 
begins ; the mouth, is the place where its waters flow into 
another stream, or a lake or other body of water.* 

14. A river system is a river with all its tributaries,* 
or branches. 

15. A river basin is the land that is drained by a river 
and its branches. 

16. A divide, or water-shed, is a ridge, or height of land, 
that separates river basins. It is usually a range of hills, 
or mountains; sometimes, however, it is only a slight 
undulation in a plain. 

17. The delta of a river is the land formed of the 
sediment which the river deposits at its mouth, and along 

ite lower course. 

18. An est'uary is the wide 
mouth of a river which faces the 

19. Wherever a river descends 
abruptly from a higher to a lower 
level, it forms rapids, or cascades, 
cataracts^ or water-falls. 

20. A lake is a body of water 
surrounded by land, or situated in 
a depression of the land. If the 
water collects in the depression 
more rapidly than it evaporates 
and sinks, it overflows and be- 
comes the soiu'ce of 
a river.*^ 

21. The basin of 
a lake is the de- 
pression in which 
the water collects. 
The waters of lakes 
which overflow their 

b%ins, or discharge their waters, are always fresh ; lakes 

halving no outlets are usually salt." 



22. A glacier (gia'seer) is an immense mass of ice and 
snow, which moves slowly down mountain slopes. 

28. Olaciers are formed from snow collecting in the 
ravines. This snow is changed to ice by the pressure of 
its own weight. 

24. Glaciers have their origin in regions of perpetual* 

25. Icebergs are large masses of floating ice. They 
are usually broken from polar glaciers which terminate at 
the sea-coast." 

26. An avalanche is a mass of snow, which, loosened 
by its own weight, dashes down the slope of a mountain, 
sometimes burying whole villages imder great quantities 
of snow, rocks, and gravel 

8. A river may be considered as having three parts. In its upper ooune, 
the water, having great velocity, 1b constantly cutting its channel deeper and 
'^der. In its i«mhia ooune, the velocity is still sufficient to carry coarser sedi- 
Inent, bat not great enough to wear its channel perceptibly. In its lower oonrae, 
it deposits the sediment brought from its upper channel; and, inasmuch as it 
t^an not carry this sediment, it must flow around it. As the river is constantly 
building its bed higher and higher by the sediment thus brought down, it is 
frequently necessary to build tfU«f, or <n/Mt, along the banks of the river, in order 
to protect the surrounding land from overflows, during seasons of high water. 

9. Up a rirer is toward its source ; down a river, toward its mouth. The right 
bank is on the right hand in dmoauUng the river; the left bank, on the left hand. 

10. Lakes are natural basins, in which the rain-fall exceeds the evaporation. 
The water collects until it overflows the rim at ite lowest place. Otherwise, the 
water spreads out until ite surface is so great that the amount received just 
equals the amount evaporated. 

11. Thib sal tn ass of lakes having no outlets, is due to the mineral salts which 
ace dissolved from the soil by the streams, and carried by them into the lakes. 

As the water of such lakes escapes only by evaporation, the salt remains in them, 
and, therefore, constantly accumulates; but, where a lake has an outlet, the salt 
escapes to the ocean, and the lake remains fresh. Lakes are sometimes called 
Icdhs, or loughs {VNa). Small lakes are called ponds. 

12. Glaciers are rivers of ice. Their current is swiftest in the center of the 
surface, and slowest at the sides and bottom. The velocity of glaciers varies 
from a fe^t inches to several hundred feet a year, being governed by the tem- 
perature and depth of the ice, and the steepness of the slope. The glacier is 
seamed with cracks, called ere vaufet^ which extend across it. On the sides, are 
rocks and debrii (d& breO which roll down the mountain sloites, and lodge at the 
edge of the glacier; these are called morainet (mor&nzO. The lower end of the 
glacier usually pushes a large mass of rocks and debrit ahead of it. This is the 
UrmhuU moraUie, 

13. Prom one eighth to one tenth of an ioeberg is above water; the remainder 
is below it. Icebergs seldom exceed two or three hundred feet in height, above 
the surface of the water. 

• Mt^U ta ry, yielding supplies, a branoh. ptrptfUal, oontinuaL 




1. The air, or atmosphere, which surrounds the earth, 
is an invisible* gas.^ 

2. It extends to the height of from 50 to 200 miles 
aix)ve the earth's surface. 

3. Its weight is about one eight-hundredth that of 
water : a cubic inch* of air weighs one third of a grain. 

4. It presses on the earth with a weight of nearly 
fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface.* 

5. A barometer is an instrument for measuring the 
weight of the atmosphere.^ 

6. Wind is air in motion. It is caused by the heat of 
the sun. When air is heated, its bulk* increases, and it, 
therefore, risea 

7. The warm air rises, and cold air rushes in at the 
surface, to take its place, thus producing wind. 

8. The earth's surface receives the most heat near the 
Equator ; and, at that place, the atmosphere, being greatly 
warmed, rises. 

9. The colder air which rushes in to take its place 
constitutes the trade-winds.* 

10. The trade-winds blow south-west in the Northern 
Hemisphere, and north-west in the Southern Hemisphere. 

11. The anti*-trade- winds' blow in opposite directions, 
toward the north-east in the North Temperate Zone, and 
toward the south-east in the South Temperate Zone. 

12. Monsoons are winds which blow in a certain 
direction during half the year, and in an opposite direc- 
tion the remaining half. They are primarily coast winds, 
but they often extend far into the interior. 

13. Variable winds are those which occur, chiefly, in 
the interior* of continents. They are irregular, and are 
due to local causes. 

14. The calm belts are narrow zones, or belts, within 
which there, is little or no wind.* 

16. The equatorial calms are situated near the Equa- 
tor: the calms of Cancer, about 30 degrees north, and the 
calms of Capricorn, about 30 degrees south of it. 

16. Regular and constant winds seldom occiu* in the 

1. The air is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide and the vapor 
of water are always present in variable quantities. 

2. The atmosphere is not distributed around the earth in a layer of uniform 
thickness. The thickness is least at the poles, and greatest near the tropics— greater 
there than at the Equator. 

3. The weight of the air varies with elevation, and hence the barometer is 
often employed to determine the elevation of mountains. 

4. The direotion of winds is greatly modified by the rotation of the earth. In 
temperate latitudes, the prevailing direction is to the east; and in intertropical 
latitudes, toward the west. 

6. These winds are also called variables, as they are less constant than the 
trade-winds. Indeed, a large part of the time, they blow in an opposite direction, 
and corresimnd with the trade-winds. 

0. The calm belts are confined, chiefly, to the ocean, and seldom extend to any 
great distance within the coasts of the continent. They move north and south, 
following the npT^arent motion of the sun. The equatorial calm belt never passes 

interior of continents. In such regions, the winds are 
locaV and are caused by the imequal heating of different 
parts of the earth. 

1 7. Land-and-sea breezes are confined to coast regions. 
During the day-time, the air above the land, receiving 
more heat than the air above the water, rises. The cooler 
wind from the sea then blows toward the land, to take its 
place. At night, the conditions are reversed,* and the 
wind blows toward the sea. 

18. Storms are usually caused by the rapid rising of 
heated air. As the column of air rises, it parts with 
much of its heat. As soon as it is cooled below the dew 
point, the moisture in it is condensed and falls as rain. 

19. The locality in which the rise of heated air occurs, 
is called the area of low barometer, or storm center. The 
wind blows from all directions, toward this center. 

20. Sometimes the ascending column covers a small 
area only. In such cases, it usually acquires* a rapid 
whirl, and becomes exceedingly destructive. 



21. Cy' clones, whirlwinds, tor na' does, and typhoons 

(ti fc5&nz0 are whirling storms of this character. The divTec- 
tions in which they usually travel are toward the west\in 
equatorial latitudes, and toward the east in tempera^ 


south of the Equator. Calm belts are, by some scientists, regarded as regions of 
ascending or of descending currents of air. \ 

7. Local winds are peculiar to each physical region. Thus, tYieArbcfoo and thc^ 
A moom! are confined to desert regions. Both are hot, and very dry, winds. The 
blizzard is the terrific, cold wind of the plains and prairies. The har maf tan is the 
storm wind of the West African coast. ^ 

8. Sometimes the whirl i9 so rapid that a vac' u um is formed at the center. The 
vacuum is the fonnel-oloud of the tornado and the eye of the cyclone. When n 
such a storm occurs at sea, water is forced into this vac'uous* center, thereby 
forming a water-spout. The whirl of these storms is from east to west, in the ' 
Northern, and from west to east, in the Southern Hemisphere. l. 

^ in tfif' i ble^ incapable of being seen. b&lt, size, mass, volume. 

ca' bic inch, a measure equivalent to that on' ti, against, 

of a solid body mecwuring an inch in In «'rl or, the inland part of a country, 

each of its dimeusions. reversed', changed to the contrary. 

(y- ^.f r*«', attain-s, obtaloa. vdc a oAs, empty, void. 



22. Thunder-storms are electrical phenomena.* They 
are thought to be due to clouds which are more highly 
charged with electricity* than other clouds, or the earth. 

23. Lightning is the electricity which passes from a 
cloud to the earth, from the earth to a cloud, or from one 
cloud to another. The sudden disturbance of the air gives 
rise to the noise, known as thunder. 

24. The auro'ra bo re a' lis, or northern lights, is also 
an electrical phenomenon, the cause of which is not well 
known. It is seen with greatest frequency in arctic regions. 

25. A mirage (mlrazh') is often formed when two 
layers of air of differing density rest quietly, one on the 
other, near the surface of the earth. The surface where 
the two layers touch each other, acts the part of a mirror, 
thus producing the reflection which appears to be a 
double image.* 


1. Climate is the condition of a region with respect to 
its heat and moisture. 

2. It is modified, chiefly, by latitude, or distance from 
the Equator ; inclination of the earth^s axis ; height above 
sea-level; winds; and by proximity* to the sea.^^ 

3. Latitude modifies the temperature of a place. 

4. In the Torrid Zone, the sun's rays are vertical, and 
give their heat directly to the earth. 

5. In polar regions, the rays fall obliquely (6b leek' n), 
and, therefore, part with much less of their heat. 

6. From the Equator toward the frigid zones, the 
heat gradually decreases, until the climate becomes one 
of perpetual snow and ice. 

7. The change of seasons is caused by the revolution 
of the earth around the sun, and the inclination of the 
earth's .axis, which always leans in the same direction. 

8. In the Torrid Zone, these seasons, or periods, are 
known as the rainy and the dry season. 

9. The miraee Is seen, chiefly, on level and rainless plains. The eye of the 
observer must not be at the same level as the surface of the reflecting layer of air. 
A mirage of the desert is never more than a foot or two above the surface of the 
ground. It looks like a distant body of water, merely because each layer of air 
reflects light in the same manner as the surface of water does. On almost any 
sultry, summer afternoon, a mirage may be seen over Iiake Michigan, at Chicago. 
From the dome of Dearborn Observatory, the shipping and the tunnel-crib may 

^ seen inverted in the air. In this case, the reflecting surface is above the eye 
of the observer. 

10. Modifications of olimate are due to many other causes; among them, 
are the following: Placet necar the aea-oooH have a more even temiwrature than 
those in the interior of continents. In San Francisco, the average winter temper- 
ature is only seven or eight degrees lower than that of summer ; in Bismarck, 
Dakota, the variation is about seventy degrees. 

The tope qf mountain rangee sometimes reach above the rain-bearing winds ; and, 
while one slope may be deluged with rain, the other may be destitute of it. 

In aU regions over which eeorwinde blow, the rain-fall is more or less i>eriodical ; in 
those localities where land-winds prevail, rains occur at irregular intervals. 

Warm^ ocean currenis, such as the Gulf Stream and the Kuro Siwo, send their 
waters into high latitudes, where they spread out over large areas. The warm watere 
give thOr heat to the winds, which, in turn, impart warmth to the land. 

11. The latent heat of water is also an important tactor. When water is 

9. In temperate zones, these changes are chiefly those 
of temperature. The successive seasons are called spring, 
summer, fall, or autumn, and winter. 

10. The seasons of the frigid zones are modifications 
of both light and temperature. They consist of a day, or 
summer, of six months, succeeded by a night, or winter, 
also of six months. 

11. Altitude, also, modifies temperature. As the height 
above the sea-level increases, the air becomes cooler, about 
one degree for each 325 feet. 

12. In the tropics, at the height of about 16,000 feet 
and upward, there is perpetual snow. From this limit, 
the heat gradually increases toward the level of the sea. 
On a high mountain in the Torrid Zone, almost any de- 
gree of temperature may be found. 

13. Winds modify climate, with respect both to tem- 
perature and moisture.*^ 

14. In the Torrid Zone, the moisture-bearing winds are 
from the north-east and the south-east, and the regions 
over which they blow receive copious* rains. {See chap. 
X/, paragraph 10.) 

15. In the temperate zones, these winds are from the 
south-west and the north-west They carry an abundance 
of heat and moisture far into the polar regions.^ {See 
chap. XI, paragraph 11.) 

16. Isother'mal* lines are lines drawn on the maps, 
through places having the same average temperature." 

17. Zones of climate are bounded by isothermal lines, 
and hence do not correspond exactly with astronomical 
zones, which are bounded by parallels of latitude. 


1. The three kingdoms of nature are the mineral, 
animal, and vegetable. 

2. Minerals, in regard to their uses to mankind, com- 
prise three classes, — force-producing minerals, industrial 
metals, and building stones. 

changed to vapor, it absorbs a vast amount of heat, every pound of water contain- 
ing enough to raise the temperature of 5.37 pounds of water from the freezing to 
the boiling point: The vapor is carried by the winds to higher latitudes, where it 
is condensed, and falls as rain. With the condensation of the vapor, thie heat is 
set/)ree. In the meantime, it has been transferred to colder regions. Thus it will 
be seen, that trtnds, more than any other agents in nature, serve to equalize extremes 
of temperature and moisture^ by transferring moisture to the rainless, and heat to the 
colder regions. 

12. The winter of the polar regions is, by no means, one of intense darkness. 
The sun is never more than 47*> below the horizon, and the greater part of the 
time, it is within a few degrees of it Hence, much of the time, there is a very 
strong twilight. Besides this long twilight, the aurora borealis appears like great 
bows, or arches, in the sky, giving a brilliancy to the long winter night of the Arctic 
regions seldom seen in temi>erate and tropical regions. 

13. The height of the mow line decreases as latitude increases. In the 
colder parts of the temperate zones, it varies from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the 
sea-level. In the frigid zones, it rapidly descends to it. 

• phe nbm'e na^ plural of phenomenon, 8 lie trif' i <y, a power in nature, pro- 

which is any thing of remarkable ai>- ducing light, heat, concussion, and 

pearance whose cause is not apparent. chemical changes. 

pna %m'i ^, neamess. cB^pi o&s, large in quantity, or amount, 

r«oM«rm, equal heat. abundant 



8. Coal is the most abundant and valuable force-pro- 
ducing mineral. It is of vegetable origin, and has been 
found in nearly every country in the world, both in low- 
lands and highlands.^ 

4. Iron is the most useful and widely diffused of the 
industrial* metals.' 

5. The ores of iron are found in great abundance in 
mountain ranges, and especially in the United States. 

6. Copper, which is of a reddish color, is found in 
nearly all highland regions. It was the first metal used 
by man. The region around Lake Superior is celebrated 
for copper mining. 

7. Zinc is a white metal, found, principally, in America 
and Europe. Copper, mixed with zinc, forms brass. Tin, 
alloyed with copper, to which zinc is sometimes added, 
forms bronze. Tin, alloyed with lead, forms pewter and 

8. Gold and silver are converted into coin and manu- 
factured into many articles, both useful and ornamental.* 

9. Granite* and marble* are formed from sediments, 
which, under great pressure, have been changed by the 
action of heat and water.' Like gold, silver, and iron, 
they are found in mountain ranges. 


1. Plants contain cells, many of which are small 
tubes, through which their food is drawn.® 

2. Their distribution is governed, chiefly, by conditions 
of heat and moisture — ^that is, by climate. These condi- 
tions are best fulfilled in the Torrid Zone, and there, vege- 
tation is most abundant. 

8. Tropical regions produce palms, spices, bamboo, 
rice, sugar-cane, and bread-fruit-trees.* 

4. In the temperate zones, these give place to grains, 
grasses, fruit-trees, and forests of pine, maple, and oak. 

6. In polar regions, these are, in turn, replaced by a 
few species of stunted shrubs, birches, and mossea 

6. Grasses are the most widely distributed of the 
various species of plant life useful to mankind. They axe 
foimd in all latitudes ; but they thrive best in temperate 

7. The grains, which are species of grass, are native to 
Asia ; maize, or Indian com, is native to America ; and 
rice, to Madagascar. 

8. Elevation above the sea-level, or altitude, which 
affects temperature, also modifies the distribution of vege- 
tation. From the sea-level in the Torrid Zone, upward to 
the limit of perpetual snow, there are belts of vegetation 
similar to those between tropical and polar regions.* 

9. Desert regions are destitute of vegetation, because 
of the absence of moisture. 



1. The ooalpflelds of the United States have three timee the area of all others in 
the world. In many cases, heds of coal were formerly peat swamps. Feat is a species 
of moss, acctunulated, in some places, to a thickness of forty feet or more. These 
swamps, gradually sinking beneath the sea-level, became covered with sand and 
sediment, which were swept over them by the sea. The weight of the overlying 
strata (strafta) pressed this vegetable matter into a flat layer, or seam. This 
pressure, together with the heat generated by pressure and decomposition, con- 
verted the woody tissue into coal. 

2. The commeroial value of iron is merely the cost of labor in manuftetur- 
ing it. A pound of pig-iron is worth, in conmierce, about one cent. A pound of 
steel hair-springs for watches is worth, perhaps, $25,000. 

3. Tin is found in England, the Island of Banca, and in various parts of the 
United States. Iiead is found in plains and highlands, generally. Nickel, a metal 
having a luster surpassing that of silver, is found in Pennsylvania, Sweden, Spain, 
and Germany. Salt is found in nearly every country in the world. 

4. The predoiiB atones include the dl'a mond, ru'by, sapphire (m{^^ Ir), emerald, 
to'paz, amethyst (dm'etfAsC)^ and turquois (hirhoizO. 

5. Granite, which is of a grayish color, is composed of three minerals,— ^ratoi 
(mi^kA), /fld'tpar, and quarU. Valuable quarries* are in New England, Tennessee, 
and Gteorgia. 

6. Vbia statOMT marble is found in Carrara (Ulrrd^rS), Italy. Much orna- 
mental marble is found in Vermont, Tennessee, Georgia, and Maryland. 

7. The water of the rieiiig tide may carry mad, or sediment, to the shore. 
While the water of the falling tide is receding, this sediment is deposited, and 
is baked, or hardened, by the sun. Each succeeding flood-tide deposits a layer, 
or stratum, of sediment, which, in turn, becomes hard. Sediments of the Bhine 
are now hardening into stone ; and, on the coast of Florida, pulverized shells and 
corals are quickly cemented * into hard rock. Bocks formed from sediment are 
called sedimentary rocks ; and, as they are found in strata, they are called str&tifled 
rocks, as slate. Ig' ne ous rocks are those formed by the action of heat, as lava and 
trap rock. A' que ous rocks are those formed by the action of water, and are StnM- 
fled. Bocks formed by the action of both heat and water are called metamor'phio 
rocks, as granite and marble. 

8. A plant is three fourths water. Nearly all plants absorb their food by 
means of roots and rootlets, which penetrate the soil in which they grow. They 
reqtiire, also, heat, light, and moisture. Some of the lowest forms of plant life 
consist of a single cell. 

0. The Bones of vegetation, like those of climates, have no sharply defined 
boundaries. They overlap one another ; and are separated by isotherms. 
• in cTAf^rri a/, pertaining to industry. brwd-fhtU is four to seven inches, in 
gttgr^riM, stone-pits, places, or caverns, diameter. 

from which are taken granite, marble, 
slate, etc. 
f$ minted^ united firmly, or closely. 

Hckmt (U^ens), plants resembling mosses, 
and deriving their nonrlshment ftom 
the air. They adhere to rocks, trees, etc. 




1. Animals, like plants, increase in the number of 
species, from the poles toward the Equator. 

2. In polar regions, the land animals are distinguished 
by thick fur, such as the polax bear, musk-ox, and rein- 
deer ; and the marine animals, by a thick covering of blub- 
ber, or fat. These comprise the seal, walrus, and whale. 

3. The temperate zones are the home of animals most 
useful to man, such £ts the horse, ox, cow, sheep, and hog. 
Here, also, are the deer, bi'son, bear, and wolf. 

4. The tropical regions contain large and powerful 
animals, such as the elephant, camel, hippopotamus, rhi- 
noc' e ros, lion, tiger, and jag u ar' ; besides reptiles and 

6. Mankind comprises about one and a half billions 
(1,500,000,000) of people. 

6. People are classified with respect to their social 
conditions, as aavagey barbarous^ half-civUized^ and civ- 
ilized, or enlightened, 

7. Savages are people without written laws or political 
government. They are ignorant and superstitious, and 
live by hunting and fishing* 

8. Barbarous people live, chiefly, on the products of 
their herds and flocks. They have no permanent homes, 
but wander from place to place, to flnd pasturage for their 
cattle, sheep, and goats. ^® 

9. Half-civilized people are more skilled in agriculture 
and manufacturing than barbarous tribes. They are more 
or less educated, but have little or no communication with 
other people. 

10. Civilized, or enlightened, nations are characterized 
by their knowledge of the arts and sciences, their educa- 
tion, literature, and capability of self-government. 

11. The occupations and general condition of people 
depend, principally, upon climate and productions, 

12. Within the Torrid Zone, where food and shelter 
are obtained with but little exertion, there are no powerful 

13. In the North Temperate Zone, where extremes of 
climate demand the greatest skill and energy, are found 
the most perfect types of man, and all of the great nations 
of the earth. 

14. The five races of mankind are distinguished from 
one another, chiefly, by the color of the skin, and the shape 

of the feature& They are, the Caucasian (kau ka'sian), Mon- 
golian (m6n gOMl an), Negro, Ma lay', and American Indian. 



Mongnllan . 





Color— uBoally white, some- 
times dark; BTB»-blue, gray, 
or dark; HAiB-chiefly brown; 
Bkard— heavy ; Fkatubbs— regu- 
lar; FoREBKAD— high. 

CoLOB — yellow to swarthy ; 
Etbs— black and almond-ehaped ; 
Haib— black and straight; Beard 
-scanty; CHSSK-Boirss— high. 

Color — black ; Etes -> black ; 
Hair— black and woolly; Beard 
—scanty; Lips— thick and pro- 
trading ; Nose— flat ; Fobbhbai>— 
low and retreating. 

Color — brown ; Btbs — black 
and horizontal in face; Hair— 
straight and black ; Beard— full. 

Color— red to swarthy, often of 
copper hue; ETE»-black; Hair— 
black; Cheek-bones— high. 


India, Arabia, Saroi>e 
(except Lapps, Finns, and 
the Magyars \ntdd'yon\y of 
Hungary), Northern Africa, 
and America. 

China, Japan, Hungary, 
Lapland, Finland, and Arc- 
tic regions (Esquimaux — 
i^Kk mAr). 

Central and Southern 
Africa, New Quinea, and 
Islands of Melanesia {mU 
an V M a). 

East Indies and 


American Continent 

16. The chief religions of the world are the Christian, 
Jewish, Moham'medan, Brahminical (bra min'ik al), and 
Bud dhist (bdbd' ist)." 

16. Christians believe in the Bible. The Jews reject 
the New Testament. 

1 7. Mo ham' med ans believe Mo ham' med was the 
Great Prophet, sent especially to be their leader and 

18. Brahmanism (bra'manizm) is the religion of the 
inhabitants of Hindoostan and some other parts of Asia." 

19. Buddhism (bdbd'izm) is the religion taught by 
Buddha, a reformer of Brahminical teachings. The be- 
lievers of this religion live in south-eastern Asia, and 
comprise about one third of the human family." 


1. For mutual protection and benefit, people combine 
with one another, forming tribes and nations. 

2. Uncivilized people congregate in tribes, and are gov- 
erned by chiefs, who are their leaders, usually, by virtue of 
superior skill and bravery in war. Such tribes, although 
frequently having many ceremonial forms and customs, 
have no written laws. The will of the chief is law, and 
the lives of his followers are subject to his caprice. 

3. Civilized people form nations, and have organized 
systems of laws, called governments. 

9. Ekivages place but little value on human life. Those who live by hunting 
are generally of a higher type than those who exist by fishing. The greater diifi- 
culties in procuring food, develop courage, sldll, and the reasoning faculties. 

10. Barbarous people are noted for their skill and bravery in the care and 
defense of their herds. 

11. In the early history of mankind, worship was often connected with those 
physical powers whose origin, nature, and action were shrouded in mystery. The 
sun, Are, wind, and even animals, have been— and are to this day, in some places,— 
objects of woiBhii>. 

12. Mofaammedans believe in the Ko'ran, which contains the professed reveL> 
tions of Mo ham' med, or Mahom'et, who was bom in Arabia, about 670 a.d. 

13. Originally, the word brah'ma meant, the offering of praise and worship. 
Afterward, it was used to signify a deity consisting of three gods : Brahma, the 
creator; Vish'nu, the preserver; and Siva (aef'v^, the destroyer. Bnthmaniam is 
now a form of idolatrous worship. 

14. Estimated number of Ghristians, 400,000,000; of Jews, 10,000,000; of 
Mohammedaas, 180,000,000; of Brahmina and Buddhists, 680,000,000; of 
heathen and fbtd^horMM^woiahipera, 180,000,000; and of unknown, 60,000,003. 



4. The two principal forms of government are the 
republic and the monarchy.^ 

5. A republic is a govermnent in which the laws are 
made by the people, and administered by officers chosen 
by them. Its chief executive officer is called the president. 

6. The highest authority in a republic is the consti- 
tution« or written agreement. 

7. A monarchy is a government in which the supreme 
power is held by one person during life. Monarchies are 
either absolute or limited. 

S. An absolute monarchy is a government in which 
all the functions of government are vested in the ruler. 

9. A limited monarchy is a government in which the 
laws are made by the people, and enforced by the ruler. 

10. An empire is a monarchy, which usually comprises 
several nation5> The chief ruler is called the emperor. 

11. A kingdom is a monarchy, ruled by a king, or a 

12. The capital of a country is the city where the 
laws are made. 


1. The principal industries, or occupations, of mankind 
are agriculture, manufacturing, mining, fishing, and com- 

2. Agriculture is the cultivation of the soil to obtain 
food, and, to a great extent, clothing. This industry gives 
employment to nearly half the working population of the 
United States. 

8. Sugar-cane and coffee are cultivated in countries 
and states which have a warm climate. 

4. Potatoes and tobacco grow best where the climate 
is temperate, or warm. 

5. The raising of stock, for beef, pork, and wool, is 
profitable where there is an abundance of grass and grain. 

6. The cattle industry of Texas, Colorado, and nearly 
all the territories of the United States, is very important. 

7. The beef and pork industry is very extensive in the 
North Central States, where immense quantities of beef 
and pork are packed for shipment to nearly every part of 
the world. 

15. Vat the past few centuries, there has been a strong tendency among civilized 
nations toward a republican form of government. Absolute monarchies become lim- 
ited, and limited monarchies give rise to republics. As people become enlightened 
and educated, they also become capable of self-government. A constitutional 
government is, therefore, the best for an educated people, because it represents the 
oomraon sense of the people. 

16. The tiUe of a mler differs in different nations. The chief magistrate of 
a republic, is called President ; the ruler of Germany, Emperor ; of Buasia, Czar 
(sdr) ; of Prossia, King ; of Turkey, Sultan (tHi'Um) ; of Persia, Shah («WA) ; of :^arpt, 
Khedive (kSdeef/); of Japan, Mikado (nAti'do). A principality is governed by a 
Prince ; a duchy (dikA'y), by a Duke; an electorate, by an Elector. 

17. Iron is not found in a pure, metaUio state, in nature, but combined with 
oxygen and other mineral and earthy matter. The ores most common, are called 
hematites (hhn'atltes) and magnetics. To separate the iron, the ore is placed in a 
smelting* furnace with coal, coke, or charcoal, and limestone, in regular proportions. 
The carbon in the fuel combines with the oxygen, and the other impurities associate 
with the lime as a slag,* leaving the iron free. This is drawn off from the furnace 

8. The great agricultural region of the United States 
is in the Mississippi Basin : the northern part is especially 
noted for grain; the southern portion, for cotton. The 
Pacific Coast Section, also, yields large crops of grain. 

9. Manufactures include cotton, woolen, and silk goods, 
iron, lumber, leather, and many other articles. 

10. Manufacturing and mining give employment to 
more than one fifth of the i)opulation of the United States. 

11. Materials of which most of our clothing is made, are 
obtained from the cotton-plant, the sheep, and the silk-worm. 

12. Cotton is the principal production of the Southern 
States, whose soil and climate are better adapted to its 
growth than those of any other part of the world. 

13. The wool industry is most extensive in the North 
Central and the Pacific Statea 

14. Silk is the product of the silk-worm, which feeds on 
the leaves of the mulberry-tree. China, Japan, and France 
are celebrated for silk. 

15. Lumbering is the cutting of trees into logs, which 
are floated down the streams to mills. There the logs are 
sawed into planks, boards, etc. These are afterward used 
in constructing houses, ships, furniture, cars, ccuriages, 
and many other thinga 

16. Nearly all the lumber in the United States is pro- 
duced in Maine, New Hampshire, Michigan, Wisconsin, the 
Southern States, and the Pacific Statea 

1 7. The pine forests of the South Atlantic States yield 
large quantities of turpentine, rosin, and tar. 

18. Leather is the skins of animals, tanned,* curried, 
and otherwise manufactured. 

19. The great manufacturing sections of the United 
States are the New England and the Middle Atlantic Statea 

20. Iron is mined and manufactured very extensively 
in the eastern part of the United States, and constitutes 
one of the great industries of the world." 

21. Coal gives force and heat, necessary in separating 
metals from their ores, in constructing and operating 
machinery, and in performing many kinds of work, to 
which the strength of man would be unequal 

and run into short furrows made in sand, and is known as pi^-iron, so called from 
its fancied resemblance, when in the furrowB, to pi^is lyinir Bide by side. It con- 
tains some carbon and other impurities, but by re-melting in a "cupola'* furnace, 
it is run into fine castings. Wrought iion is made by depriving cast-iron of the 
carbon, which is done by re-melting in a puddling furnace through which a cur- 
rent of air is passed. The furnace man constantly stirs, or " puddles,** the molten 
mass, until it becomes pasty and tough. Then it is made into balls, weighing 
about 200 ix>unds each. These are taken from the furnace, and rolled between 
heavy, chUled iron rollers, re-heated and rolled again, until it has become flbrou<3 
in structure, and is finally rolled into bars. Steel differs from iron in chemical 
conditions, and contains a certain amount of carbon, combined with the iron. It 
was formerly made by heating wrought iron and fine charcoal together, in a close 
retort. Sy the principal method now used, a strong current of air is passed 
through the molten pig-iron, until the excess of carbon is consumed. It is then 
cast in molds, and rolled out into rails, or other shapes. 
• smilt ing^ melting ore for the purpose of separating the metals from other mineral 
substancee. «£ig, dross of a metal. Itfii, to steep in an infusion of oak or other bark. 

TWKiiTY-JliJMis ur TUK UCAUtKO IKDUaTKll&d Vt TUJfi Wulil.l>. — I'liB >X)Uit UiUSAT ttktiTKMD UV CUMMJtUOJt AMD tiULHiitvmAt'iUlit—tilC LAND AKD WATKB. 

18. The first steamer which crossed the Atlantic Ocean was the Sayannah. 
When it was announced that such a trip was contemplated, a certain learned man 
wrote a pamphlet, to prove the impossibility of its success. A package of these 
pamphlets was carried across the ocean, by the steamer, on her first trip. 

19. Oanals are artificial channels, connecting navigable waters. The Erie Canal, 
the largest in the United States, connects the Great Lakes with Hudson River. The 
Welland Canal was constructed between Lakes Erie and Ontario, in order to avoid 
Niagara Falls. Canal-boats are moved by horses, mules, and, sometimes, by steam. 





Maps, Circles, etc.— What Is a map?— 
a sphere ? — a hemisphere ? (Ste pages 6 and 7.) 
What is the most northerly point of the 
sphere, or each hemisphere?— the most 
southerly point? What are those lines 
called v/hich are drawn from the top to 
the ho*^ torn of a map ? (Set pages 8 and 9.) At 
what two points wonld all meridian lines 
mee', if extended? Why have men not 
boeu able to reach either polo ? What 
groat circle is drawn around globes and 
on maps, from east to west? Between 
what two points is it equally distant? 
What small circles are drawn from east 
to west ? (See page 8^ paroffraph S7, and diagram,) 
Are these circles really on the earth ? 
Why are they drawn on globes and 

Latitude. — What are those numbers 
called which appear on the margin of 
this map ? What number is in this 
margin at the Equator ? What does It 
moan? What is the largest number of 
degrees in this margin? What point Is 
ninety degrees north of the Equator? — 
ninety degrees south of the Equator? 
From what is latitude reckoned ? In 
what directions and toward what points 
is it reckoned? 

Lonaritude.— What are those numbers 
called which appear on the Equator? 
From what meridian is longitude reck- 
oned ? What is the longitude of places on 
that meridian ? (51m page 97.) What is the 
greatest longitude a place can have? 
Over what places does the meridian of 
180" pass? What meridian passes through 
the middle of South America? Through 
what North American gulf docs that 
meridian pass? Mention some places inr 
the Western Hemisphere whose latitude 

is 0,— twenty degrees, — forty degrees,— sixty degrees, — eighty degrrees,— 
ten degrees, — forty-five degrees. Mention some places whose longitude 
is sixty degrees, — (Follow the meridian marked eixiy degreee.) — eighty degrees, — 
one hundred and eighty degrees. 

What island is in fifty degrees north latitude, and sixty degrees 
west longitude ?— in fifty degrees south latitude, and sixty degrees west 
longitude ? What bay is in sixty degrees north latitude, and eighty 
degrees west longitude? What is the latitude of New York? — its 
longitude? What is the latitude of San Francisco?— its longitude? 

Zones. — What part of North America is crossed by the Arctic 
Circle?— by the Tropic of Cancer? What zone is between these two 
circles ? What two straits are crossed by the Arctic Circle ? What 
ocean is north of the Arctic Circle? What large gulf is crossed by the 
Tropic of Cancer? 

What tropic is south of the Equator ? Between what two circles Is 
the South Temperate Zone ? What ocean is south of the Antarctic 
Circle? What zone is north of the Arctic Circle ? — south of the Ant- 
arctic Circle? 

In what zone Is the grreater part of North America? — the greater 
part of South America? — the northern part of North America? — the 
southern part? — the southern part of South America? 

Which zone is the hottest?— which are the coldest?— which are the 
most pj.g^asant to live in ? 

Giin^d Divisions.— Of what two grand divisions is the Western Con- 
tinenr "Composed? By what Isthmus are they joined? What ocean is 
east of them?— west? What ocean is north of North America?— south ot 
South America? Which Is the largest ocean?— the smallest? In what 
direction is South America from North America? What meridian 
crosses the western part of South America? Through what part of 
North America does that meridian pass? 

Islands.— What islands are in the Torrid Zone?- In the North Tem- 
perate Zone? — in the South Temperate Zone? 

What waters surround the West Indies ?— Newfoundland (nu^fUnd land) ? 
What water surrounds the Sandwich Islands?— Iceland?— New Zealand ? 

Capes.— What cape on the eastern coast of North America? — what 
two on the western coast? What cape forms the most eastern point 
of South America?— the most southern ?— the most western? 

Mountains. — What mountains in the western part of North Amer- 
ica?— of South America? In what general direction do the Rocky 
Mountains extend? In what directions do the Andes ext«nd ? 

Rivers. — On which side of the mountains are the longest rivers? 
Mention the largest river in South America,— in North America. What 
river flows Into the Mississippi River? Into what does the Mississippi 
flow?— the Amazon? What large river flows into the Arctic Ocean? 
Which of these rivers flow in an easterly direction ? — southerly ? — 
northerly ? Into what ocean do most of the rivers of this continent 

Climate, Races, etc. — Which is the warmer, the Amazon, or the 
Mississippi ?— the Missouri, or the Mackenzie River?— Baffin Bay, or the 
Gulf of Mexico?— Iceland, or the Sandwich Islands? What different 
climates would you And during a voyage from Baffin Bay, around Cape 
Horn, and to Bering Strait? Which part of the Mississippi River is 
the warmer— its mouths, or its source? What part of the Mackenzie 
River is the warmer ? What races of mankind inhabit the Western 
Ilomisphere ? Describe their appearance, color of the skin, and dress. 

Voyages. — In what direction would you sail from Baffin Bay to 
Newfoundland? — from Newfoundland to the Gulf of Mexico? — from the 
Gulf of Mexico to South America?— from South America to New Zealand? 
Through what strait would you sail from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean ? 





Wliloh hexnlBphere contains the more 
land? — the more water? What four 
oceans are -j^axtly in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere? What ocean is entirely in it? 

Is the erreater part of the land north, 
or south of the Equator? 

Of what three ffrand divisions does the 
Eastern Continent consist ? Which is the 
larfirest ?— the smallest? Which is crossed 
by the Equator? What division of the 
earth is composed of islands? In what 
ocean are these islands ? What large 
island in this hemisphere is called a con- 
tinent ? {See page 11^ paragroph 7.) 

CIroies and Zones. — Througfh what 
part of Africa does the Tropic of Cancer 
pass ?— through what part of Asia? What 
zones are separated by this tropic ? 

In what zone is the greater part of 
Asia?— of Europe? — of Africa? 

What tropic passes through Australia 
and South Africa? What zones are sepa- 
rated by that tropic? 

In what zone Is South Africa?^ South 
Australia ? — North Australia ? — Northern 
Europe?— Northern Asia. 

Latitude and Longitude.— What large 
islands are crossed by the Equator ?— what 
gulf ? In what latitude are places which 
are crossed by the Equator? (3te marglm 
qf ths map^ at ths Equator,) 

Which extends farther north, Europe, 
or Asia? In about what latitude is the 
north coast of Europe ? — of Asia ? — the 
north coast of the Mediterranean Sea?— 
the middle of the Japan Sea? — of the 
Baltic Sea? 

What is the latitude of the Tropic of 
Cancer ?— (Mf paget 9 and 10^^ — of the Tropic 
of Capricorn?— of the Arctic Circle?— of the Antarctic Circle? 

What places are in longitude 0« ? (3m aO piaoe$ on the meHdian paating through, 
or fiMT, London,) What place is in latitude 0«, and longitude 0« ? In what 
longitude is the eastern part of the Black Sea?— of the Japan Sea? 

What part of the world is in twenty degrees north latitude, and 
forty degrees east longitude ?— in ten degrees south latitude, and one 
hundred and sixty degrees east longitude ? — in twenty degrees south 
latitude, and forty degrees east longitude? 

Grand Divisions. — In what direction is Europe from Asia?— from 
Aflrica? What ocean north of Europe ?— west ? What ocean north of 
Asia ? — east ? — south ? What ocean west of Africa ? — south-east ? 

Would you ride, or sail, from Europe to Asia? — from Europe to 
Afrtca? — ftrom Africa to Australia?— from Africa to Asia? 

Seas, etc. — Which is the largest sea in the world? With what 
ocean is it connected ? Between what two grand divisions is the 
Mediterranean Sea ? What sea south of Asia ?— south-east ?— north-oast ?— 
south-west? What sea east of the British Isles? What sea projects 
far into Euroi)e ? What two seas between Asia and Europe ? What sea 
east of the Caspian Sea? What bay south of Asia ? — south-west of 
Europe? What gulf west of Aft-ica? 

Islands.- What group of isles, or islands, west of Europe? What 
islands east of Asia?— south-east of Asia? What two large islands are 
crossed by the Equator? What island north of Australia ?— south-east ?— 
south-east of Africa?— north-east of Europe ?— south-east of Hlndoostan ? 

Capes. — What is the northern cape of Europe ? — of Asia ? — the 
western cape of Africa ? What cape is in the southern part of Africa ? 

Mountains. —What mountains in the southern part of Asia?— of 
Europe? — between Asia and Europe? — in the northern part of Africa?— 
in the western part of Africa?— in the eastern part? 

Rivers.- What three large rivers in Africa? Which flows north?— 
south?- west? Into what water does the NUe flow? — the Congo V- 
the Niger? What two large rivers in Europe? Into what sea does 
the Danube flow?— the Tolga? What three rivers in Asia flow east?— 

Cities.— In one of the British Isles is the largest city in the world,— 
Mention it. Mention two of the largest cities on the Continent of 
Europe. In what direction ftrom London is Paris?— Berlin? In what 
zone are these three cities? One of the largest cities in the world is in 
Asia,— Mention it. What is the latitude of Pekin?— of Paris?— of Ber- 
lin?— of London? 

Climates. — Which Is the warmest of the grand divisions? Which 
extends into the coldest regions? In what two zones is Europe? — 
Australia? In what three zones is Africa?— Asia? Which is warmer, 
Europe, or Australia?— the Japan Islands, or Borneo?— Madagascar, or 
Nova Zembla?— the Lena River, or the Congo?— the Nile, or the Volga? 
What different climates would you And during a voyage from the 
British Isles to Australia? Describe the kinds of i)eople who inhabit 
the Eastern Hemisphere. Describe their complexion, dress, etc. 

Voyages. — In what direction would you sail from Ix)ndon to Nova 
Zembla? On what waters? Would you sail into warmer, or colder 
waters, on your voyage? In what directions would you sail ft-om 
London to the Cape of Good Hope? On what waters? Would you sail 
into colder, or warmer waters? 

On what waters would you sail from the Cape of Qood Hope to 
Australia?— to the Red Sea?— from the Red Sea to Borneo? Would you 
require winter, or summer, clothing during this voyage? 

In what directions would you sail from Madagascar to the Okhotsk 
Sea? On what waters would you sail? In what part of that voyage 
would you require warm clothing?— light clothing? 


COKnxtut, tsu, St JjkMat Utatnam. 



Location.— In what hemisphere is North America? Mention the 
oceans that wash Its coast. In what direction from. North America 
Is the Atlantic Ocean?— the Pacific ?— the Arctic? What part of North 
America Is north of the Pacific Ocean? Which of these oceans do we 
know the least abont? Why? Which ocean do vessels cross In firolner 
to Europe? 

Latitude and Lonffltude. — How are parallels of latitnde Indicated 
on this map? Why are the lines curved? If you were to travel over 
North America, would you see these lines? Why are they placed on 
the map? Is North America In north, or south, latitude? Between 
what degrees does it lie, so far as discovered? How many miles make 
a deg:ree on a meridian? What i>arallel of latitude passes througrh the 
central part of the United States? What parallels of latitude touch 
the northern and southern boundaries of the United States ? How lon^ 
is North America? 

What countries of Europe are in the same latitude as the Dominion 
of Canada ?—{8m margin qf the fnop.)— Greenland ?— United States? What two 
countries are in the same latitude as Northern AfMca? 

What lines meet at the top of this map? At what point do they 
meet? In what direction do they extend? Why are they closer to- 
gether at the Arctic Ocean than at the Oulf of Mexico ? What is longi- 
tude? What is its use? What is the length of a degree of longitude, 
at the Equator?— (5m 1W0V 9, noU 5.)— on the parallel of 40«?— of 80"?— at the 
poles? How long does it take the earth to make a complete rotation?^ 

Into how many degrees may a circle be divided ? How many degrees 
are turned to the sun in an hour? What is the longitude of the most 
eastern part of the United States? — of the most western i>art? How 
many degrees of longitude between these two points? 

What is the difference in time between the eastern and western parts 
of the United States?— of the Dominion of Canada?— of Mexico? Upon 
what part of North America does the sun first rise? Find the differ- 
ence in longitude, and in time, between New York and Chicago (the ka^gO)t 
—Ottawa and San Francisco {edn JinSn Sie' kif). Is there any difference In 
time between St. Louis (eOni Ul/U) and New Orleans idfleane)? Why? 
What is the length of the longest day on the parallel of 40«?— of 60"?— 
of 70»?-of 80"? (See eaet maivin of the map.) 

Outline.— In what direction f^m the United States is Hudson Bay?— 
the Gulf of Mexico ? Which Is the larger, the Ghulf of Mexico, or Hudson 
Bay? In what direction from Ghreenland is Baffin Bay? Through 
what water would you pass, to reach Baffin Bay, f^m the Atlantic 
Ocean? In what direction from Alaska (alde'ia) is Bering (bi'fing) Sea? 
What connects it with the Arctic Ocean? 

Islands. — In what direction does Greenland extend? (Obeerve tUreetkm 
<^ meriaianM,) In what direction from Greenland is Iceland ? What large 
island at the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence? Mention two 
islands south-west of the Dominion of Canada, — three large islands 
south-east of the United States. Which ocean contains the most impor- 
tant Islands? 

Peninsulas.— What peninsula projects from the south-western part of 
Alaska?— firom the south-eastern part of the Dominion of Canada? Into 
what water does the Peninsula of Yucatan project ? What gulf divides 
Mexico into two parts ? What is the north-western part called ? 

Capes. — What cape projects ftom Alaska into the Arctic Ocean ? 
What is the southern cape of Greenland ?— of Nova Scotia (ni/va ekt/e^a)? 
Where is another cape of the same name? What is the most north- 
western cape of the United States? Where is Cape Mendocino onindoei'no}? 
—Cape Hatteras?— Cape Bace? 

Mountains. — In what general direction do the mountains in North 
America extend? What mountains in the efwtern part of North Amer- 
ica?— in the western part? How far do they extend? In what directions 
does the surface, between these mountains, slope? Where are the vol- 
canoes of North America? What large lakes between the Dominion of 
Canada and the United States? What river is their outlet? Which of 
the great lakes is entirely within the United States? 

Rivers.— Mention the largest river of North America. Where is it? 
If you should start at the Gulf of Mexico, and sail on that river, would 
you sail up, or down?— north, or south? Where is its delta?— its source? 
Mention its largest branch,— two other branches. What lai^ river fiows 
into the Arctic Ocean? Of what large lakes is it the outlet? What 
large river flows through Alaska? What river forms part of the 

boundary between the United States and Mexico? What large iriver 
flows Into the Pacific Ocean?- into the Gulf of California? «^ 

Countries.- What large territory in the north-western part of North 
America? To what country does it belong? What country borders on 
the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans? What country south of that 
country ? What country lies between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific 
Ocean? What country is Joined by the Isthmus of Panama to South 
America? Does the Isthmus belong to North America, or South America? 
In what direction is it from Mexico? 

Climate.— How far north of the Equator may the sun's rays be ver- 
tical? What is that parallel called? (See poffe 9.) When the sun is ver- 
tical at this tropic, how far north does the sun's light extend? What 
Is the parallel called which there limits the sun's light ? Through what 
countries does the Arctic Circle pass? Is the climate as warm at the 
Arctic Circle, as at the Tropic of Cancer? Why? What zone is north 
of the Arctic Circle? Ix)cate the most northern point reached by ex- 
plorers. (83« 24/, by Brainard and Loetwood, qf the Qredy expedmon,) 

Zones.— Would Greenland and the northern part of the Dominion of 
Canada be a pleasant place for us to live in? Why? In what zone 
do we live? Is any part of Alaska in this zone?— the Dominion of 
Canada? What country partly in the North Temperate, and partly 
in the Torrid Zone? Have all parts of the Temperate Zone the same 
temperature? Which part is the colder? What is the mean tempera- 
ture of the southern part of the United States?- (Am margin <^ hmq?)— the 
northern part? Trace the isotherms, or lines of temperature (brown^ 
dotted Hnee;} across the map, and see whether they extend due east and 
west. In what different ways is climate affected ? (See page 29, paragrxg^ 16, 
and note 10,) 

Productions.- Mention the principal products and animals of the 
northern part of the North Temperate Zone, — the central part, — the 
southern. What are the principal products of the Torrid Zone of North 
America ? (See chart <tf prine^ produete on the oppoeite me^f.) Why Qould not 
these be raised in the northern part of the North Temperate Zone ? 
What articles of food are obtained from the Frigid Zone ? In what parts 
of North America are iron and coal obtained ?— gold and sll ver ?— furs ? 
Where is grain raised ?- tobacco ?— sugar-cane ?— coffee ? 

Cities. — Mention five large cities situated on the Atlantic Coast,— 
one on the Pacific Coast, — one on the banks of the Mississippi, near Its 
delta, — one on the shore of one of the Great LAkes,— one on the coast 
of the Gulf of Mexico, — one on the St. Lawrence Biver. Mention the 
capital of the Dominion of Canada,— of the United States,— of Mexico. 

Commercial Geography. — How long would it take to go from New 
York to the Isthmus of Panama by BtesLmer^^(See red Hnee on mt^ dMded 
kUo dUtaneee eaUed «Mry twenif^iour Aourf)— from the Isthmus to San Francisco ?— 
from New York to Chicago by railroad?— to St. Iiouls?- to New Orleans? 
What cargo would a steamer be likely to bring f^m Cuba to New 
York? From what port would she start? How long would it take? 
What cargo from New Orleans?— from Mexico? 

Comparative Time.— When it is noon at Iiondon, what time Is it at 
the east coast of Iceland ?— at Cape Farewell ?— near the east coast of Nova 
Scotia?- at Philadelphia ?— at St. Louis and New Orleans?— at Denver?— 
at Sitka, in Alaska?— along the west coast of Alaska? Where Is it 
midnight? How often would a person traveling from San Francisco to 
New York have to change the time of his watch to have it correspond 
to standard time? How much would he change it each time? Must 
the hands be turned forward, or backward? 

Map Drawing.— Locate Bering Strait, and in a south-east direction, 
at the distance equal to nine times the length of Kansas, locate the 
Strait of Belle Isle ; thence, south-west, at the same distance— nine 
measures— locate the most southern point of North America. 

The Isthmus of Panama is a little over fourteen measures f^m 
Bering Strait. Between these three points, draw the outline of North 
America. The distance f^m the Strait of Belle Isle to Florida Strait 
is six measures ; from Bering Strait to the north-west comer of the 
United States, five measures ; along the Pacific Ooast of the United States, 
three measures; and of Mexico, five measures. 

By means of these measures, each of which is 400 miles, the several 
important distances may be easily remembered, and a map of any 
size may be drawn, either on paper, or the blackboard. 

Locate the principal capes, mountains, rivers, and cities, and mark 
the boundaries of the countries. 

* Am there are 800^ in eveiy drcla, and the etrth mikes a complete rotation tnm west to 
eaet every twenty-f onr hoars, it moat torn fifteen degreea each hoar, or one degree in foor minatea. 
Philadelphia i» thirty degrees eaat of Denver ; therefore the aon riaea at Philadelphia two hoars 
sooner than at Denver. When it ia noon at Philadelphia, it ia ten ▲.x. at Denver, because it re- 
qoiiea two hoon for the earth to move thioagh thirty degrees in its rotation on its azJa. 

Notice that the meridians on this map of North America are drawn Jnst fifteen degrees apart 
The son seenu to pasa from one to another every hoar. These meridians are, therefore, called 
hour eirelee. On the globe, there can be twenty-foor of theae meridiana, or hoar ciiclea. All 
plaoea throagh which a certain meridian paaaes, have the same time of day. A penon liavvUiv 
novth or Booth, does not change the time of hia watch. (See page 8, par ag ra p h 17.) 








1. Position. — North America is the northern division 
of the Western Continent. It extends almost from the 
North Pole to the Equator. It is situated in three zonea 

2. Size and Outline.— The shape of North America is 
nearly that of a triangle ; broad at the north, and tapering 
almost to a point at the south. Its length, from Grin nell 
Land to the Isthmus of Panama, is nearly 6,000 miles. 
Its area is equal to one half that of Asia, or two and 
one half times that of Europe. Its northern and eastern 
coasts are remarkable for nimierous indentations and good 
harbors ; while the western coast has but few. 

8. Islands. — Several groups of islands form a part of 
this grand division. The West Indies and the Aleutian 
Islands^ are mountain ranges partly submerged.* Both 
groups contain axjtive volcanoes. Many of the West India 
Islands are of coral origin. 

4. Surface. — The western part of the continent is a 
high plateau, on which are many nearly parallel ranges of 
mountains. The direction of these ranges is from north- 
west to south-east. They constitute the Rocky Mountain 
System, and form the main axis of the continent The 
culminating* ranges of this system inclose a large, oval- 
shaped plateau, called the Great Basin.' 

6. The Appalachian* System^ in the eastern part, is com- 
posed of several parallel ranges, extending from north-east 
to south-west. Their average height is about 8,000 feet, 
or about one third that of the Western Highlands. 

6. Volcanoes are numerous in the Western Highlands, 
and several of them are constantly axjtive.' 

7. The highest peak of the Rocky Mountain System is 
near Mt St. Eli' as (19,600 feet) ; and of the Appalachian 
System, Mt. Mitchell (6,707 feet). 

8. The great central plain^ extending from Hudson 
Bay to the Gulf of Mexico, lies between the two moimtain 
systems. The Height of Land, an almost imperceptible* 
divide,* crosses the plain, separating the Arctic Slope from 
the Gulf Slope. 

9. Lakes. — The lakes of North America are remarkable 
for their number and size. If a straight line were drawn 
from Ches' a peake Bay to the mouth of the Mackenzie 
River, it would pass through nearly every large lake in 
North America.* 

10. Th^e Oreat^ Lakes contain about one half the 
fresh water on the globe. Lake Superior, the largest, 
however, is exceeded* in size by Lake Victoria, in Africa. 

1 1. Salt and alkaline * lakes are numerous in the Pacific 
Highlands. Great Salt Lake, in Utah, has an area twice 
that of Rhode Island. With the exception of the Caspian 
Sea, it is the largest salt lake on the globe. 

12. Rivers. — ^The river-basins and drainage slopes of 
North America are well defined. They consist of the Arctic 
Slope, the Hudson Bay Basin, the St. Lawrence Basin, the 
Atlantic Slope, the Mississippi Basin, the Great Basin, and 
the Pacific Slope. A portion of the Great Basin is drained 
by the Colorado River. A large area is a high, treeless 
region, whose waters are partly removed by evaporation. 

1. KeiU*l7 erwy iahmd of the Aleutian (alQ'Man) group is voloftnio. 

2. T^^ Booky Mountain System Is, for convenience, made to include all the 
numerotti ranges of the Western Highlands. This system, which extends along the 
entire western coast of North America and South America, is often called the 
cordil'leras (mountain ranges). 

8. Bo go slofT, a ▼oloanio peak near XJ na lash'ka, one of the Aleutian Tslands, and 
St Augustine (f'^On) in Oook*s Inlet, were in a state of eruption in 1884. 
?cpooat«petl (p9p9'Wdpj Ui and JoruHo (Ao rdftTytf), in Mexico, are both actios* 

4. The lakes of North America are, hy many geologists, attributed to the 
action of gladiers. 

6. TbB Paoii&o Slppe, in regard to climate and productions, differs considerably 
from the rest of the continent Its dimate is oceanic, rather than continentaL 
• tub mSrg9A\ under water. dl i^cto', a watershed. 

dU'siifittliV, highest. isiiMrp^^MUf, not easily seen. 

JP AsAMi, containing lime, magnesia, etc. w ftMrstf, excelled, snrpasMd. 

/ppaWMtm JftMMloliif, often oallsd J/ It 0Mfiy MoimMtu, 






18. The Mississippi Basin is the largest basin in the 
world, excepting that of the Amazon River. Its chief 
stream, the Mississippi and Missouri, exceeds every other 
river in length. 

14. T?ie Yukon (yy'k6n) River, second in size, is, in many 
respects, milike any other river on the continent. Its upper 
course is remarkable for falls and rapids. Its lower part 
contains many islands, and is often five or six miles wide. 

16. The Colvmbiay Colorado (kaiora'do), and many of 
their tributaries which rise in the interior of the continent 
flow, in some places, through deep cafions. 

16. The soil, where sufficiently watered, is very pro- 
ductive. The Mississippi Basin, and the slopes of the At- 
lantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, contain soil of great 

1 7. Climate. — On the Pacific Coast, the climate is much 
milder than in corresponding latitudes on the Atlantic 
Coast. The former region receives the winds warmed by 
the waters of the Kuro Siwo, or Japan Current, while the 
latter receives the land-winds from the interior, which are 
very hot in summer, and cold in winter.* 

18. The northern part of the continent, being in the 
North Frigid Zone, is extremely cold; the central portion, 
lying within the North Temperate Zone, is characterized 
by hot summers and cold winters ; the southern part, 
situated in the Torrid Zone, has a tropical climate. 

19. The rain^fall is greatest in the north-west and 
south-east, the regions which face the moisture-laden winds 
of the ocean. The rains of the Pacific Coast fall mostly in 
winter. Comparatively little rain falls in the Great Basin. 

20. Vegetation. — In northern regions, vegetation is lim- 
ited to mosses, lichens, and a few shrubs. A belt of cone- 
bearing and deciduous trees extends through the middle 
of the Temperate Zone. In the south, these are replaced 
by palms, tree-ferns, bananas, and agaves (aga'ves). 

21. The grasses are abundant throughout the Tem« 
perate Zone. Indian com and tobacco are native to North 

22. Animals. — The fur seal, whale, walrus, polar bear, 
and musk-ox are the most important animals of the north- 
em regions. The bison, deer, bear, wolf, and panther are 
common in the north central part The grizzly bear is 
found in North America only. The monkey and the alli- 
gator are characteristic of the tropical regions. 

28. Reptiles are numerous south of the 86th parallel 
Nearly 600 species of birds are known. Fish are abun- 
dant ; the cod, salmofi, herring, and mackerel are valu- 
able as food. 

24. Minerals.— The mineral resources of North America 
surpass those of any other continent. Iron and coal, 
minerals on which civilization and commerce so greatly 
depend, are abundant^ and widely distributed. Petroleum 
and natural illuminating gas are found in the Alleghany 
Mountains and the Coast Range. Gold, silver, and quick- 
silver are found chiefly in the Western Highlands ; copper 
and lead, in the vicinity of the Great Lakes ; and zinc, in 
the Eastern Highlanda 

25. People. — The copper-colored race, commonly known 
as American Indians, inhabited North America at the time 
of the explorations in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. A 
civilized people preceding these had disappeared from the 
region which now constitutes the United States, as the 
ruins of their habitations bear witness. {Seepage S2y note 8.) 

26. Civilized people were found by the Spanish ex- 
plorers of Mexico. They were conquered by the Spaniards, 
and gradually disappeared. 

27. The Esquimaux, who are found in the Arctic Re- 
gions only, are thought by many to be of Mongolian 
origin. The Indians, also, are said to be of Mongolian 
descenti and to have comei originally, from Asia. 



28. The Caucd&iany or white race, the ruling element 
of the population, are the descendants of Europeana The 
inhabitants of Mexico and Central America are the de- 
scendants, in part, of Spaniards and native Indians. 

20. The Negroes, originally brought to America as 
slaves, are fast becoming educated. 

30. Industries.— The geographical distribution of the 
various industries is more noticeable in North America 
than in the other continents. Foreign commerce, manu- 
factures, and fisheries are confined chiefly to the coasts 
and navigable streams. 

81. Agriculture is carried on, principally, throughout 
the fertile prairies and river-valleys of the interior. 
Stock-raising is most profitable where there are mild 
winters and an abundance of grass. 

82. Mining is a leading industry in the highlands. 

83. North America includes Danish America, British 
America, the United States of America, Mexico, Central 
America, and the West Indies. 

84. Danish America belongs to the Kingdom of Denmark 
It comprises Greenland, Iceland, and a few smaller islands. 

85. Greenland extends farther north than any other 
country, or to within about 400 miles of the North Pole. 
Its area is nearly one fourth that of the United Statea 

36. The surface of Greenland is covered with ice and 
snow. The coasts are scored by enormous glaciers.* The 
products are fish, oil, and reindeer skins. 

87. The people comprise a few Danes and a number of 
Esquimau tribes.' 

88. Iceland, which is about half the size of Kansas, is 
noted for volcanoes, geysers, glaciers, and lava fields. Its 
southern part has a milder climate than its northern, and 
contains all the settlements. 

89. The Icelanders are generally educated. Their trade 
is carried on with Copenha'gen, the capital of Denmark, i 
Their capital, Reikiavik (ri' kl a vlk), contains a college. I 


Each pupil may write a letter about North America, mentioning 

the following topics: | 

POSiriONf—Tjataude of mo»t nortttem and most southern points^-longUude 
of the most eastern and the nufst western points— in what sones differ^ 
enee in time between eastern and western points. 

SIZE, — Extent from north to south and front east to west, in miies etnd im 
railroad tin^ (use scales), 

SUBEACEf— Where ntountaimms—level—prineipal numntai n s lak es riv ers , | 

CLFMATEr— Where eoldr--ten%perate— hot— dry— moist. 

fRODUCTSf— Trees and plants of different tones— minerals. 

WILD ANIMAL8,—Whieh are peculiar to the Torrid Eone-the North Tem- 
perate Zone— the North Frigid Zone. 

l*EOPLEf—IHfferent races— languages— peeuliar dress-industries, 

HISTORYt—When discovered— natnes of early explo re r s countries which sent 
thent — inducements which led to the explorations itnportant results. 


Ths arrowt indioaU ths geMtal cUrscMoru in which the rivers Jlow, 

6. Submerged mixui of former settleinentB are occaBioiiaUy found, giving rise to 
the opinion that a part of Oreenland is sinking. A few fertile vaUeys are in the 
sonthem part. 

7. The principal oolonies are at Upemavlk {oopSr^nHvik\ Godhavn (god^hlkm), 
and Oodthaab {god'tSb). 

8. Historioal Notes.— There is no good reason for believing that the peoide 
known as the Mound BitUders were contemporary with the Aztecs whom Cdr'tez found 
in Mexico, or related to them. On the contrary, there is much evidence to show 
that the Az'tecs were themselves preceded by a race sui)erior to them, in civilization. 

9. The Northmen were the first explorers of the north-eastern coast of North 
America, of whom there is any historical record. It seems certain that H^ By\e eon 
sailed along the coast as far south as New England, about the year 1000. The 
record begins, however, with the disooveiy of the West Indies by Ookmdme^ in 

1402. Three years later, the OSX/ote visited Newfoundland, and explored the coast 
as far south as Florida. Cortes conquered and explored Mexioa BSlWa crossed 
Central America and discovered the Pacific Ocean. The French took possession of 
Canada. JifHU prieete explored the Mississippi Basin from north to south. Engiieh 
colonisation began with the settlement of Jamestown, Ya. ^ 

10. leeUmd woe diseovered in the 9th century by NSrse, or Norwegian (nfir teV ^t an\ 
explorers. Irish colonists were among the earliest settlers. Norwegian colonies 
were afterward established in several i>arts of the island. For 400 years, Ice- 
land was a flourishing republic ; but it afterward became a dei)endency of Denmark. 
Under the harsh laws which forbade commerce with any but Oojienhagen merchants, 
the colony was nearly abandoned. Wiser laws, in time, prevailed, and Iceland has 
regained much of its former importance. The peojde, though nominally sabjects of 
Denmark, make and execute their own laws. 



Location. — In what part of North America is this country? What 
part of it is nearest the Equator? — the North Pole? By what ocean is 
It bounded on the east? — on the west? — by what gulf on the south? — 
by what country on the south-west? What provinces and territories 
of Canada border on the United States? What two continents are nearly 
the same in extent from east to west as the United States ? {See diaorama 
(^ comparative area^ at foot qf map.) Which is nearly the same in area ? 

Latitude and Lonarltude.— What parallel of latitude forms part of 
the northern boundary? What parallel crosses Florida Strait? What 
city in France is in almost the same latitude as the northern boundary 
of the United States ? {See red r^ereiyse^ north qf Mlnneeota.) What grreat city 
in England is farther north than that boundary ? Between what paral- 
lels of latitude is Alaska? What is the longrltude, reckoned from Green- 
wich, of the most eastern part of the United States? — of the most 
western, not including Alaska ? 

Outline. —What bay north-east of the United States? What strait 
south-east? What large bay nearly midway between them? In which 
direction does the Atlantic Coast extend? What capes are '.the most 
prominent on the Atlantic Coast? — on the Paclflc Coast? On what coast 
are bays and other arms of the ocean numerous? Which is the most 
north-eastern state ? — the most south - eastern ? What two are farthest 
west ? What state and territories border on Mexico ? 

Mountains. — In what part of this country Is the great highland 
region? Mention its principal mount- 
ains. How far from the Pacific Ocean 
are those mountains? {Use ths eeale qf mUee.) 
How far are they from the Mississippi 
River? How far Is the Mississippi River 
from the Atlantic Ocean ? What mount- 
ains between that river and the Atlantic 
Ocean? — Mention the highest peaks of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, — of the 
Rocky Mountains, —of the Appalachian 

Lakes and Rivers. — What four large 
lakes on the north ? Which is the largest 
lake in the United States? Mention the 
largest lake west of the Rooky Mount- 
ains? In what territory is it? 

Mention four large rivers which flow 
into the Mississippi Rlvsr. Which have 
their sources In the Rocky Mountains? 
In what direction do they flow? Which 
flows into the Mississippi from the east ? 
In what direction does it flow? What 
gulf receives the water of these rivers? 
What large river in the north-west ? Into 
what ocean does that river flow? 

States and Territories. — In what 
state, or territory, do you live? What 
are Its natural boundaries ? What land, 
if any, adjoins it on the north?— on the 
east? — on the south?— on the west? In 
what directions do the rivers flow 
through your state ? Into what do they 
flow? Does its surface consist of high- 
lands, or lowlands, or of both ? In 
which part Is its highest land ? 

Which is the largest state in the 
Union? — the smallest ? — the most cen- 
tral ? Through what states do the Rocky 
Mountains extend ? 

In what state does the Mississippi 
River rise? What states on its west 
bank?— on its east bank? Where are 
the sources of the Missouri River? 

Where is the divide, or water-shed, 
between the Arctic Ocean and the Gulf 
of Mexico? Where is the divide between 
the Paclflc Ocean and the Gulf of Mex- 

Climate and Products. — What is 

the mean annual temperature of your 
«tate ? {See brown Uotherme^ aleo de^reee Fahr., 
in the inner margin.) Mention the coldest 

states and territories, — the warmest. What is the mean annual tem- 
perature of Central Florida ? — of Central Texas ? — of Southern Kansas ? 
— of Northern Maine ? 

What depth of snow, if any, falls in your state? Which p»a*; is the 
coldest in winter? In what months do flowers bloom in the open 
air? In what season is there the most rain?- the least rain? What 
are the principal products of the highland region of the United States?— 
of the northern and central part ?— of the southern? — of the eastern ? 

Cities. —Mention six large cities on the Atlantic Coast, beginning at 
the north — (Jfrn/ion thoee only which are printed in heavy, black lettere), — three on 
the Gulf Coast,— one on the Paclflc Coast, — two on Lake Michigan,— 
two on Lake Erie, — two on the west bank of the Mississippi River,— 
four on its east bank. What is the capital of your state? What is the 
largest city in your state? What is the capital of the United States? 

Commercial Geography.— In what part of your state do you live? 
In what direction from you is its capital? Point toward it. How can 
you reach it ? On what water, if any, can you sail to it ? How would 
you reach the metropolis of your state? Point toward the City of 
Washington. In what direction is it from you? What states and ter- 
ritories, if any, would you cross in going to it by railroad? What 
large cities would you pass through on your way? On what waters. 
If any, can you sail to it ? How far are you from the Atlantic Coast?— 
from the Paclflc coast?— from the Gulf Coast? On what waters can you 
sail from St. Louis to New York ? — to Cincinnati ? How many rail- 
roads extend across the states to the Paciflo Coast ? 


Map Drawing.— To draw a map of the United States, use, as a common measure, a line representing 
the length of the State of Kansas, through its center, — iOO miles. For papers, this measure may be 
one or two inches in length ; for the blackboard, five or six inches. Proceed in the following order : — 

1. Construct an obtong, seven measures in length, by four and a half in width, dividing it into 
squares, and subdividing the side of each square into fourths, or distances representing 100 miles each. 
When the map is completed in ink, the construction lines, drawn lightly with the pencil, may be erased. 

2. Begin at the north-west comer, and draw the northern, eastern, southern, and western boundaries, 
according to the construction squares and their points of division. Draw the mountains, lakes, and 
rivers, and locate the capes, bays. etc.. marking the name of each. 

3. Mark the Itoundariee of the Ave great divisions, or sections of the United States; — 1, New England 
States ; 2, Middle Atlantic States ; 3, Southern States ; 4, North Central States ; 5, Paciflo States and 
Highland Division. These boundaries are shown on the maps above, by broad, shaded lines. 

4. Drair ttte bwtndnriee of your own atatf. {or territory) ; then, those of all the States and territories 
north, east, south, and west, marking their names, and locating the capital and largest city oi each. 

5. A proftlef or aectionf acroes the middle of the. Vnited States may be drawn from the shaden. diagram 
below the map. This shows the comparative elevation of the mountains, plateaus, plains, slopes, 
and valleys above the level of the sea. The names of these may be marked, as on the following page. 







is . ooy 


^ T^^mBO^ i ^»"g^gF: ^^ M MMTT^ ■ii.ifc ^^irr-^ pi i —^ i ii ■ -^ ^"^^ir ^ — 

•^- -,rVl3f5V ^**^*0 »» E A V>^ BASIN W*.-^'^^, T4S» •J***' ^ * .Spanish Pk. 

.^tr ^ BLACK HfLL8 

J- — '- — p": — - 

M I S S J 

i,6oa' * 





'VTFi-Bl'N "NOOT^ 

^T LOTfl-r>ON> 

U L F or ^-^^ ^v ''4.. 

St owns hi II Koute%yi«tAtt«aii3 

StAnilHrcl Time Divjij^oDB. h 

IsiuthortiuU Liuf^., * 

I '♦ llejwl iA ^ii.\lf^\ioa. f 

Course of Rtveri ^.> 5 

A S J- jjlJK.JL^^^ ^ j Mia.'4is.^i rri [ al a b a M a { G e u_K G 1 A } ftQtnm OABOLiiff A --— ___^ Atlantic ocean STjm^^\ 




1. The Republic, called the United States, is the middle 
division of North America, and is situated in the southern 
part of the North Temperate Zone.* 

2. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean, on the east, to 
the Pacific Ocean, on the west ; and from the Dominion of 
Canada, on the north, to the Republic of Mexico and the 
Gulf of Mexico, on the south.' 

8. The high mountains and plateaus of the United 
States are in the western part. There the mining of gold 
and silver, and the raising of cattle and sheep, constitute 
the leading occupations of the people. 

4. The plains, prairies, slopes, and lowlands, extending 
from the great highland region, to the Appalachian Mount- 
ains, are remarkable for their fertile soil, which produces 
immense crops of grain, cotton, fruits, and vegetables. 

6. The valleys of the Pacific Slope are noted for their 
mild, genial climate, and their great yield of wheat, fruits, 
and vegetables 

6. Coal and iron are mined extensively in various parts 
of the United States, especially in the region of the Appa- 
lachian Mountains. 

7. The variety and importance of the products and 
industries of this country are due, principally, to its vast 
extent of territory and its great diversity of soil, elevation, 
and climate. 

8. Its increase in population, wealth, and power is un- 
surpassed. A century ago, there were but thirteen states,^ 

1. Alaska^ a territory ocoupying the north-western part of North America, la 
pariJly in the Nort;h Temperate Zone, and pariily in the North Frigid Zone. It was 
purchased from Bussia, by the United States. 

2. The dlstaaoe across the United States, from east to west, through the 
center, is about 2,600 miles ; and from north to south, about 1,600 miles. The 
shortest dlstaTioe between the Dominion of Canaoa and the Gulf of Mexico ia 
about 800 miles. 

Standard Time.— The United States, exclusive of Alaska, extends over fifty- 
eight degrees of longitude. If there were fifty-eight railroad stations on a line 
extending westward from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast, and exactly one degree 
of longitude apart, whose clocks showed the local, or meridian time of each place, 
there would not be two clocks alike, in time. Each clock would be four minutes 
faster than the one west of it. If you should travel west, stopping at each of those 
stations, and should wish your watch to show the correct time, you would turn its 
hands backward, four minutes, at each station. The frequent changes caused 
great confusion to persons traveling east or west. "For convenience, the leading 
railroad companies have established four time-divisions for the United States, 
setting their clocks one hour apart, according to the hour meridians. (See docks on 
page 98 and note on page to.) For a considerable distance east and west of each of 
these hour meridians, and extending to leading raUroad centers, the clocks are set 
alike. The time shown by them is called Standard 7\me. All the clocks in a cer- 
tain time-division differ from those in the adjoining division, by one hour, precisely. 
{See pages Sk and S5.) The Eastern Time Division includes nearly all the Atlantic 
States from Maine to Georgia; the Central Division, nearly all the states in the 
MiBsiasippl Basin, Gulf Slope, and Lake Region ; the Mountain Division, Colorado 
and nearly all the territories ; and the Faciflo Division, the Pacific Coast Beglon. 
These fbur divisions are separated from one another by irregular red lines 
shown on the map; and it is at these, that travelers change the time of their 
watches one hour,— backward, if traveling west; forward, if traveling east. 

3. The original thirteen states were New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Bhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The first states admitted 
after them were Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, Missis- 
sippi, niinois, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri. 

4. A territory is under the control of the General Government of the United 
States, until it Is admitted into the Union, as a state, by Congress, 

containing less than 4,000,000 inhabitants. Now, there 
are forty-four states, six territories,* and the District of 
Columbia, with a total population of more than 68,000,000. 

9. The first colonies in the region now called the 
United States were established by the English, in Virginia, 
in 1607; by the Dutch, in New York, in 1613; and by 
the Pilgrims, in Massachusetts, in 1620. 

10. All were subject to Oreat Britain from 1664 to 
1776, when the thirteen colonies declared themselves free 
and independent states. 

11. Each state has its own constitution, laws, legislature, 
and governor, while all the states are united under the 
constitution and laws of the United States.* 

12. The General Government comprises three depart- 
ments; the legislative, the judicial, and the executive. It 
has control of all matters pertaining to commerce and 
treaties with foreign countries, the army and navy, the 
declaration of war, the post-oflBces, and the coining of 

18. The legislative power is vested in Congress, which 
consists of the Senate* and House of Representatives.' 
Congress holds its sessions in Washington.® 

14. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme 
Court,* which interprets the laws. 

15. The executive power is vested in the President, 
whose duty is to execute, or enforce, the laws. He is 
elected for four years.^ 

6. A state is entitled to be represented in the United States Senate by two 
senators ; and in the House of Representatives, by one member for every 173,901 
inhabitants. Every state is entitled to, at least, one member. A territory may 
send a delegate to the House, but he has no vote. There are, at present, 88 senators 
and 356 members of the House of Bepresentatives. The states which have the 
largest representation in the House are New York, thirty-four members; Penn- 
sylvania, thirty ; Illinois, twenty-two ; and Ohio, twenty-one. The states and terri- 
tories of the United States have legislatures consisting of two houses similar to 
those of Congress, elected by the people. They are divided into counties, which 
are, in most cases, subdivided into townships. The divisions of LonisianA oorre* 
spending to counties, are called parishes. The highest officials in a state are the 
Gtovemor, Ldeutenant-Govemor, Secretary of State, Attorney-General, and Superin- 
tendent of Schools. Villages are collections of houses and inhabitants. Cities 
have certain rights and privileges not possessed by villages. The aflCairs of a city 
are usually controlled by its Mayor and Aldermen, or Council-men. A ooanty 
seat is the town in which the olficial business of the county is conducted. 

6. The Senate of the United States is composed of two senators from each 
state, chosen by the state legislature, for six years. The Vice-President of the 
United States is the president of the Senate. 

7. Bepresentatives are elected by the people, for two years. 

8. The session of Congress begins on the first If onday in December, of each 
year. An act, when passed by both the Senate and House of Bepresentatives, is 
presented to the President for approvaL If he veto the measure— that is, return it 
without his approval — it can become a law only when passed again and by two 
thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives. 

9. The Supreme Court consists of a chief-justice and eight associate justices, 
all appointed, for life, by the President, with the consent of the Senate. 

10. The President and Vice-President are elected by a number of electors, 
called the Electoral College, chosen by the people of the states, or their legis- 
latures. Each state is entitled to a number of electors, equal to the whole num- 
ber of senators and representatives to which it is entitled in Congress. In case of 
a vacancy in the office of President, it shall be filled by the Vice-President. If 
there be no Vice-President, the law of 1888 vests the succession in those members 
of the Cabinet who are constitutionally eligible, in the following order :— Secretary 
of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of War, Attomey-Gteneral, Poetp 
master-Qeneral, Socrctaiy of the Navy, and Secretary of the Interior. 





400 Miles 

1. This easy method of map drawing is based on the 
principles of association, comparison, and uniformity. 

2. It employs a common measure for all states and 
countries. This is a rectangular frame, representing the 
State of Kansas, which is about 400 miles in length, and 
200 miles in width.^ 

8. The commxm measure, or construction frame, is 
divided into eight squares, each side of which represents 
the distance of 100 miles. 

4. To draw a map 
the size of the small 
model, construct a 
frame one inch in 
width, by two inches 
in length, and divide 
it into eight equal 
squares, by light, or 
dotted, guide lines. 

5. Mark the bound- 
aries of the state ; — the northern, — eastern, — southern, — and 
western ; — then the mountains, if any, with their names. 



400 Miles 

S,175 ft. I 

6. Draw the principal rivers, beginning at their 
sources, or at the parts shown on the model nearest their 
sources, and mark their courses by small arrows. Observe 
the parts of the guide lines which are crossed by the 
rivers. Write, or print, the names of the rivers. 

7. Mark the capital, and two or more of the other im 
portant cities, with their namea 

8. A profile (pro' ni), or sectional dia- 
gram, showing the slopes of the surface 
of the state, may be constructed under 
the map, by drawing, first, a straight 
line to represent the level of the sea; 
then, at the proper distances above it, 
the profile of the mountains, plains, 
slopes, and valleys.' 

9. The height of every thousand feet 
is indicated on the profile by a small 
mark, or dot.^ 

10. The length of the profile should be the same as 
that of the drawing. 

11. To draw a map on an enlarged scale, make the 
construction frame of the desired size, dividing it into 
eight equal squares, and proceed as directed.* 

12. A convenient size- 
for papers, or slates, is two 
by four inches; for the 
blackboard, two by four 
feet. Here, every line is 
just twice the length of 
that in the small model. 
Locate the mountains, 
rivers, cities, etc., in the 
squares and parts of 
squares, corresponding to 
those in the small model. 

18. An enlarged map 
of Maine may, in like 
manner, be drawn from 
the small model of that 
state, shown above.' 

Order for IhrauHng.— 
Construction frame, divided 
into eight eqtuil squares, — 
boundaries, — tn ountain s, — 
lakes, — rivers, — capes, — isl- 
ands,-^ays,-— capital, — other important cities,— profile. 

^ 1-^ ^ 


^- i 


Mara Hill 


1. These distanoee— 200 by 400 miles— eud the pupil in remembering all other 
distances with which they are compared throughout this book. 

2. The shaded profile represents a straight section across the state, from east 
to west. High peaks in other i>arts of the state appear in outline. 

3. The height of the western -part of Kansas above the sea-level, is a little 
more than 3,000 feet ; of the eastern part, about 1,000 feet. The surface, therefore, 
slopes toward the east, 

4. A scale may be 
mado by the pupils, 
from a slip of pajwr, 
or card -board, like 
that at the foot of this 



I I I 


page. This will aid them in drawing larger maps. A larger map of one's own 
state may be drawn, simply, by making the construction fr&me three to six inches 
in width, and twice that in length. Divide the frame into eight equal squares. 

5. Thoee states, territories, etc., which are larger than Kansas may be drawn 
by placing two or more construction frames together. Outside the boundariet, the 
vertical shading indicates adjacent land ; the horizontal shading, water ; the dotted 

shading, waters which 
belong to the state, or 

6. Flans for draw- 
ing the continents 
are given on page 











D E F C 

8wl« of SMOBiMft ThM. (1» MIlM per Bow) 
■ ■ Ind. Bail road fl.(lMar dlstaa 
SteamBhip Boat«s.fset| 
iMthermal Lines. 
a " Ueadoflfavigation. 
Cour— of Rival 

"Scut from Wa$kington 

corTRioMi, IMS. ar jamss MONTCITH. 



Location.— In what part of the United States are these states? What 
natural boundaries have they? What British province Is north?— east? 
What state west? Between what parallels of latitude are they? 

Outline, etc.— lifentlon three large bays, — three Islands, —a penin- 
sula, —the principal capes. Which Is the largrest state?— the smallest? 

Surface.— In what directions do the mountains extend? In what 
directions do the rivers flow? Which is the principal river? Where is 
its source?- its mouth? lifentlon the largrest lakes. 

Climate and Productions. — What is the mean temperature of the 
southern part of Connecticut (kdn irifri dW) ?— the northern part of Maine ? 
What minerals are found in these states ? Where is the lumber regrion ? 

Cities.- Which is the principal city of these states? Mention the 
largrest city in each. Which is the most eastern city of the United States ? 

Comnnerclal Geography.- Mention the principal sea-ports. Through 
what cities would you psLBa in groins ftK)m Boston to Portland?— fix)m 
Boston to New York? In what time division are these states? 


What rivers form parts of the boundary of 

In what directions does the surface slope ? Men- 
tion its highest mountains, — three large lakes. 
What rivers are their outlets? 

Where is Bangor?— Augusta?— Lewiston?— Bath? 
—Portland?— Biddeford? Which is the capital?— 
the largest city? 


What group of mountains in this state ? Which 
Is the highest ?— (Sw tteOonal view atfooi of nuff,) Which 
is the largest lake in the state ? What is its outlet ? 
What rivers form parts of the boundary? 

What is the capital ? In what part of the state 
are its largest cities? Where is Concord?— Dover? 
—Portsmouth ?— Manchester ?— Nashua ? 


What are its water boundaries ? From what 
state does the Connecticut Biver separate it? 

What mountains in this state? Where is Mt. 
Mansfield? To what are the rivers tributary? 

Mention the capital. Where is Burlington? — 
Rutland ?— Bennington ?— Brattleboro ? 



What water east of Massachusetts ? What bays 
indent its shores ? What islands belong to Massa- 
chusetts ? 

What mountains on the western boundary? 
What river crosses the state? What river flows 
through the north-eastern part of the state? 

Mention three cities on the Merrimao Biver. 
Where are Lowell, Lynn, Cambridge?— Boston?— 
Springfield? Which is the capital? 

1 SLAN D. 

Mention their water boundaries. 
Into what do the rivers flow? Mention three. 
Which are the capitals? Where is Providence?— 
Hartford ?— Newport ?— New Haven ?— Bridgeport ? 

Map Drawing.- Draw a map of New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Conneotiout, and Bhode Island, as di- 
rected on page 87. 


1, Position. — The New England States are situated in the 
north-eastern part of the United States, They are in the same 
latitude aa Montana (man ta'na) and Wyoming (wTO'^ming)- {See 
margins of maps.) Theu* area is about three fourths that of the 
State of Kansaa 

2. Surface.— The surface is, generally, rugged, the west- 
ern part being traversed * by irregular ranges of the Appa- 
lachian Mountains which terminate in isolated hills in the 
northern part. The White Mountains contain the highest 
peaks,* while the Green Mountains constitute the longest 
chain.^ The highest land in New England is Mt. Washing- 
ton. The Atlantic Plain is a strip of land between fifty 
and eighty miles in width, bordering on the coast. The 
coast is irregular, high, and rocky, and is lined with 
islands, inclosing fine harbors.' 

8. Lakes. — ^The surface is dotted with beautiful lakes, 
the principal of which are Moosehead, Sebago (ssba'go), 
and Range' ley Lakes, in Maine; Winnipiseogee (s§'k6), in 
New Hampshire ; and Lake Champlain (sh&m pianO, which 
is situated between Vermont and New York. 

4. Rivers. — Most of the rivers are short and swift, 
due to the nearness of the mountains to the sea. They 
furnish an abundance of water-power. The Connecticut, 
the largest river in this section, is noted for the beauty 
and fertility* of its valley. The Merrimac River, in New 

1. The White Mounthliui form a group of barren peaks which are oovered 
with snow most of the year. Some of the peaks are named for presidents of the 
United States. Another is named for Lafayette, a distingiilshed Frenchman. 
Another is named for Benjamin Franklin. Each of these peaks is more than a 
mile above the lerel of the sea. 

2. The rangee in Maosaohueetts are the Ta o6n'ic (or Ta ghan'ic) and Hoosio. 

8. The ooast, if measured in a straight line, is scarcely 700 miles long ; but if 
measured along its indentations, it exceeds 2,600 miles in length. These indenta- 
tions furnish many excellent harbors. 

« trdVened, cfoesed. fertU^ity^ froltfulness, produotiyenesa. 




Hampshire, furnishes water-power for more mills than any 
other river in the world. 

5. Soil.— The soil of the river-valleys is well cultivated, 
but elsewhere it is better adapted to grazing. 

6. Climate.— The winters in the interior are long and 
severe, but healthful. Near the coast, they are alter- 
nately cold and mild. Here fogs are frequent. The 
summers are short and often very warm. In the interior, 
the prevailing winds are land-winds, which are dry; but 
on the coast, they are east, or sea-winds, which are moist* 

7. Vegetation. — The northern part of this section is 
covered with dense forests of pine. Throughout the whole 
region, spruce, hemlock, hickory, sugar-maple,* oak, chest- 
nut,* elm, and birch trees are abundant. 

8. Edible ivild fruits thrive every-where. The huckle- 
berry,* blackberry, and winter-green are the most valuable. 
Wild grasses are also abundant. 

9. Animals. — The largest wild animals are the moose, 
caribou,* and black bear. The two former are now found 
only in the forests of Maine and Canada. The wolf, cata- 
mount,* badger, raccoon, beaver, and other animals valued 
for their fur were formerly common. The river and coast 
waters abound in fish. 

10. Minerals. — Granite, marble, slate, porcelain-clay,* 
soap-stone, and sandstone abound throughout these states, 
and are extensively quarried. Iron, coal, gold, silver, and 
zinc are mined in a few localities. 

11. Industries,— Probably no other part of the world 
can boast of so great a variety of industries as the New 
England States. 

12. Agricultv/re is confined chiefly to dairying,* and 
the production of fruit and garden vegetables. In many 
localities, the raising of stock is an important source of 
profit. Some attention is given to grain farming, but 
most of the breadstuff s* consumed are brought from the 
Mississippi Valley. 

18. Manufacturing is the industry to which the nat- 
ural resources of the country and the extra»ordinary* 
intelligence of the people are best adapted. The various 
manufactures represent every stage of the conversion* 
of raw* material into finished articles. More than one 

half of the cotton and woolen goods made in the United 
States is produced in this section. 

14. Commerce^ both domestic* and foreign,* \b a result 
of the vast manufacturing industries. Thousands of ves- 
sels are engaged in importing raw materials and exporting 
manufactured articles. There is direct railway connection 
with all parts of the United States, Canada, and the prin- 
cipal cities of Mexico. 

15. The fisheries^ likewise, form an important source of 
wealth. Immense quantities of cod, mackerel, and herring 
are cured, packed, and distributed throughout the United 
States.'' During many years, the whale-fisheries of this 
section were very important, surpassing all the others of 
the world in the value of their products.® 

16. People. — The people of the New England States 
are noted for their education, refinement, and happy home- 
life. Many are descendants of early settlers who came 
from England. Every state has schools, academies, and 
colleges. Public libraries are found in all the important 
towns. People have emigrated from this section, and, in 
large numbers, settled in distant states and territories, 
where they have been very active in establishing schools, 
business enterprises, etc. 

17. Maine, the Pine-Tree State, is the largest New* 
England State and the most easterly of the United States. 
In size, it is about equal to the area of the five other 
states of this section. 

18. The bold, rocky coast contains a large number of 
excellent harbors. The lakes and bays of Maine cover 
nearly one tenth of its area. The northern portion is 
covered with dense forests of pine. Its highest land Ls 
Mt. Katahdin (kata'din). 

19. The principal industries are manufacturing, lum- 
bering,* stock-raising, and ship-building. Cod and mackerel 
fisheries are carried on extensively along the coast The 
cutting and shipment of ice is also an important industry 
on the lakes and rivers. 

20. Augusta, the capital, is at the head of navigation 
on the Ken ne bee' River. 

21. Portland, the metropolis, has an extensive foreign 
and inland commerce. During the winter, it is a terminus* 
of the Canadian transatlantic steamship lines. {For other 
important cities, see note 10.) 

4. The tempefatore in winter frequently slnkB to - iO" F. (forty degrees below 
zero). In 1884-'5, the Signal Service Observatory on Mt. Washington, recorded a 
temperature of — 50' F., and a wind velocity of 120 miles an hour. 

5. The sugaz^maple is valuable for the sugar contained in Its sap. The latter 
is obtained by tapping the tree early In the spring. The sap is boiled down 'to a 
thick sirupf then clarified and crystallized. The gum exuding from the spruce- 
tree is collected and made into chewing-gum. 

6. The chestnut is valuable, mainly, for Its timber, which is used as an orna- 
mental cabinet wood. The oak of New England, on accoimt of its strength, is 
superior to that found elsewhere. It is used, chiefly, for carriage building. 

7. Ck>d-flflh are cured by packing dry. In seJt. Mackerel are usually preserved 
in salt. Herring are either smoked, or packed in oil. Sflffdines (gdr'deent)^ also, are 
caught off the coast of Maine. Men b&'den, or moss-bunkers, furnish oil, and are also 
used to fertilize the soil. Salmon, pickerel, and trout are numerous in the streams. 

Ck>d-fl8heriee are carried on along the coast of Newfoundland. 
8. Whale-flshing declined in importance after the introduction of kerosene (ktr* 
o ««»), or coal-oil. Within a few years, there has been a marked revival of this indus- 
try. The steam whaler has taken the place of the sailing vessel ; and the bomb 
lance, which is shot from a small cannon on shipboard, has supplanted the harpoon. 
0. The trees are cut in winter, dragged by teams over the snow to the streams, 
which, when the ice melts in the spring, float the logs down to the mills. 
♦ Mdtfle bir ly, whor'tle berry. ex troof'dX iki ry, imcommon ; rare. 

fwxm and (At^i bou^ animals of the deer kind. «onfMK«i(m, changing; turning. 
p^r'ce Udn, a fine kind of earthenware. 
bread' ttifff^^ bread-corn ; meal ; flour. 
dOfnUa^tie^ pertedning to one*s home or country. 
caffamomnt^ an animal of the cat kind, known also as the panther, puma, and cou'gar. 
dOVry Img^ the business of making butter and cheese, and of supplying milk. 

ratff, unpreixired; unfinished. 
fbf'dgn (for' in), not of one^s country. 
tm'nA nd«, end ; boundary. 




22. New Hampshire, the Granite State, is often called 
the Switzerland of America, on account of the beautiful 
scenery of its l^es and mountains. The 
northern part is rugged and covered with 
forests of pine ; in the central part 
is its lake region. The coast, 
which is eighteen miles 
in length, is sandy and ""V^ ^■ 
covered with salt marshes. "^ 
The highest land 
in New England 
is in this state. 


28. The leading indicstry is manufactmring. The state 
ranks among the first in the manufacture of cotton and 
woolen goods. Carriage timber is exported to all parts of 
the states. Agriculture is confined chiefly to the pro- 
duction of hay and garden vegetables. New Hampshire 
contains extensive quarries of granite and mica.* 

24. Concord (k6ok'urd), the capital, is celebrated for 
the manufacture of wagons and stage-coaches. 

25. Man' ches ter, the largest city, is noted for the 

10. other important Cities.- Ijr 'blAnrE.—Lewistm and Autum contain cotton 
and other factories. Ban' gOr is one of the largest lumber markets in the world. 
Bktdtford is an important place. 

11. Ih Kbw Hampshisb,— JTocA'ii a is a railway and manufactoiring center. Dover 
contains extensive cotton and woolen factories. BMigmouiA (p5rts'math) is the only 
sea-port in the state. 

12. Iir YMBMoin^— Rutland is the most populous town in the state. It is a 
railway and manufG.:;turing center. St. Mbana (sant al'banz) is the center of a 
fine agricnltural region. There are but two incorporated cities in the state, Bur- 
lington and Vergennes (virjinz'). 

13. In 'hlAa&AcmjsETT^— Cam' bridge is one of the oldest cities in the state, having 
been settled in 1630. It is the seat of Harvard University. FaU SHfer^ near the 
head of Narragansett Bay, is the foremost city in the United States in the extent 
of its cotton manufactures. Lt^nn and neighboring towns are noted for the manu- 
facture of shoes. SfiHna/Utd is the seat of the United States Arsenal. Sakm is a 
sea-port, and next to Plymouth, the oldest town in the state. Jfew Bei^brd has long 
been a whaling-port. SomervUle and Holyoke are imi>ortant placet. 

14. Ik Cow^cmofrt^— Bridgeport is a sea-port on Lonj; Island Sound. Waterbvry 
contains the largest brass foundries in the United States. Merid*n is an important 
manufacturing city. 

16. Iir Rhode Island,— Aitr tue^et and WooneockH (wdbn sdk'et) are both engaged 
in manufactures. 

16. Celebrated sammer resorts.— Newix>rt, the White Mountains, Lake Win- 
nipiseogee and oiher lakes, Ber'j3liire Hills, Mt. Desert, Rye Beach, Nantucket, 
Martha*s Vineyard, and the Isles of Shoals. Nearly every town, village, and lake 
In New ie»gi^~i attnMSts iwimmer vialtoa. 

manufacture of cotton goods and for the building of 
steam fire-enginea" 

26. Vermont, the Green Mountain State, received its 
name from the mountains which extend through it from 
north to south. It is the only New England State having 
no sea-coast. Its highest land is Mt. Mansfield. 

27. The industries are the raising of stock, dairying, 
and wool-growing. In the production of maple sugar, it 
excels every other state in the Union. 

28. Montpelier (mOntp6Ml§r) is the capital 

29. Btirlington, the principal city, is a commercial 
center. Its commerce with Canada, by way of Lake 
Ohamplain, is important^ 

30. Massachusetts, the Bay State, is the wealthiest 
state of this section, and, after Rhode Island, the most 
populous. The western part is rugged and crossed by low 
ranges of mountains. The "Berkshire Hills" are celebrated 
for beautiful scenery and invigorating air. 

81. In proportion to its population, Massachusetts is 
the foremost state in the value and extent of its manu- 
factures. It excels every other state in the Union in the 
value of its cotton and woolen manufactures, and of its 
fisheries. More than one half the boots and shoes used 
in this country are made here. In commercial interests, 
Massachusetts is second only to New York. 

82. Boston, the capital, is famous for its commerce, its 
schools, and its institutions for the study of literature, 
science, and art^ It is the largest boot, shoe, and leather 
market in the world. Its suburbs, and its park, called the 
Common, are remarkable for their beauty. 

83. Lowell (lo'ei) is one of the most important manu- 
facturing cities in the Union. Its cotton-mills contain 
more than one million spindles. 

34. Worcester (wc5bs'ter) is noted for its manufactures 
and its excellent institutions of learning. *• 

17. "DlMtingaUbBd Men.— Bom in Matm^ Henry Wadsworth lioni^eDow, poet : 
in New Haa^ttkire^ Daniel Webster and Horace Greeley, statesmen ; Franklin Pieroe, 
president ; John Stark, soldier ; and Joseph £. Worcester, author of dictionary : in 
Vermont^ John O. ScuLe, poet ; Chester A. Arthur, president ; and Stephen A. Douglas, 
statesman: in Mamaekueette^ John Adams and John Quincy Adams, presidents: 
Benjamin Franklin, statesnum; Balph Waldo Emerson, William Collen Bryant, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Bnasell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and John 
Greenleaf Whittier, poets and prose writers; George Bancroft, William S. Pres- 
cott, and John Lothrop Motley, historians; and Charles Simmer, statesman : in 
ConnMUmi^ Noah Webster, author of dictionary ; and Fitz-Greene Halleck, ix>et. 

18. Sstorioal Notes.— Captain John Smith visited the coast of MasaaclmaettB 
in 1614, and named the region New England. Plymouth was settled by tlie Pil- 
grims, a people celebrated for their intelligence, courage, and purity of cbaracter. 
Salem was f oxmded by Puritans, who formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 
1630, John Winthrop, with 1,500 followers, founded Boston, Cambridge, and other 
settlements near the coast. 

19. The FUgrime landed at Plymouth on the 21st of December, 1620, and there 
made the first English colony in New England. In Pilgrim Hall may be aeen 
many relics of the first settlers. 

20. The coaet </ Maine had been explored by Bartholomew Gosnold before the 
Pilgrims came to Massachusetts, and small, settlements of fishermen were made. 
Settlements were made in New Hampshire soon after the landing of the Pilgrims, 
and Governor Wentworth claimed the territory as far west as Lake Champlain. 

* manky a tract of land \isually covexed m^'enoe^ comidete knowledge. 

with water; a swamp Ateratitrt^ writings of good authors, 

stf^co, olaar, gUsB-liko mineraL ort^ the applicaUon of knowieo^^e. 



85. Connecticut has an undulating ♦ surface. The val- 
leys of the Connecticut, the Thames (thamz), and Housa- 
tonic (hc5&sa tan'ic) rivers are broad and fertile. 

36. The state is noted for the manufactiu*e of cotton 
and woolen goods. Nearly all the clocks used in this 
country are made here. Hardware, cutlery, rubber and 
silk goods, plated ware, and sewing-machines, are among 
its numerous and important maniifactures. 

37. Hartford, on the Connecticut River, is the capital. 

38. New Haven, the largest city, is the chief sea-port, 
and the commercial center of the state. Yale College,* 
in this city, is one of the oldest and largest universities* 
in the Union. {For other important cities, see note H,) 

39. Rhode Island is the smallest and most densely 
populated state in the Union. Its most important indus- 
try is the manufacture of cotton anfl woolen goods. 

40. The Legislature meets at Newport in the spring, 
and at Providence in the winter. 

41. Providence, one of the capitals of Rhode Island, is 
a manufacturing city and sea-port. 

42. Newport, the other capital, is a famous watering- 
place* and summer resort. {For other cities^ see note 15,) 


Each pupil may "write a letter about the New England States, as a 
group, mentioning the following topics; or, if the teacher prefer, the 
letter nnay be -written about any of these states. 

l*0SIT10Nr-l'***itude of fnoat northern and tnost aoutl^em points— limffitude of 
most eastern and most western points ^situation as part of the United 
States, and as compared %cith distant coutUries and states, 

STZKr-Exte^it from $iorth to south and from east to west, in miies and rail- 
road tinte {use scales), 

SOIL, — Wlufre adapted to agriculture and to y raxing. 

CLIMAT£,— Where moist— dry— coltU-atul liealthfUl, 

PJtOD UCTS, — Agricultural— ^manufactured — mit^rat — tt lul inarine, 

J XnUSTRIES^ Describe the principal industriee. 

KATURAIj 8CEN£RY^Mou»Uains— lakes— and liealtJi resorts. 

UISTORTf—When and by whom sailed— principal leading events, 

MSTINO UISHED rERSOXSf—Statesmefi— presidents— soldiers— inventors, ete. 



The arrow thow the directkm in which the rivers flow. 8. = South ; 8. W. = SoiUh-ivett, etc. 

21. TIU history qf the JBngHih colonisti, in their relations with the Indians, was, 
from the very first, marked by fighting and bloodshed. The colonists did not know 
how to treat them in a manner to make them friendly. They could not see that 
it was imix)fl8ible for an Indian to understand the laws which govern people living 
in civilized countries. The Indians saw with alarm, that they could no longer 
live by hunting where the colonists had made their homes. Therefore, both races 
of people began to be more and more hostile to each other. Whole settlements of 
colonists were massacred by Indians, and bands of Indians were butchered, in 
retaliation. Finally, Philip, an Indian chief of great courage and ability, succeeded 
in uniting several tribes for the purpose of exterminating the English. A savage 
war followed, in which the Indians were defeated. Philip was hunted down by 
the settlers, and finally shot by one of his treacherous followers. This war ended 
the Indian troubles in the New England colonies. 

22. New Bampehire was originally a tract of land granted to Ferdinand Gtorges 
and Captain John Mason. Settlements were made at Portsmouth and Dover, in 
1023. Subsequently, it became a royal province and so continued xmtil the Bevo- 
lution. New Hampshire was the first colony to declare her independence. 

23. Btfore the landing qf the PUgrimi and Puritans^ the Dutch had settled New 
York and explored the coast of Dong Island Sound, which they claimed as their 
territory. Soon, however, explorers from Plymouth selected a place on the Con- 
necticut Biver (which means long river) for a trading-poet, and, in 1633, parties 
traveled west from the Massachusetts Colony and settled at Windsor {win^ser\ near 
wb«r« the Dutch had founded Hartford. The following two years brought a great 

many people from Massachusetts to settle in the fertile fields along the river banks, 
and so a new state was formed. These i>eople were more liberal in their views 
than the other Puritans, and they lived more peaceably. 

24. Moet qf the earlier ooloniee had charters or written agreements with the King 
of England, by which they held the lands they had settled. Under these charters, 
the people were allowed to make their own laws and to govern themselves as they 
pleased. Charles I. had given the colonies great liberty in this respect, but 
James IX was a different kind of king. He would not x>ermit any government 
that he, himself, did not control. So James ordered the colonists to give up their 
charters, and sent a despicable tyrant, named Andros, to govern them. The Coun- 
cil of Connecticut met one evening at Hartford to deliver the charter to Andros, 
for he had demanded it. A long and exciting debate ensued. Suddenly the lights 
went out, and when they were again lighted, the charter had disappeared. A 
plucky member had carried it off and hidden it, so the story goes, in an oak-tree. 
As long as the tree stood. It bore the name of the Charter Oak. 

25. Vermont was first visited by Champlain, a French soldier, after whom tho 
largest lake was named. In 1724, nearly a century afterward, a settlement was 
made at Fort Dummer, near the present site of Brattleboro\ 

*un'daid ting, in the form of waves ; rolling. 
cdl'lege, an institution where students acquire knowledge. 
anlMKfify, an assemblage of colleges in one place, where all branohes of 

knowledge are taught. 
watering-plaoe, a place where people resort for the use of water, as bathing, etc. 






Location. — In what part of the United States are these three states? 
What section of the United States Is north-east ? What natural 
boundary Is south-east?— north-west? What British province north?— 
north-west? What states on the south?— on the west? 

Latitude and Longitude.— On what parallel of latitude' is the 
northern boundary of New York? What parallel crosses the southern 
part of New Jersey? Over how many de£n*ees of latitude do these 
three states extend? What is the distance, in miles, between the north- 
ern boundary of New York and the southern point of New Jersey? 
What country in Euroi>e is in the same latitude as these states? (See 
marffin qf map.) What territories of the United States are in the same 
latitude as these states? What meridian touches the eastern coast of 
New Jersey? What meridian passes through the city of Pittsburgh? 
How many deg^rees of longitude are between New York City and Pitts- 
burgh? How many minutes of time are equivalent to one degree? 
What, therefore, is the difference in actual, or solar, time between New 
York and Pittsburgh? Is it earlier, or later, in New York than in 
Pittsburgh ? On which does the sun shine first, every morning ? 

Surface.— What mountain ranges are in these states? In what di- 
rection do they extend V In what directions does the land slope ? What 
lakes are on the boundary of two of these states ? What river is their 
outlet? Mention the most important rivers in these states. 

Climate and Products.— What is the mean temperature of north- 
em New York ? (See brown figures in yeUoto margin.) Of southern Pennsylvania ? 
What is the temperature of corresi)onding latitudes in Italy ? (See red 
margin.) What causes this difference? What are the principal products 
of New York? — of Pennsylvania? — of New Jersey? (See chart in upper earner.) 
Are cotton and sugar-cane cultivated in these states? Why? 

Cities. — Which is the largest city in New York ?— in Pennsylvania ?— 
in New Jersey? Which is the most important of these? Mention the 
capitals of these states. 

Commercial Geography.— How many hours would it take you to 
go from New York to Albany ? — (See ecale qf railroad time.) — to Buffalo?— 
to Philadelphia ? — to Washington? Through what cities would you 
pass in going from New York to Washington? What railroad center 
in the western part of Pennsylvania? How far is It, in miles, from 
New Y»rk to Philadelphia? — to Washington ? — to Pittsburgh? How 
could a i)erson go from New York to Philadelphia, by steam-boat? 
How long would it take ? (See eeale qf eteamrsMp time.) Which is the chief 
mining state?— the leading commercial state? 

Standard Time. — In what division of standard time are these 
states? In what part of these states is the western boundary of this 
division ? (See lines qf red crosses.) What cities near this boundary ? In 
traveling from New York or Philadelphia, what change of time would 
you find west of Pittsburgh ? To be like the standard time, would you 
turn the hands of your watch forward, or backward, and how much, 
on leaving Pittsburgh on your way west? 

Between what parallels of latitude Is New York? Where would the 
sun rise the earlier, at New York City, or Buffalo? At Pittsburgh, or 


What are its water boundaries? What do they separate from New 
York? What natural curiosity on the western boundary? 

What states bound New York on the east? What two states form 
Its southern boundary? In what direction from New York Is the Do- 
minion of Canada? 

What sea-coast has New York? What two Islands In the south- 
eastern part of New York ? By what waters Is Iiong Island surrounded ? 
How long is It ? (See ma^ of Long Island^ in south-west comer.) 

In what part of the state Is the highest land? What mountains In 
the north-eastern part of the state? What other mountains in the 
state? Mention the highest peak. Where Is It? 

What lake on the north-eastern boundary oi the state? What lake 
south of that lake? In what direction does the water of these lakes 
flow ? What lakes In the central part of the state ? Which is the 
largest? What river Is their outlet? What lake in the south-western 
part of the state? 

Which is the largest river? How long is it? Where does it rise? 
Into what does it flow? How far is it navigable for steam-boats? 
Mention Its most Important branch. What rivers flow Into Lake 
Ontario ?— Into the St. Lawrence River?— Into Lake Champlaln (shim ptOn^f 
What other large rivers have their sources In this state? 

What canal connects the Hudson River and the Great Lakes? By 
what route can a boat, loaded with lumber, leave Toronto and reach 
New York City without going to sea? What canal connects the Hudson 
and Delaware (del^awdr) rivers? — Lake Erie with Lake Ontario? 

l/H) miles. 

Where is salt found ? What part of the state is celebrated for grain ? 
—dairy products?— ftuit ?— vegetables ?—manuf!ftcture8 ? Which is the 
higher, Lake Erie, or Lake Ontario ? (See diagram under the me^t.) 

What city is the metropolis of New York ? Locate It. What advan- 
tages has New York, In location, over Philadelphia ? What is necessary 
to make a city a commercial center? Which of these advantages has 
New York ? Name two other cities that are commercial centers. What 
city is the center of the lumber trade ? Through what cities would you 
pass in going trom New York City to Montreal ? Where Is Buffalo ? 
Through what cities would you pass in going from New York to Buffalo ? 
What cities are in the southern part of this state? — on the west bank 
of the Hudson River? What celebrated springs In this state? What 
large city in the western part of Long Island ? What water separates 
It from New York City? What other city on this island? 

Map Drawing. — To draw a map of New York, flrst draw an oblong 
figure, four inches long, and two 
Inches wide, dividing it into eight 
squares, and adding two squares In 
the south-east; and then proceed, 
as directed on page 87. Draw the 
northern boundary of New York, 
from the St. Lawrence River to 
Lake Champlaln, the eastern bound- 
ary, to New York City, and complete 
Long and Staten Islands ; then the 
southern boundary to Lake Erie, 
the western, the north-western. 
Locate the principal mountains, 
l£ikes, rivers, and cities. What is 
the extent of New York from east 
to west? 


What lake is the north-western 
boundary of this state ? In what direction would you go from Harris- 
burg to New York ? — to Washington ? Between what meridians is 
this state? 

In what direction do Its mountains extend ? For what are they cele- 

Name the principal river of the state. Where Is Its source ? Where 
Is Its mouth? About how far Is It navigable? On which side of the 
river are the most branches ? Why ? Name the principal branches. 
What large river In the west is formed by the uniting of two rivers V 
Name them. Where do they rise ? In what directions do they flow ? 
How far is each navigable? What branch of the Delaware River Is in 
this state ? 

In what part of this state is coal obtained?— Iron? — petroleum ? — 
lumber? What is the use of coal?— of iron? What natural production 
is found In the north-western part of the state? 

What two cities are In the north-eastern part of the state? What 
two in the western? Which is called the ** Smoky City"? Why? (See 
picture on next page.) Which is the most Important city ? In going from It 
to Pittsburgh, through what cities would you pass? In what part of 
the state Is Allentown ?— Bradford?— Oil City?— Wllllamsport?— Norris- 
to wn ? — York ? — Reading ? — Lancas te r ? 

Map Drawing. —First draw an oblong flgure, four by two Inches, 
and divide It Into eight equal 


squares; then, beginning at Lake 
Erie, draw a map of Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, as directed on 
page 87, locating the principal 
mountains, rivers, capes, and cities. 
What Is the length of Pennsyl- 
vania ? 


What natural division of land 
Is New Jersey? Name Its water 
boundaries. What state west ? — 
north ? What Is the extreme length 

of New Jersey ?— Its wUth ? What cape on Its eastern coast ?— on its south- 
em coast ? What kind of a coast has New Jersey ? (See picture on next page.) 

In what part of the state is the highest land? In what direction 
does It slope? What mountains are partly in this state and partly in 
New York ? In what part of New Jersey is the climate warmer than 
In New York? Why? 

Where are grain and vegetables raised? What metal Is mined in 
the state? In what part of the state? 

What city In New Jersey, opposite Philadelphia? What celebrated wa- 
tering-places are on the sea-shore ? Where is Long Branch ?— Sandy Hook? 



1. Position. — The Middle Atlantic States are 
situated between the New England and the 
Southern States, and have an area equal to 
about two and a half times that of Kansas. In 

latitude, they correspond with Italy and Greece. 

(See margin of maps.) 

2. Surface, — ^This section comprises portions of the 
Atlantic Slope, the St. Lawrence Basiuj and the 
Mississippi Basin. 

3. The Atlantic Slope is^ commercially, the most 
important part of the United States. 

4. TTie St, Lawrence Bamn is rt.'niarkable for the fer- 
tility of its soil and the l>eauty of itii scenery. It is con- 
nected with the Atlantic Slope by the Mohawk Valley. 

5. That portion of the Mississippi liamn which is 
included in this section, is one of tho richest coal and iron 
regions in the world. 

6. TJie Appalachian System of Mountains consists of 
parallel ranges, the highest of which is the Alleghany 
range. The Adirondack group of mountains, whose highest 
peak is Mount Mnrcy^ is con" prised in this system. 

Lakes and Rivers. — The lakes, which are nearly all m 

New York, or on its boundaries^ are remarkable for their pict- 
uresque beauty. Some of the largest rivers of these states 
flow partly through passes, gorges, or narrow valleys, into 
the ocean, Tho princiijol of these are the Susquehanna^ the 
James, the Potomac, the Hudson, and the Delaware.^ 

1. It it romwkahle that tlie largest riverB flowing into tlue Atlantic have their icmroee 
; of the Appolachiaii UisWamis, The Hndeon River is one of the tnoet ImportHiit routes 



8. Soil. — These states contain nearly every variety of 
soil. East of the mountains, it is generally sandy, with 
swamps near the coast, while in the valleys between the 
mountains and on the slopes w«st of them, it is fertile 
and well cultivated. 

9. Climate. — The climate, which is much warmer in 
the southern part of this section than in the northern, 
has a mean annual temperature about ten degrees cooler 
than that of Italy and Greece, in corresponding latitudes. 
Among the mountains, the cold in winter is intense.^ The 
rain-fall, which is abundant, increases toward the south. 

10. The winds are variable; and while they are moist 
on the coast, they are dry and healthful on the highlands 
of the interior. The storms of the northern part mostly 
originate in the western section of the United States, while 
those of the southern part are often cyclones proceeding 
from the Gulf Stream or the Caribbean Sea.' 

11. Vegetation. — ^No other part of the North Temper- 
ate Zone surpasses this section in the variety of its trees 
and plants. Extensive forests of pine cover the highlands ; 
the cypress, ju'niper, and cedar ♦ abound in the swamps; 
and the maple, hickory, oak, and black-walnut, in the river 
valleys. Grains, grass, fruits, tobacco, and garden vegetables 
are extensively produced. 

12. Minerals. — This section yields more than one half 
the coal,* much of the iron, and about two thirds of the 
petroleum* obtained in the United States. 

13. Industries.— The Atlantic Slope is noted for its com- 
merce and manufactures ; the Basin of the St. Lawrence, 
for agriculture and dairying; the mountain region, for 
mining and lumbering ; and the coast, for fisheries. 

14. Nearly three fourths of \he foreign commerce of 
the United States is carried on here, and the mxx/aufactwres 
of these states are nearly equal in value to those of all 
the other states combined. 

15. Steamrship lines connect this section with every 
important sea-port in the world ; and railways, with every 
large city in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 

16. People.— The people of the northern half of this 
group of states are engaged chiefly in manuf6W5turing, 

while those of the southern half are more extensively 
engaged in agriculture 

17. New York excels every other state in the Union 
in population, manufactures, commerce, and wealth ; it is, 
therefore, called the Empire State. Its extent from east 
to west is about the same as that of Kansas. 

18. Albany is the capital. It contains one of the finest 
capitol buildings in the United States. 

1 9. New York is the largest city on the Western Conti- 
nent, and the fourth city in population in the world. It 
has a magnificent harbor, and excels* every other city in 
the United States in commerce and manufacturing. 

20. Brooklyn^ the fourth city in the United States, con- 
tains extensive manufactories and warehouses, a navy- 
yard,* and the residences of many business men of New 
York, with which city it is connected by the largest sus- 
pension-bridge in the world. 

21. Buffalo is an important city on Lake Erie, and the 
western terminus of the Erie CanaL Its trade in grain, 
lumber, live-stock,* coal, and iron is immense.* 

22. Pennsylvania, called the Keystone State, is a little 
more than half the size of Kansas. Its surface is mount- 
ainous- It surpasses every other state in iron manufact- 
m:es, and supplies nearly all the anthracite coal in the 
United States. Its manufactures are very extensive. 

28. Sarrisburg, the capital, has important flour and 
cotton mills, car factories, and steel works. 

24. Philadelphia, one of the largest cities in the United 
States, is noted for its great area, its manufactures, its 
public buildings, and its extensive parka 

25. Pittshu/rgh and Allegheny , situated in the center of 
a great mining region, contain the most extensive iron 
and steel works in the United States.'' 

26. New Jersey is less than one tenth the size of 
Kan86U3. It is noted for its manufactures and garden 
products, and as a great highway of trade and travel. 

2 7. Trenton, the capital, is famous for the manufacture 
of pottery and crockery. 

28. Newark and Jersey City are the largest cities in the 
state. Their manufactures include iron, leather,* and jewelry .8 

of transportation in the United States. It is connected by canals with IiUce Srie, 
Lake Ontario, Lake Champlain, and the Delaware Biver. 

2. The temperature is, at times, so low that the mercury in the thermometer 
freezes. (Mercury freezes at — 37.0* F.) 

3. The Btorms of the United States originate in the Oulf of Mexico, Oarfbbean 
Sea, Bocky Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. Those from the Rocky Mountains 
are usually the severest. {Bee New Phfiiaa Geography^ p. 108,) 

4. Two kinde of coal are produced, an'thra cite or hard coal, which is found 
in the eastern part of Pennsylvania, and bitft'minotis or soft coal, which is found 
in the western part The latter bums with a bright flame ; the former, without it. 

6. Petroleum, or mineral oil, is thought to be like coal, of vegetable origin. 
Wells are bored by means of steel drills driven by powerful machinery, often to 
great depths before the oil reservoir is tapped. Sometimes the pressure of gab 
within the oil reservoir forces the petroleum to the surface, causing the wells 
to overflow. In others, the petroleum is pumped to the surface. To incrosse 
the supply, a torpedo of nitro-glyc^erine is exploded at the bottom of the well. 
In many luBtanoeB, reservoirs of highly combustible gas are struck in forcing 
oil weDfl. When ignited this gas sends a lurid flame into the air, MghHrig the 

coimtiy for many miles around. These natural reeervoirs of gas are often used to 
supply the towns near them with light and fuel. The use of natural gas by the 
iron, steel, and other mills in and around Pittsburgh, will save about 40,000,000 
tons of ooal, annually. 

6. Other Important Cities.— Ik Nxw YoBK,—Soehetter is situated at the falls of 
the Genesee Biver. TVvy is at the head of navigation on the Hudson. Syr' aam is 
noted for salt wells. Hiai, Blnghamtan^ Tonken^ Ettnira^ Long Mand CUy, and Auburn. 

7. Jx Pknvbtxvakia,— &ran<on is the center of the anthracite coal region, and 
contains iron, steel, and roUing-mills. Beading (rM' ing) is a manufacturing city 
and railway center. Brie is the principal lake-port in the state. 

8. In Nkw jKaBEY^—FtEtenon is situated near the falls of the Passaic. It is cele- 
brated for its cotton-mills, locomotive works, and the most extensive silk-mills in 
the United States, m l& ken, Camden, and Slitabeih are all noted for manufactures. 

• ey'prtet, Ju'niper, and ee'dar are evergreen trees, m^fife, Mdbory, oak, etc., are 
said to be de cid' u ous, because their leaves fall in the autumn. 

« orf', to surpass or go beyond, navy-yard, a ship-yard in which war vessels are 
built, repaired, etc. Une-etoek, animals raised on a farm, or a ranch. 

Udih'er, the skin of an animal, dressed and prepared f^r use. 










29, Delaware is, with one exception, the smallest state 
in the Union, being about one fortieth the area of Kansaja. 
Its chief industries are manufacturing, daining, and the raising ut 
fruits and vegetables. It yields, also, kaolin and marl.* 

SO. Ik>vef\ near the center of the state, is the capital. 

31* Wilmington, the chief city and sea-port of Delaware, is noted 
for its extensive establishments for the building of cars and iron 
vessels. Its manufactures include leather, carriages, and gunpowder. 

32, Maryland produces grain, fruit, and tobacco. Its mountains, which are in 
the west, contain coal and iron, Chesapeake Bay, which extends far inland, dividing 
the state into two parts, furnishes great facilities for commerce ; its oystar fisheries 
are celebrated,^ 

33. Annnpolis, the capital, is situated on the Severn River, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay. It contains the United States Naval Academy and the Naval Observatory. 

84. Baltimore^ the largest city between Pennsylvania and the Gulf of Mexico, is the eastern 
railways. It exports large quantities of grain, cotton, tobacco, and canned fruit, vegetables, and 

terminus of important 

1. The Bhozes and inlets of Chesapeake Bay are the resorts of immenae flocks who surveyed and established it in 1767. This boundary had loner been the subject 

of water-fowL The peninsula formed by Chesapeake and Delaware bajrs is called of dispate, riot, and bloodshed, owiner to the overlapping claims made by tlie two 

the Eastern Peninsula. ICaaon and Dixon's laine, the present boondary between colonies. Delawftra was named for Lord De la Warr ; Maryland, for Queen 

Karyland and Pemuvylvania, was named for two distinguished mathematicians Henrietta Maria ; and Vizsiiiia, for Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen of England. 



86. The District of Columbia belongs to the general 
government, and is under the control of Congress.* It has 
no representation in Congress, and the residents can not 
vote for presidential electora* 

86. Washington^ the capital of the United States, is 
situated in the District of Columbia. Its massive public 
buildings, its fine, broad avenues, and the many distin- 
guished men from every nation in the world, as well as 
from every state and territory in the United States, who 
may be seen here, make this a city of peculiar interest. 
This city contains the capitol* in which Congress meets;* 
also, the official residence of the president, and the 
Supreme Court of the United States.* 

87. Virginia, which is about half the size of Kansas, 
has its southern boundary midway between the northern 
extremity of Maine and the southern point of Florida. 

88. T?ie lowlands of the Atlantic Slope are in the East, 
and the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains in the 

89. A small peninsula, forming part of the state, is 
detached from it by Chesapeake Bay. It is known as the 
Eastern Shore. 

40. The products of the state include grain, tobacco, 
coal, iron, and marble. 

41. Among its edv^cational institutions, the University 

of Virginia stands first. It was founded by Thomas Jef- 
ferson, third President of the United States. 

42. Seven presidents of the United States were bom 
in Virginia.* 

48. Richmond^ on the James River, is the capital and 
chief city. It is celebrated for its tobacco trade. 

44. Norfolk has a fine harbor, at the entrance to 
which is Fort Monroe. 

45. West Virginia, which has an area of about one 
third that of Kansas, has no sea-coast ; most of the state 
is included in the Mississippi Basin. Its surface is gen- 
erally mountainous and covered with forests. Its valleys 
are fertile; and its mines of coal and iron, very pro- 

46. Charleston, on the Great Kana'wha River, is the 

47. Wheeling, the largest city, is noted for the manu- 
facture of glass, machinery, and nails, and for its blast 
furnaces and iron foundries. 


Each pupil may write a letter about the Middle Atlofir- 
tic States, as directed on page 43- 


Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on the 
Middle Atlantic States, as shown on page 4S. 

2. The wea of the District of Colombia is 70 square miles; it formerly con- 
tained 100 SQTiare miles, extending on both sides of the Potomac, bat the portion 
ceded to the general government by Virginia was ceded back to that state. Wed ffocA. 
kngtxm^ formerly called G^rgetown, on the Potomac, is north-west of Washington. 

3. The oax^tol is one of the grandest buildings in the world. Its length is over 
750 feet, and its height, 396 feet It covers an area of three and one half acres. Here 
the sessions of Congress are held. Other buildings of great interest are the Arsenal, 
the State Department, the General Poetof&ce, the Patent Ol&ce, the Treasury De- 
partment, the Smithsonian Ihstitution, and the National Museum. 

4. The Washington Monument, 666 feet in height, is one of the tallest struct- 
ures in the world. 

6. Other important Cities.— Br HABTUkim,— OWmterioiMf is an important coal 
market. HogtmUifvon and FrtdnUik are in rich agricultural districtB. 

6. IH VxBOuriA,- /VCinfrury and LfntMfurg are centers of an extensive tobacco 

7. Ik West Viboxnia,— /Vir4;<ri6ufi0r is situated in an oil region and contains many 
petroleum refineries. BunH^ngUm is an imiwrtant commercial center. 

8. Health and pleasure resorts of the Middle Atlantio States.— In Ntw York, 
Niagara Falls, Trenton Falls, The Thousand Tslanda^ lAke Qeorge, Watkins Glen. 
Coney Island beaches, the Adirondack and Oatddll mountains ; in Sew Jertey^ Long 
Branch, Atlantio City, and Cape May; and in FliyMa, the Warm and Sulphur 
Springs, the Natural Bridge, Luray Caverns, and Old Point Comfort. 

9. Distinguished men.— From N&w York, Martin Van Buren and Millard Fill- 
more, presidents ; Washington Irving, author; John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, De 
Witt Clinton, and William H. Seward, statesmen : Pamtyivania^ Bobert Fulton, in- 
ventor : James Buchanan, president ; and Bayard Taylor, author : Ifew Jeney^ Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen, statesman ; J. Fenimore Cooper, author; and Qrover Cleveland, 
president : Ddawctn^ John M. Clayton, statesman : Maryland^ Charles Carroll, states- 
man ; Commodore Stephen Decatur ; Edgar Allan Poe, poet : Vlrffinia, Gtoorge Wash- 
ington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry Harrison, 
John Tyler, and Zachary Taylor, presidents ; Patrick Henry and Henry Clay, states- 
men ; Winfield Scott and Bobert £. Iiee, generals. 

10. Historical Votes.— iV«ir York,— In 1600, Henry Hudson, an English navi- 
gator in the employ of the Dutch, discovered the river which bears his name. In 
the same year, the French, by right of Champlain^s explorations, claimed the land 
now comprised in the northern part of the state. The Dutch, in 1013, established 
a trading-post on Manhattan Island, and, ten years later, buUt Fort Orange on 
the present site of Albany. The trading-post on Manhattan Island became the 
village of New Amsterdam. The English, also, claimed this territory, and, in 1664, 
the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant, was oompeUed to surrender the territory to 
the Duke of York. The name was then changed to New York ; and Fort Oraoge, 

to Albany. There were many conflicts between the French and Indians, and the 
English. Schenectady was burned, and most of the Inhabitants massacred. Tioon- 
deroga. Crown Point, Saratoga, Long Island, White Plains, Fort Washington, and 
New York City were scenes of military operations during the Bevolutionaiy War. 
In this state Major Andrd was captured. 

11. Fnmtyiwmia was first settled by Swedes in 1643. They were driven out by 
the Dutch, who afterward surrendered to the English. William Fenn, in 1682, 
obtained a grant from Charles IL for all the territory comprising Pennsylvania 
and Delaware. Under his administration, the colony prospered. The first Conti- 
nental Congress met in Philadelphia, and the Declaration of Independence was 
signed there. Here the first public library in America was established, and the 
first locomotives on this continent were made. Philadelphia was captured by the 
British, in 1777. In the same year was fought the battle of Gtormantown. 

12. New Jeney was first setUed by the Dutch in 1620; but in 1664, it passed 
under the control of the English. Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth were battle' 
i&elds of the Revolutionary War. 

13. SettlemaUa were made la Delaware by the Dutch and the Swedes, and both 
laid claim to it. The English came into possession of it in 1664. It was trans- 
ferred to William Penn as a part of Pennsylvania. The Delaware Biver was discov- 
ered by Henry Hudson, in 1609. The state was visited by Iiord De la Warr, in 1610. 

14. Maryland was founded in 1634, by Lord Baltimore, as a home for perse- 
cuted catholics. It became a royal province in 1691. 

16. In FlfyMa was formed the first i>ermanent English settlement in America. 
This was made at Jamestown, on the James Biver, under Captain John Smith. 
These colonists were unsulted to the founding of a colony and tu the hardships of 
a frontier life. Smith, in a letter to his patrons in Ehgland, wrote : *' I entreat you, 
send thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, 
and diggers of tree roots, rather than a thousand such ad we have **. (1607.) 

16. The early hietory of the colony is one of misery, and the administration, 
except Smithy one of misgovemment. In 1624, the colony became a royal prov- 
ince, and so remained until the War of the Revolution. At Yorktown was wit- 
nessed the surrender of Lord ComwaUis, in 1781, the closing event of the Bevolution. 

17. Weet TlrffMa formed a part of Virginia, until 1868, and was then Pidfni**Aii 
into the Union as a state. 

* hyo An, a clay of which jwrcelain is made. 

mdW , a fertilising earth, composed of carbonate of lime and clay. 

gmpowder, a composition consisting of seventy-eight parts saltpeter, twelve ot 

charcoal, and ten of sulphur. 
4Uctor, a person entitled to take part in an election; one of the persons chosen 

by the people in the United States to elect a president and vice-president. 
djp^l tot, a building in which a oongress or state legislature meets to make laws. 


/ F L O R I D A ^^""■"•'"••--^ ATLANTIC OCEAN ^ ^|^ -\l 




Location. — In what part of the TTnion are these states? What is 
their eastern boundary ? — their southern ? What two states west of them ? 

Latitude and Longitude. —What parallel of latitude crosses the north- 
ern part of North Carolina?— the southern part of Florida?* 

What countries in Europe and Africa are crossed by these parallels ? 
What meridian passes through the eastern part of North Carolina ? — the 
western part of Florida ? When it is 7 A. M. in the eastern part of North 
Clarollna, what time is it in Florida? 

Outline. — Which of these states is a peninsula ? Which has the greatest 
extent of coast ? Which is the most northerly cape ? — the most southerly ? 
What trend has the coast of the three northern states in this section ? How 
does it compare with the direction of the mountain ranges? 

Surface. —Where are the highlands of this section?— the lowlands? 
What mountain ranges traverse the north-western part at this section ? To 
what mountain system do these ranges belong ? What is their direction ? 
What is the highest i)eak of this section ? In what direction do the rivers 
of the Atlantic Slope flow? — of the Gulf Slope? What rivers are state 
boundaries ? What one flows in a northerly direction ? In which state 
are there many lakes ? 

Climate and Products.- What is the mean annucd temperature of 
the northern part of this section? — of the southern part? How does the 
mean temi)erature of this section compare with that of California ? 

What are the principal products of the lowlands ? — of the highlands ? 
What minerals are found in the highlands ? Which state is celebrated for 
tobacco? — for oranges?— for manufactures ? — for sponge fisheries? 

Cities.— Mention the largest city in North Carolina, — in South Caro- 
lina, — in Georgia, — in Florida. Mention two important sea-ports on the 
Gulf Slope, — three on the Atlantic Slope. Which is the largest city in this 
group of states ? What city is situated on a small coral island ? In what 
direction are Charleston and Wilmington ftom New York?— from San 
Francisco? (8e$fnapqf U, 8.) What cities near the head of navigation?* 

Commercial Qeoflrraphy. — How do the states of this section compare 
in the extent of railways with the Middle Atlantic Stateft ? Which of these 
states has the greatest number of miles of railway? What is the principal 
railway center of Georgia ? In what direction, and on what waters would 
you sail from Key West to New Orleans ?—fi'om Charleston to New York ? 
— from Pensacola to Havana ? — from Savannah to Nassau ? What forti- 
fications at the mouth of Savannah River ?— <Sm mtg9 qf Satxmnah and vidnUy.)— 
at the entrance to Charleston Harbor? (8m tnap qf OharUiUm and vidnUy.) In 
going flrom Columbia to Macon, at what point would you change the time 
of your watch ? 


In traveling from Maryland to North Carolina, through what state 
would you pass? In what direction? What is the water boundary of 
this state ? What is the southern boundary ? What mountains form the 
western boundary ? From what do they separate it ? 

What two sounds indent the eastern coast of this state ? What ca];>es 
project into the Atlantic Ocean ? Which is farthest east ? 

What mountains cross this state? Mention and locate the high- 
est peak. i8e$ prtifiU^ or $ectional dkigram.) What large rivers are wholly in 
this state?— partly in it? How far is the Cape Fear River navigable? 

Into what does it fiow ? 

100 MUei. 

WO MUm, 


What swamp in 'the 
north-eastern part of 
the state?— in the 
southern part ? In 
what part does the 
isotherm of 60* Fahr. 
cross the state ? 

In what part of the 
i j L ^ ' ' BilMi&^=^^^^^^^^-^ state are its mines? 

tA J ^ Where Is tobacco 

' £ raised? — com? What 

1. oriiaa<%iBi.,-^ j«tauir»iva > , V P mm Uf Otmrni, is the principal sear- 

port? How is it situ- 
ated ? What and where is the capital ? — the largest city ? What and where 
are the following: Cape Fear, Yadkin River, Charlotte, New Berne, 
Roanoke ? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of North Carolina, as directed on page 87. 

1. Key West, the most soatherly point of the United States, Is within one and a half degrees 
of the Torrid Zone. It la on a small coral Island which belongs to Florida. 

2. These anchofs mark the lower edge of the temioe which separates the lowlands, or coast 
plain, from the midlands. Notice that the head of nayigatlon of each large river is the site of 
an important ct^, while at, or near, the month, then Is a se*-port. 


1. OlottaJUeeJkM E,,—!. AtkmMe OcMm-S. Stut Btdg*. 


In what direction would yqu travel from Columbia to Wilmington?— 
to Atlanta ? What water boundaries has South Carolina ? What cai>e pro- 
jects from its eastern coast? What sound indents the southern part? In 
what part are the highlands? 

What two rivers fiow into the Atlantic Ocean? By what two rivers 
is the San tee' formed ? What is that part of the Great Pedee' River called, 
which is in North Carolina ? Where are the sources of nearly all the rivers 
of this state ? Into what do they fiow ? 

How does the climate of this state compare with that of Florida? — 
Pennsylvania? — Maine? What important article of commerce is rolssd 
on and near the south-eastern coast ? Where is rice cultivated ? Mention 
the other products of this state. What is the principal occupation of the 
people? What is the capital of South Carolina ? — the chief sea-port?— 
the largest city ? Mention and locate three other important cities. 


In what direction is Oeorgia from South Carolina?— flx>m Florida? 
What natural boundaries has this state? By what state and river is 
Georgia bounded on the west?— on the south? In what part of the state 
are its mountains? Mention them. What is their general direction. 
What two rivers unite and form the Altamaha River? Mention other 
navigable rivers of this state. To 
what city is the O co'nee River navi- 
gable?— the Ocmulgee (SkmH^^? 
What large swamp in the southern 
part of the state ? 

What is the difference in mean 
annual temi)erature between the 
northern and the southern part of 
the stat«? Is the temperature of 
this state higher, or lower, than that 
of California? (See margin.) Where 
is the mineral region of Georgia? 
What are the agricultural products ? 
What city is the capital and metrop- 
olis ? What two important cities on 
the Savannah River ? What city 
near the center of the state ? Where 
and on what river is Columbus? — Ath'ens? — MiUedgeville?— Rome? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of South Carolina and Georgia, as 
directed on page 87. What is their extent from east to west? 


What natural divison of land is Florida ? What waters border on it ? 
What i>arallel crosses its central part ? What is the length of this state 
trom. north to south ? What i>eculiarities of surface in the southern part ? 
What bays on the western coast? What islands south of Florida? 

What two capes project from the ectstern coast? — the south-western? 
In what part of Korth America is there another cape having the S€une 
name as one of these? Where is Cape San Bias? — Romano (rOmd'nff)? Are 

there any mountains or high- 
lands in Florida? In what di- 
rection does the western part 
slope? — the north-eastern? 
Where is the Suwanee (tO wgfnS) 
River? In what direction does 
it fiow ?— the St. John's River ? 

What is the mean annual 
temperature of the northern 
part of this state? — of the 
southern part? In what part 
of the state is tobacco raised ? 
What Aniits are raised in this 
state? Where are sponges 
obtained? What are they? 
Where is salt obtained? 

What is the capital of Flor- 
ida? What two cities on the 
St. John's River?— on the At- 
lantic Coast? — on the Gulf 
Coast ? Which is farthest west ? Mention two sea-ports. Locate the Dry 
Tortugas (tor Wb'^o*), — Lake Okeecho' bee,— Tampa Bay,— Api)alach'ee 
Bay, —the Everglades. What state has the lowest and most level surface ? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Florida, as directed on page 87. 



Tennessee, and In- 
dian Territory, in 
the Mississippi Bar 
sin ; and AJabama, 
Mississippi, and 
Louisiana are partly 
in the Gulf Slope, 
and partly in tiie 



1. Position.— This section of the United States is 
situated in three physical regions,— the Atlantic Slope, the 
Gulf Slope, and the Mississippi Basin. North Carolina, 
South Carolina, and the eastern parts of Georgia and 
Florida are in the Atlantic Slope ; Texas and the western 
part of Florida, in the Gulf Slope; Arkansas (ar'kftns^), 

1. These Toelh, or ialands, are formed in shallow water only, and seldom exceed a 
mile in width. A few are rocky, but many are covered with grass, shrubs, and trees. 

2. Okeflnoke {o a/tn (/ ke) Swamp is partly overgrown with vines, weeds, and 
bushes. It contains forests, lakes, and islands. 

Mississippi Basin. Florida extends farthest south, 

2. Surface. — In the northern part, the mountains inter- 
rupt* the general level. The southern part is low and 
level along the coast, btit high and rolling in the interior. 

3. Nearly the whole extent of coast is protected by 
long, narrow sand bars, formed by the waves which push 
back the sediment* brought down by the rivera Along 

the southern coast of Florida, are estensive reefs of 
coral, shells, and sand,* 

4. The land bordering on the coast is low aud 

marshy, much of it being scarcely above the aea4eveL 

Green Swamp and a part of the Great Dismal* Swamp 

are in North Carolina, Okefinoke^ Swamp is in 

Georgia, and the Everglades* are in Florida, The 

swamps in the lowlands of the Mississippi River are 


5, Hie highest land east of the Mississippi 
River is in the western part of North Carolina. 

6. From the crest of the Appalachian System 
: V, of Mountains, the surface of this section slopes t^o 

the east, south, and west, 

7. The mountains of this section situated west of 
the Mississippi River, are the Ozark' Mountains, which 
extend through the north-western part of Arkansas, and 
the Qua da lupe' and others, in the western part of Texas. 

8. Lakes and Rivers. — ^Most of the lakes are near the 
coast, but in Arkansas and the north-western part of 
Louisiana, are small groups of lakes. There are, also, numer- 
ous bayous* and lakes connected with the Mississippi River. 

8. The Brerglades are extensive marshes, or shallow lakes, inclosing Islands 
ooyered with cypress, palmetto, oak, vines, shiubs, and high grass. 

4. Bayon (M' o^ is an otEshoot of a river. * M' i m«a, settlings ;— earth, sand, etc 
• \nUr rvpt, to break the even sorfooe. eUmnfU (diz'mal), dark, gloomy. 



9. Bwers are numerous. Those of the Atlantic Slope 
are navigable* but for a short distance from their mouths, 
while some of those in the Mississippi Basin and the Oulf 
Slope are navigable for hundreds of milea 

10. Soil.— The soil is generally rich and productive. 
Along the coast, it consists chiefly of the sand, earth, and 
other matter brought down from the mountain sides by 
the numerous rivers. In the highlands and the pine- 
barrens, there is much sterile land. The western parts of 
Texas and Indian Territory contain extensive tracts of 
sandy soil which is generally dry and barren. 

11. Climate. — T?ie prevailing winds of the southern 
part of this section are from the Caribbean Sea, or from 
the Gulf of Mexico, producing an annual* rain-fall varjdng 
from forty inches in the north-west to seventy-five inches 
in the south-east.* The climate is, therefore, hot and 
moist, except on the highlands, where it is more temperate. 

12. T?ie summers are hot and the winters mild. Along 
the coast, the heat is tempered by sea winds. 

13. Vegetation.— The palmetto and live-oak* trees are 
abundant on the islands, vast forests of yellow pine 
extend along the coasts, cypress and cedar cover the 
swamps, poplar and magnolia are numerous on the Gulf 
Coast, while the river-valleys of the interior contain 
forests of oak, maple, sycamore (sik'amor), hickory, and 

14. The fruits of the warmest portions include oranges, 
lemons, figs, and bananas (ba n&' n&). 

15. Minerals.- The mineral resources of the highland 
region are inexhaustible. Coal, iron, zinc, lead, gold, 
graphite,' and emery ^ abound, besides marble of every vari- 
ety, and ka' o lin. Phosphate marls are found near the sea.* 

16. Animals.- The wild animals include the bear, deer, 
raccoon, and opossum.*® Alligators are found in the swamps 
and sluggish streams." Rattlesnakes, humming-birds, and 
par' o quets are common in some parts of the South. 

5. Osrdiones near the coast of the South Atlantic States are frequent in summer. 
They are storms in which the winds have a whirling motion. 

6. The palmetto is a species of palm. The Ure-oak is a tou^h, hard wood 
used in ship-building. 

7. Ghntph'ite, or black lead, or plumbago (piumbd'go)^ is a substance of which 
lead-pencils are made. 

8. ISmery, or co run' dum, is a hard mineral used for cutting gems, or for polish- 
ing glass, metals, etc. 

0. Phosphate marls cue earthy substances used as fertilizers. 

10. O pes' sum is a small animal, the female of which is characterized by a 
pouch for carrying her young. Sometimes the young will cling to the fur of the 
mother*B back and entwine their tails around that of the mother while she holds 
it over her back 

11. The alligator lays her eggs in the sand, to be hatched by the heat of the sun. 

12. Bioe is cultivated on low land which is so situated as to be flooded at will. 
The fields are protected by banks, so that the surface may be kept under water for 
any length of time. A few days before the harvesting of the crop, the water is 
drawn off. 

13. Turpentine is prepared by distilling the sap of the yellow pine and other 
coniferous trees. The gum remaining is rosin. Crude turpentine when purified, 
is the oil or spirits of turpentine used in Tni-riTig point. Pine-baiTens are barren 
tracts of land covered with pine-trees. Tsr is obtained by burning wood of the 
pine or fir-tree with a dose, smothering heat. The substances just named are 
called naval stores. 

17. Industries. — Agricultu/re is the leading occupation. 
Rice and sea-island cotton are extensively cultivated on 
the tide-lands and the islands.^ 

18. ITie pine-barrens of this section jrield lumber and 
nearly all the turpentine, rosin, and tar used in the 
United States." 

1 9. The production of sv^ar is the leading industry on 
the Gulf Coast ; ^* here, also, is a great variety of tropical 
fruits. Great quantities of early strawberries, peaches, and 
vegetables are sent to the markets of Northern States. 

20. Cotton is the great product of the midland region. 
In the quantity and quality of cotton raised, the Southern 
States excel every other part of the world." 

21. Indian com and sweet potatoes are cultivated 
extensively throughout the South, and its northern parts 
yield considerable wheat and tobacco, 

22. Manufacturing and lumbering are rapidly growing 
in importance. The rivers afford an abundance of water- 
power for numerous flour and cotton-mills." 

28. Stoch^aismg is an important industry in various 
parts of the South, especially in Texas, where some of the 
cattle ranches, or stock farms, are of great extent. Horses 
and sheep are also numerous. 

24. Commerce is confined chiefly to the products of 
the plantation and the forest New Orleans is the prin- 
cipal shipping port of the Mississippi Basin. 

25. People.— A large majority of the people of the 
Southern States are engaged in agriculture. 

26. The white inhabitants are mostly of English de- 
scent, except in Louisiana, which contains many descend- 
ants of the French, called Cre'oles. 

27. The colored population comprises about two fifths 
of the inhabitants. 

28. The Indians of this section are nearly all in 
Indian Territory. 

14. Sugar is prepared from the juice of the sugair<»ne. The stalks of the oane, 
after bein^ stripped of their leaves, are crushed between rollers to express the 
juice. The latter is placed in large pans, and heated until it becomes a thick 
sirup. A small portion of lime is added to clarify the sirup, which is skimmed to 
remove the impurities. The simp is finally drawn into large wooden reservoirs; 
and, as it cools, most of it crystallixes into sugar. That which does not crystallize 
constitutes the molasses of commerce. To fit sugar for table use, it must be 
refined. This is accomplished by dissolving the crude or raw sugar in water, 
filtering it first through charcoal, and afterward, through cloth filters. It is then 
evaporated and recrystallized. 

15. Cotton requires a warm, moist climate and a rich soil, conditions admiiably 
fulfilled in the Gulf States. In many tropical countries, the cotton-plant is a tree 
which produces crops during several successive years ; but in the United States, it 
is an annual, growing to a height of five or six feet only. The finest variety, 
known as sea-island cotton, is remarkable for its long, silky staple. Sea-island 
cotton was introduced into the United States from the Bahama Islands. 

16. A sadden deaoent of the surface is met with midway between the Appa- 
lachian System of Mountains and the coast. Here are found falls and rapids 
in the streams. The large rivers being navigable as far as this line of descent 
where water-iwwer for manufacturing purposes is abundant, cities and towns 
have been built here, among which are Bichmond, Petersburg, Weldon, Baleigh, 
Columbia, and Augusta. The manufacture of fiour and cotton goods is very 

^ nSn^igaUe^ affording passage to vessels. an^nual, yearly. 



is hilly and rolling*; and its eastern part, low, sandy, and swajnpy." 

Large crops of cotton are raised annually, and tobacco is cultivated 

extensively in the northern and middle portions of the state. Rice and 

grapes, also, are among its products, and its forests yield 

:t-ar, turpentine^ aod other naval* stores* 

aO. Baleigh (raw^ii)^ near the Neuse ^nas) River, is 
the capital* 
31. Wilmington is the chief city and stia-port 
82* South Carolina produces much rice, while in the 
-quality (vf the cotton produced it exceeds even- 
other stateJ^ 

33, The ivhite inhabilunis of this state com- 
prise about two fifths of the population; the coiryred 
inhabitanis, three fifths. 

84* Columbia, is the capital and chief railway 

29. North Carolina contains the highest mountains on 
the Atlantic Slope of the United Statea Its middle part 

17. The mountain ootintry of North Carolina has a delightful sainmer climate, 
and is a resort for health and pleasure, and, in the pine woods, the air is beneficial to 
people sofferlDg from diseases of the lungs. Mt. Mitchell and Glingman*s Peak are 
the highest mountains in the United States, east of the Mississippi Biver. 

18. Traveling inland, from the ooast of South Garolina, one would see, first, the 
ooast islands and swamps, separated by numerous inlets, and celebrated for rice and 
sea-island cotton; then, a level, sandy i-egion, extending 100 miles inland, and 

B.^i. Phfi)'7,sfni}. tlic nir^tTrnM">lis,* i^i i-tnfi of the lar[Te and 

important cities in the Southern States. Its harbor is deep 
and wide, and is defended by Fort Simater^ and other works. 
Charleston is the chief commercial city in South Carolina 

covered mainly with pine forests, with occasional rice swamjis ; next, the sand-hffl 
country, whose upper border is the ridge. Above this, the surface is beantifnDy 
diversified, rising gradually to the Blue Bidge. In this range is Table Moantain. 

10. Tort Sumter was captured from Major Anderson, by Oeneral Beanregard 
(Wri ffard), at the beginning of civil war in the United States, April 14, 1861. 
* rOVInff^ having a suooession of rounded elevations and depressions ; undulatiiig- 

nOfvait having to do with ships or a navy. mt M^o tt$, chief city. 

Sii, Georgia is near- 
ly three fourths the 
size of Kansas, It 
ranks first among the Southern States in manu- 
factures, and second in the production of cotton. 

87. Atlanta^ the capital and metropolis, is one 
of the most important railroad centers in the 
South. Savannah is the chief sea-port and cot^ 
ton market in Geor^|ia. 

88. Florida is the most southern state in 
the Union. It reaches almost to the Tropit" of 
CuQcer and is in the region of the nortli-east 
trade-winds. Its area is about three fourths 
that of Kansas. Its surface is low and level, 
especially in the south, where lakes^ marshes, 
and bayous are numerous. Five sixths of its boundary is 
sea-coast." Tropical* trees and plants abound, and its 
extensive orange groves produce fruit of the best quality. 

89. Tal la haa' see, in the northern part of the state, is 
the capital of Florida. It is not situated on any water. 

40. Jacksonville, on the ^«"°* ''*'''-^' 
St. John's River, has a mild winter climate. 

41. Key West, situated on a small coral island, is the 
center of a large trade in tobacco and cigars. Sponges and 
green turtles* are found in the salt water in its vicinity.** 

20. There is evidence that the southern part of Florida is slowly sinking. 
Many of the irrigating ditches made by the Spaniards in the 17th century are now 
below the sea-level. 

21. fnie sponge of commerce is the skeleton, or frame-work, of a soft, gelatinous * 
creature found adhering to rocks and shells under the water. 

22. Other important Cities.— In North Carolina,— TAarfo^, AihsviUe, and 

23. Ik South Carolina,— (TfwnvUb, Spartanturg, and Aiken; the last is a cele- 
brated winter resort for invalids. 

24. I -^ GsoROLA,— ilu^itfto, Macon, OdunUnu, Athens, and Brunswick. 

25. Ik Florida,— AfiMKoto exports lumber. 81. Augustine is the oldest settlement 
in the United States. Pa UW to is a winter resort. Cedar Keys ia a commercial port. 

26. Celebrated winter resorts.— Aiken, South Carolina ; and Palatka and other 
places in Florida. 

27. DistiiigQiBhed men.— Bom in North Carotina^ Andrew Jackson, James K. 
Polk, and Andrew Johnson, presidents; and Thomas H. Benton, statesman: in 
South OaroUna^ General Francis Marion, soldier; and John C. Calhoun, statesman : in 
Oeorgia^ John C. Fremont, explorer ; and Alexander H. Stephens, statesman. 

28. Historioal Notes.— /%>ri<fa was discovered by Ponce de Leon ipdn'tha da Id On'), 
who landed near the present site of St. Augustine, in 1512, and searched for a so- 
called fountain of youth. Portions of Florida were explored by Vasquez (vdhs'keth)^ 
Verrasani {sdhf ns\ De Narvaez (da nor vSh* sth), and De Soto (i^ tt). Verrazani, a sailor, 
was sent to America by the king of France, in 1524, to claim for him as much of this 
continent as he could. Verrazani sailed along the coast from North Carolina as far 

north as Newfoundland, naming that region New France. Soon after that, a party 
of Spaniards, under De Narvaez, landed in Florida and took possession for Spain ; 
but nearly aU of these men died or were killed by the natives. Notwithstanding 
this failure, other Spaniards led by De Soto, traveled over the wild region now 
included in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and MiasiBsippi, chiefly in search of gold. 
De Soto was not only disappointed in this, but he was compelled, while on his inarch 
westward, to fight many battles with the Indians. In these, his men suffered severely. 
Continuing his journey, he discovered the Mississippi River ; but he died there soon 
after, and his remaining followers, wishing to conceal his death from the natives, 
buried him in the river, at night. Parts of this region were held, at various times, 
by Spain, France, and Great Britain. It was ceded to the United States in 1819. 

29. In 1585 and 1586, Kaleigh planted colonies on Roanoke (rO a nSksO Island, but 
the first permanent settlements were made by emigrants from Virginia. North and 
South Carolina originally extended from Virginia to Florida. The first important 
settlement was made at Charleston, in 1680. Many of the settlers were French 
Protestants, called Hu'guenots. Georgia was, at first, a part of the Carolinas. 
Its first settlement was made through the influence of General James Cgle thorpe, 
who wished to establish a colony where oppressed debtors might begin business 
anew. John Wesley, Charles Wesley, and George Whitefield, all famous preachers, 
spent some time among the oolonistB of Georgia. 

30. St. Augustine was founded in 1565, by Menendez {ma nin'deth). 
* trdj/ical, being within the tropics, or in the Torrid Zone. 

giliti noAs, resembling jelly. 

t&r* tie, a reptile inclosed in a hard case formed by two hard, scaly shields. 



» •-• o 

42. Alabama is almost wholly in the Gulf Slope. Its mineral 
and grazing regions are in the mountains and valleys of the north ; J:: 
its agricultural region is in the middle ; and its forest belt, in the 
south. Cotton, corn, coal, iron, lumber, and turpentine are exten- ^' 
sively produced. 

4S- Mofitgomeryj the capital, is a railway center and cotton 

44, Mobile (mo be©r), the largest city and searport, is the center 
of an extensive trade in cotton and lumber, 

46. Mississippi has a level surface and a fertile soiL In the pro- 
duction of cotton J it is one of the first states in the Union, It produces, 
also, com and lumber in large quantities- 

46. Jackson is the capital, 

47. Vicksburg, an important river-port, is the largest city in the state, 

48. Louisiana embraces the delta* of the Mississippi 
River. Its surface, like that of Florida, is remarkable for 
its bayous, lakes, and cypress swamps.* 

49. In commerce, this is the leading state in the South ; 
while in the production of sugar, it is the first in the 
United States.' 

50. Baton Bouge (bfit'un rcJbzh) is the capital 

51. New Orleans, the metropolis, is the leading cotton 
market in the world.' 

52. Arkansas^ has highlands in the north-west, from 
which the surface slopes to the Mississippi River. 

1. Much of the best soil In liOtiisiana has been bronght down by the 
Htesissippi Biyer. In fleasons of low water, the corrent is slow, and the sediment 
which the water contains settles to the bottom. Thus the river builds up its 
banks and bed, higher than the sarrotmding plain. Floods of water from the rains 
and melting snow on the Bocky Moontcdns pour into the channel ; the current 
moves more swiftly, cutting its way through the banks and barriers it had itself 
placed there, and flowing in a new channel. The main channel at the delta was, 
for many years, obstructed by an accimiulation of sediment. To remedy this, 
the channel was straightened by jetties, or artificial banks, so constructed as to 
Increase the velocity of the current, thereby forcing the water to clear the chan- 
nel, or pass, instead of obstructing it This has resulted in a deep, safe chonneL 
(See MonUUh?$ New Fhytical Qtography^ p. 71, note 5.) The area drained by the 
Missiasippi Biver and its tributaries is about 1,244,000 square miles. Steam-boats 
can ascend this river to St. Paul ; and, by way of the Missouri, to Port Benton. 

2. Many of the people of T^wiia^i^Tm. are of French descent. These speak the 
Ftench language, and retain many of their national customs. 

8. Hew Orleans is situated on the Mississippi Biver, about 100 miles above 
its delta. The older part of the city was built on the left bank of the river, which 
gave it a crescent shape, whence its familiar title. Crescent City. The city 
now includes Algiers and Gretna, on the oppoeito bank. The level of the lakes, 
north and east of the city, is fifteen feet below high-water level of the MiadsBippi 
at spring freshets, and the level of the city is from one to four feet below. To 
protect the cily from the f^T^miAi inundations, there have been constructed higb« 
broad embankments, called levees, extending two hundred miles above and fifty 
miles below the city. The river levees are from fifteen to fifty feet wide, and are 
finished along the top so as to furnish a delightful promenade. The lownees of the 
city level requires the use of powerful steam pumps, which raise and expel all the 
waste water, sewage, ete., into one of the lakes. The temperature of New Orleans is 
not extreme, its highest average in summei^ing 8d*> F., and ite lowest in winter, 52" F. 

4. ^niii name is often pronounced drkan'tat; but the legislature and people of 
the state, and Webster's latest edition, sanction only the pronimoiation, dfianei- 
* dil' ta^ the tract of land between two mouths of a river. 



68. Jl8 eur/ace, generally, 
is diversified with inount- 
ains, plains, hills, 6tnd val- 

54. Its mountains are rich 
in coal, iron, lead, and other 
minerals, and on its plains, 
cotton, com, and live-stock 
are raised. Zinc is largely 
produced in this state. 

55. In the east, are 
marshes, bayous, levees, 
and dikes. 

56. Little Bock is the 
capital 6tnd largest city. 

57. Tennessee is midway 
between the Great Lakes 
and the Gulf of Mexico. Its 
length is nearly four times 
its breadth. Its area is 
about half that of Kansas. 

58. It comprises East 
Tennessee, Middle Tennes- 
see, and West Tennessee. 

59. Mountains and long, 
narrow valleys^ famous for 
coal, iron, marble, and other 
minerals, cover East Ten- 
nessee ; hills and pastures, , 
celebrated for com, hemp, 
tobacco, and live-stock, are 
in Middle Tennessee ; and 
alluvial* plains, producing 
cotton and tobacco, cover 
West Tennessee. 

60. Nashville is the cap- 
ital and largest city. 

61. Memphis is an im- 
portant cotton market, riv- 
er-port, 6tnd railway center. ' 

6. other Important Cities.— Ik Alabama,— arima, HwUnUk, and SHtfrnOa {ft t^'\^) 
are produoe markets. Birmingham and AniAttan are noted for coal and iron mines. 

6. Iv Miasusxppi,— AateA«0 is an important river-port. Meridian is an active com- 
mercial center. Columlnu is a cotton market. 

7. Ik IjovtsiAiiA,Shrh)«'port is a cotton and com market. 

8. Ik ABKAXBABy—IHnt Bluff and Hdena are cotton markets. Burt' ka and Hoi 
. Springt are health resorts. .Fbri Smith has a large trade with Indian Territory. 

9. Ik Tskkisbss,— C%a< ta noof ^ is a river-port and railway center. KnoBetW/t is at 
the head of liavlgation on the upper Tennessee Biver. 

10. Distiiiflraished Men.— Bom in LomMana^ John J. Audubon, naturalist ; and 
General Beauregard, soldier : in TVniMSfM, David Crockett, hunter ; Admiral Parra- 
gut, U. S. Navy ; and William H. C* Parson ") Brownlow, statesman. 

11. Celebrated health resorts.- In Arkansas, are hot and mineral springs, cele- 
brated for their curative proi>erties ; and in Tennessee, is Lookout Mountain. 

12. Historical Kotes.— 2>f iSMo, in 1541, discovered the Mississippi Biver. In 
1673, FoJOitT Marquette (mar ketO, a Jesuit missionary, floated in a canoe down the 
WLsoonsin to the Mississippi, and thence to the mouth of the Arkansas. La 8a0e 
GasftV), in 1682, explored Its valley and took possession of it for the king of 
F^nmce, naming the region liouisiana, in honor of Louis XIV. ▲ permanent 
settlement was made at Natchez a few years later. 

18. The I)meh explored the great totef, the Mississippi Biver, and several of its 
tributaries. Jesuit missionaries, in their efforts to convert the Indians, suffered 
much from hunger, sickness, exposure, and cruelties from the savages whom they 
sought to benefit. They took long journeys on foot, along the shores of the lakes 
and through the forests, at the risk of health and life. Some were scalped ; some, 
scalded with boiling water; some, burned in rosin flro; and many were murdered. 
Their places were, however, inromptly filled by others. 

14. XfOuMona was, therefore, a vast territory belonging to France and embracing 
all the Mississippi valley west of the river not then included in Mexico. The con- 
trol of the Mississippi Biver and the possession of this territory were so important 
to the United States, that this government purchased it from France in 1803, for 
fifteen million dollars. 

15. Arkaneae was a part of French Louisiana, which was purchased in 1803, 
by the United States. It became a portion of Missouri Territory in 1812, was 
organized as a separate territory in 1819, and admitted as a state in 1836. 

16. Tmneeeee was i>ermanently settled in 1754, by people from North Carolina, 

of which this region formed a part. The region was known, at different times, 

by the names: District of Washington,— the State of Franklin,- the U. S. Terri- 

tory south of the Ohio. Tennessee became a separate territory, and in 1796, a state. 

dIM'vldl, composed of deposits of sand, clay, or gravel, made by river action. 


oonrnaMT, laea, ism, tv jamcs montuth. 



Location.— In what part of the United States Is Texas? Mention 
natural boundaries. What country does the Rio Grande 
separate from Texas ? What does the Ited River sepa- 
rate from Texas ? — the Sabine ? What f^tatts border 
on Texas ?— what territories ? By what la Texas bounded 
on the extreme north ? What parallel forms the north- 
em boundary of this state ? Between what meridiftns 
is Texas? 

Size and Outline. — How does Texa.-^ corapare in 
size with the other states of the Union ? — with Alaaku 
Territory? What bay s indent the coast ? What lElanaa 
alonff the coast ? 

Surface. — In what part of the state are the hlfirh^ 
lands? — the lowlands? Name two moutitAln ranges. 
What hi£rh plateau in the north- 
western part ? What is its height 
above the level of the sea? Name 
three large rivers wholly within the 
state. What large tributary has the 
Rio Qrande ? In what direction do 
these rivers flow ? 

Climate and Products. — What 

part of the state has the mean an- 
nual temperature of se* ? What is 

it in New Mexico at the same latitude ? What l^ ttie moau an- 
nual temperature in the extreme southern part of the state ? 
What are the chief products of the lowland, or coast regrion ? 
—of the midland region ? In what part are coal and sale found V 

Cities. —Which part of the state is the moat thickly settled f 
Name and locate the largest city,— ^ 

the capital, — the chief sea-port. 
Where is Dallas ?- Houston ihtWion) ? 
— San Antonio? To what country 
did Texas formerly belong? How 
did it become a part of the United 
States ? {See noU UJ 

Its Location and Surface. -In what direction ftrom Texas is Oklahoma? 

In what direction is Indian Territory ? What 
Bt^x-^ri^ north of Oklahoma? What state 
north and what one east of Indian Terri- 
tory? In what parts of the territories are 
m ou ntains ? Where are the Wichita (irk*'l tq) 
Mountains ? What two rivers flow through 
the territories ? Of what is the Arkansas a 
tributary ? What river forms the southern 

Population, Products, etc. — 
What and where is the capital of 
Indian Territory ?— What aad where 
is the capital of Oklahoma? Men- 
tion an important town in each ter- 
ritory. What part of the territories 
produce grain ? — live-stock ? 

Commercial Geography.— Men- 
tion and locate a sea -port of Texas, 
— two railway centers. Which of 
these export live-stock ? — sugar ? — 
cotton ? — lumber ? With what sea- 
I>ort8 has Galveston steam-ship con- 
nection? What kind of a cargo 
would a vessel take ft^m Galveston 
to New York ? In what time-belt is 
nearly all of Texas? When It is 

ijuou fit New York, what is the hour (standard time) 

at Houston?— at El Paso? 

Map Drawing. — Draw on a construction-ftrame 

consisting of four oblong measures, 

a map of Texas and these territories, 

-^^- ^^^, as directed on page 87. What is the 

^"^ ^^ ' distance across Texas, ftrom east to 

west? — from north to south? 

62. Texas is the largest state in the Union. It is 
more than three times the size of Kansas. 

68. The north-western part of the state is a high and 
moimtainous plateau. Prom this, the surface slopes toward 
the Gulf of Mexico, along which it is low and level, with 
sandy and marshy tracts. 

64. The coast is skirted by long, narrow islands, which 
partly inclose a series of sounds, or lagoons. 

65. The eastern part of the state, and the river valleys, 
are covered with forests. 

66. The prairies of Central Texas afford abundant 
pasturage. In the number of its cattle, Texas excels 
every other state in the Union. 

67. The lowlands along the coast yield rich harvests 
of cotton and sugar-cane. 

68. Austin, on the Colorado River, is the capital. 

69. Dallas is the commercial center of Northern and 
San Antonio of Southern Texas. 

70. Indian Territory is a tract of land set aside by 
Congress for the exclusive use of certain tribes of 

1. other important Cities.— (Ta/otfAm, on (Galveston Island, at the entranoe to 
Trinity Bay, is the chief sea-port. Bofution is a railway and manufacturing center. 
Fort Worthy Waco, Lartdo^ and Denimm are growing places. 

2. Historioal Notes.— Por/j of Texaa were explored as early as 1680. Settle- 
ments were made at Matagorda fiay hi 1686, but the flxst permanent settlement 
was not made until about a oentuzy later. 

Indians. The soil is good and well adapted to the pro- 
duction of grains. 

71. The largest and most important tribes are the 
Cher'okees, Chock' taws, Chick' a saws, Creeks, and Sem- 
inoles — all called civilized tribes. Each tribe occupies a 
portion of territory, over which it has exclusive control 

72. The people of these tribes are industrious, and 
many of them are wealthy farmers and stock-raisers. 
They make their own laws and administer their own 
government. In several towns, schools have been organ- 
ized, and fine public buildings erected. 

73. Tah le qvah' is the most important capital 

74. Oklahoma was a part of Indian Territory. Its cap- 
ital is Outhrie. 

76. It is settled by white immigrants from various states. 


Each pupil may write a letter about the Southern States, 
as directed on page 43. 


Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on the 
Southern States, as shmtm on page 4^. 

8. San Antonio was founded In 1608. Other missions were established in various 
parts of the oountiy. 

4. Tkeat wot under Mixiean rvU untH 1836, when it became a republic. ▲ war 
followed, in which General Sam. Houston, at the head of the Texan army, defeated 
the Mexicans at San Jacinto. Here Santa Anna, the Mexican commander, was 
taken prisonar. Texas was annexed to the United States in 1846. 


CO^TPJ^.HA'f'rVlS Tl^rE £STA?«T>Ara51 W KKy ^roO^T JLT I-OJ^IK>2C. 


.^c-jE----* xoRTII CEXTR AL STATES. 

X V l' W A I ILL I y I S i I N D I A N A [ O 






Location. — Wliat six states are comprised in the eastern section 
of the North Central States? What is the northern boundary of that 
section? — its western boundary? Which states border on the Great 
Lakes ? — on the Mississippi River?— on the Ohio River? 

Latitude and Lonsrltude. — What is the latitude of the most north- 
ern boundary?— of the most southern? Through how many degrees of 
latitude does this section extend? In which part are the loDgest days? 
What is the longitude of its eastern boundary ? — of its western ? 

Outline. —Mention four laloes, — three bays. Into what waters do 
the bays open? 

Surface.— Which of these states contain mountains? What divide, 
or water-shed, extends through the northern part of this section? 
What states are crossed by it? Into what do most of the rivers in 
these states flow? Which is the principal river? Where and what is 
Its source? 

Climate and Products. — How does the temperature compare with 
that of Colorado ?— of Wyoming? What are the principal products ? 

Cities.— Mention and give the location of the two most important 
cities in these states? 

Commercial Geography. — Mention four railroad centers. Mention 
three lake ports. (See phuHoal chart,) Going from Chicago to Cincinnati by 
railroad, through what cities would you pass? From what places can 
luml)er be shipped?- grain and cattle? From what states of this section 
can the ocean be reached by two water-routes? 

Standard Time. — In what time-division are these states? What is 
the difference in time between Chicago and Philadelphia?— (/SIm imip qT^^ 
Uhiua Siatee),— St, Louis and Denver ? — Cincinnati 
and San Francisco? 


1. at, OrolM JKvM*,— a. iriMoiMto BtMr,— 


In what part of the United States Is 
this state? Mention its natural bound- 
aries. What group of islands north ? By 
what water are they surrounded ? 

What mountains are In the northern 
part of the state? Mention two large 
rivers. To what are they tributaries? 
What lake in the eastern part of the 
state? What two rivers, in the central 
part of the state, are united by a canal ? 

What minerals are found in the north- 
ern part of the state? — in the south- 
western part? Where are large forests? 
In what part is wheat raised? 

Mention and locate the metropolis,— 
the capital. Which are the largest cities 
in this state on Lake Michigan ?— on Lake Winnebago 
(v^ndb^ffS)? Which are the largest cities in the west- 
ern part of the state? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Wisconsin, as 
directed on page 87. Add to the oblong measure 
three small squares. 


Of what two natural divisions of land does Michi- 
gan consist ? Which is larger, the northern, or the southern ? 
What three lakes border on the northern division of thLa 
state? Which lake is the largest?— the highest? What bays 
indent the shores of Michigan? 

What islands in Lake Huron belong to this state? What 
strait connects Lake Michigan with Lake Huron? What river 
forms the boundary between Michigan and the Dominion of 

What mountains in the north-western part of the state? 
Where are the Pictured Bocks? Where Is the Grand River? 

Do the waters of this state finally reach the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, or the Gulf of Mexico? What are 
the principal products of Michigan ? 

Mention and locate the capital, — the largest city. 
Where is the city of Grand Baplds?— Bay City?— Sag^ 
inaw ? — Jackson ? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Michigan, as directed on page 87. 


r- \ 



Mention the natural boundaries of Illinois. Where is its lake bound- 
ary ? Where are its river boundaries ? What states border on Illinois ? 

Is the surface of this state mountainous, or level? What lakes In 
this state? Toward what do the rivers flow? In 
what general direction ? Mention the principal 
river. What two rivers unite and form it ? Where 
is the Bock Biver? How can you go by boat from 
Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico?— to the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence ? {8ee atso map on page SU.) 

What is the mean temperature of the northern 
part of the state ? — of the southern part ? In what 
part is coal found ? What is the leading occupation 
in the central part of the state ? What is raised in 
the southern part? What is the capital?— the me- 
tropolis? Where is Peoria ? —Quincy?— Springfield? 

Map Drawing.- Draw map of Illinois, as di- 
rected on page 87. What is the length of Illinois? 
-its width? 


Between what states is Indiana? What lake north? What river 
forms its southern boundary ? Of what is it a branch ? What parallel 
of latitude crosses the central part of Indiana?— what meridian ? What is 
the length of the longest day near 40*> north latitude ? (About 15 houn,) 

Where is the highest land in the state? In what direction does the 
surface slope ? What river crosses this state and forms part of its 

boundary? Where does it rise? 
What branch has it in the south- 
western part of the state ? 

To what pursuit is the principal 
part of this state devoted? What 
mineral is found in this state? 

What is the capital ? In what 
part of the state is it? Where is 
EvansviUe ? — Ft. Wayne? What 
large cities on the Wf^'b&sh Biver ? 


By what two routes can the 
ocean be reached by boat trom 
Ohio? In what direction would 
you travel ftx>m the state capital to Lake Erie?— to the Ohio Biver? 

In what part of the state is its highest land? What river forms 
the southern boundary of Ohio ? Mention a river which fiows into Lake 
Brie,— two which flow Into the Ohio Biver. 

Where is coal found? What three cities are lake-ports? Which Is 
the largest? Mention the metropolis. Where is it situated? Mention 
the capital. Where Is it? Where Is Dayton?— Springfield? 

Map Drawing.— Draw a map of Indiana and Ohio, as directed on 
pagtf 37* What is the extent of these two states, from east to west? — 
of Ohio, trotu north to south?— of Indiana? 


What water boundaries has Kentucky? What 
other natural boundary has it? What three states 
north of Kentucky?— two east?— one south?- west? 
Into what do its principal rivers fiow ? Mention 
them. From what does the Mississippi Biver separate 
Kentucky ?— the Ohio Biver ?— the Big Sandy Biver ? 

What nat- 
ural curiosity 
near the Green 
Biver ? Which 
is the most 
part of the 
state ? — the 
coolest ? 

Mention its 
principal prod- 
ucts,— its capi- 
tal,— its largest olty. Where is Covington?— Newport? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Kentucky, as directed on page 87. 


L Wah^Mk &.— 1. Oehmlbua,-^ OIUo B, 



1. Posit ion,^ — This group of atate;^ occu- 
pies the north central region of the United States, extending from the eastern 
boundary of Ohio to the western boundary of Nebraska, and from Tennessee to 
ie the Dominion of Canada. Its latitude is the same as that of Prance and Spain. 

2. Surface. — ^The greater part of the surface is level, or prairie lani 

Tho south-eaRt^rn part, reaches to the Cumberland Mountains, and its 

western, almost to thn Rocky Mountains, The northern part 

iv ^ J is crossed by the Height of Lund, which constitutes the divide 

;^iJH'^i^"^ between the Arctic Blope and the Gulf Slope, 

3, Tlie elevation increascfi t award the north-wei^ 

where the average elevation is about 4,000 feet Tte 

hills and nilling surf arc give place to the rugged 

terraces of the Black Hills an<l the Bad Lands.^ The 

northern part is situated in the Arctic Slope, and a 

narrow riru along the border of the Great Lakes lies 

in the Basin of the St> Lawrence;^ but the greater part 

of the group is situated in the Mississippi Basin. 

1. The Bftd Lands, or Mauyaisee Torres {md tOz tdrO, are a form of mount- 
alna which have been Bcolptured into shape by running water. The strata com- 
posing this part of the earth's crost are of different degrees of hardness ; hence, 
under the erosive action of running water, they axe rapidly out away, leaving 

the different strata in the shape of terraces. The Mauvaises Torres of S. Dakot&< 
Montana, and Nebraska are very remarkable. The fossil bones of the rhinoceros 
and many extinct animals have been foimd in this section. 

2. The divide separating the basin of the St. Lawrence from that of the Mii^ 



4. Lakes«— The Great Lakes constitute the largest col- 
lection of fresh water in the world.* They furnish to the 
United States more than 2,000 miles of coast 

5. Rivers.— No other part of the continent contains so 
many rivers. Excepting the Red River of the North, and 
a few short streams flowing into t}^e Great Lakes, all the 
rivers of this group are tributaries of the Mississippi 

6. Soil. — ^The soil throughout almost the entire region 
is rich, and well adapted to the cultivation of grain. 
Much of it, esi)ecially along the river bottoms, is alluvial. 

7. Climate. — ^In the northern part, the average* winter 
temperature is lower than that of any other country in 
the same latitude. The climate, however, is dry, pure, 
and noted for its healthful qualities.* In the southern 
part, the winters are mild, and the summers are hot. 

8. The yearly rain-fall is about twenty-five inches in the 
north-west, and about fifty-five inches in the south-east 
Nearly all the storms passing over these states originate* in 
Montana and North Dakota, and travel eastward. During 
the summer months, destructive, whirling storms, known 
as cyclones and tornadoes, are prevalent. {Seepage 18.) 

9. Vegetation.— Wild grasses afford an abundance of 
pasturage for cattle and sheep. Berries, wild plums, cher- 
ries, and other edible fruits, are abundant. 

10. The timber belt of the northern United States 
extends as far west b& North Dakota. White pine is the 
most abundant. Oak, maple, hickory, birch, black-walnut, 
hemlock, elm, cedar,* and tam'arack are also common. 

11. West of the Mississippi River ^ large tracts of 
country are destitute of timber, save occasional growths 
of cotton-wood and willows along the river bottoma* 

12. Animals.— The beaver, otter, mink, muskrat, and 
other fur-bearing animals, are still common in the north- 
em regions. Bisons,* until recently, were numerous on the 
plains; but they are now seldom seen south of Canada.* 
The fox and prairie-dog are still found in the western part, 
but all of the larger wild animals are rapidly disappearing. 

18. Minerals.— The chief minerals' are bituminous coal 
and iron, both of which are widely distriljuted. Salt^ 
copper, lead, and zinc are abundant in the vicinity of the 
Great Lakes. Gold and tin are found in the Black Hills. 

14. Industries.— Agriculture is the leading employment, 
and the one on which all other industries depend. 

15. Stock^aising is extensive. These states are cele- 
brated for fine horses and cattle. The raising of hogs is 
a considerable source of profit 

16. People. — These states were settled by people from 
other states. There are, however, many British, Germans, 
Swedes, and Norwegians among the present population. 

1 7. The manufactures include agricultural implements, 
fiour, lumber, and furniture. Car building and the smelt- 
ing of ores are extensively carried on. 

1 8. Th^ commercial interests are important^ The chief 
exports ara the products of the farm and mine. 

19. The northern part of Wisconsin is situated in 
the St. Lawrence Basin, and the southern part, in the 
Mississippi Basin. Its surface is undulating, and in the 
north, somewhat rugged, being crossed by the ridges 
which constitute the divide of the St. Lawrence Basin« 
The state is dotted with a multitude of small, beauti- 
ful lakea 

20. Orairirfarming and dairying are the principal in- 
dustries. The lumber region is confined chiefly to the 
river courses in the northern part Wisconsin contains 
mines of lead, iron, and copper. 

21. Madison^ the capital, is a railway center. It con- 
tains one of the finest capitol buildings in the north-west 

22. Milwaukee is the chief commercial center and 
grain market of Wisconsin. 

28. Michigan is about three fourths the size of Kansas, 
and comprises two peninsulas. The upper peninsula is 
rugged and hilly ; the lower, comparatively level Michigan 
has a greater extent of coast than any other state.* 

24. Michiga/n is rich in lumber, and contains valuable 
copper* and iron mines. About the head of Saginaw Bay 
are many very valuable salt wells. In the south are good 
farming liands; grains and fruits are raised. 

26. Lansing f the capital, is the center of a rich agri- 
cultural region. 

26. Detroit, the metropolis, has the finest harbor on the 
Great Lakea It is a manufacturing and commercial center. 

aiasippi Blver is, In places, three or four milee from the shores of the Great Lakes. 
Water lifted less than seyen feet from the level of the Ohicago Blver is poured 
into a canal that connects the Great Lakes with the UlinoiB BiTer. 

3. The walled lakea of this region are the work of glacial ice in a former 
period. It is thought that the rocks forming the walls of the lakes were pushed 
into position by the expansive force of ice. 

4. In the Tioinity of the Qreat Lakes* the climate is moist, and raw, damp 
winds prevaiL In winter, there are occasional storms of wind and snow, known in 
these states as blizzards. During a storm of this character, the velocity of the 
wind may exceed Afty miles per hour, and the temperature fall to forty degrees 
below zero. Owing to the extreme dryness of the air in the north-west, persons 
do not realize the intense cold sometimes indicated by the thermometer. 

6. The absenoe of growtog timber in this region has been a great detriment 
to its settlement. Congress and the state legislatures have encouraged the planting 
of trees in thsse regions, and, for the future, there is promise of a plentiful supply 
of growing timber. 

6. The diMmwttraooe of the bison from the plains is due to wanton slaughter. 

Until recently, ^bout 100,000 a year were killed for the mere sport of hunting 
them. There are still a few herds on the grass covered plains of Canada, but 
they are never seen on their former herding-grounds in the United States. 

7. mie oountry is covered with a net-work of railways. Trunk-lines connect 
the cities of these states with every Important seapport and metropolis on the con- 
tinent. No state in this section has any eesk-coeat; but nearly all the large cities 
have direct communication with foreign countries, either by way of the Great 
Lakes and their aystem of canals, or by the Mimifwippi River and its tributaries. 

8. Piotared rodks. on the northern shore of the upper peninsula, are ilne 
examples of the wearing action of water. The sandstone, which is composed of dif- 
ferently colored strata, has been worn into fanciful resemblances of castles, I'orti- 
flcations, and sculptured columns. 

0. The anoient ruins yw^f ex fflt va t'^iy * show that the mound-builders woiked 
both the copper and the iron mines. Stone hanmien and other implements used 
by them are found covered with the slag of copper ore. 
* ikfw age, mean proportion of. ' Ofi(t indie, to begin. 

fvKHkrstf, limited. N'ion, an animal commonly caUed the buiEsla 

1. Uho aoal of DHnoia, Indiana^ and other Htatee of the MiBaisBippl Volley, le 
bltnnimoiiB, or Bi:ift» ooal. These coal-fleids ure cfitimat&i tu clover nn are-a of 30;00l> 
fiquiiroi mil€9. TTir* limnrft-isirr^ ,./ thi'^ rf^^Utn in fSna grain e<l ami wusceptiblo of 
beautiful finish. UuJ«ir iko uaiuti of 'Athtiud marble/' it is much used as an 
ornamental facing for the mammoth boildingB of Chicago. 




82. Chicago is the metropolis of the North-west It is the 
center of more than 10,000 miles of railway ,2 and is one of 
the largest grain,' lumber, and live-stock markets in the 
world. Its pork-packing establishments are very extensive. 

88. Indiana is the smallest of the North Central States, 
having less than half the area of Kansa& 

34. It consists, chiefly , 0/ prairie land. Its forests are 
extensive. The south-eastern part is undulating and hilly. 

85. Grain-farming 
and stock-raising are 
the chief industriea 
Coal and iron are 
abundant. Large quar- 
ries of limestone and 
sandstone furnish an 
abundance of building 

86. Indianapolis is 
the capital and metrop- 
olis. It is a large and 
busy manufacturing city, and a great railroad center. 

87. I/vansville is the center of a rich coal and iron 
district, and has an extensive river commerce. 

88. Ohio, the most eastern of the North Central States, 
is one half the size of Kansas. Its surface is hilly in the 

south,* but becomes gradually level toward the north and 
west. It is a leading state in agriculture and dairying. 

69. In commerce, manufacturing, and the mining of coal 
and iron, Ohio ranks high among the states of the Union.' 

40. ColumJyus, the capital, is a railway center. It con- 
tains large manufacturing establishmenta 

41. Cincinnati is the metropolia It is noted for its 
river commerce, pork-packing, and the manufacture of 

clothing and furniture. 
42. Kentucky is 
about one half the size 
of Kansas. Its surface 
is mostly hilly, and 
slopes toward the north- 
west. The south-eastern 
part is mountainous. 

48. In the prodvc" 
tion of tobacco, hemp, 
and flax, Kentucky sur- 
passes every other state 
in the Union. The "blue-grass" region, in the basins of the 
Licking and Kentucky rivers, is celebrated for fine horsea 

44. Frankfort, on the Kentucky River, is the capital 

45. Louisville, at the Falls of the Ohio River,^ is the 
most important tobacco market in the country. 


2. More than 860 traina leave and enter Chioac^>« every day. Dnrlnfir the 
shipping season, a daily average of sixty vessels clear for the various ports with 
which the city is commercially connected. The enormous amonnt of i>rodacts taxes 
the carrying capacity of the railways to their utmost extent. The Chicago, Bur- 
lington, and Quincy Bailway Company, alone, owns 600 locomotives and 26,000 
cars ; and yet, at times, it is compelled to hire additional cars. 

3. The gndn piroduot of the Mississippi Valley is handled, in bulk, by means 
of elevators, the essential machinery of which is a belt, to which are fastened 
buckets, or scoops, each holding a bushel or more. The belt and spout are lowered 
into the hold of the vessel which is to be unloaded ; and, in a very short time, the 
grain is transferred to the capacious bins of the warehouses. 

4. Much of the soufhem part of Ohio was formerly covered with forest trees 
and thick undergrowths, which, upon the advance of civilization, were cut down. 
As a result of this improvidence, during the season of heavy rains and melting 
snow, the water, no longer held by growing vegetation, quickly runs to the rivers, 
and disastrous floods follow. The water of the Ohio River, at Cincinnati, has been 
known to rise more than seventy feet above low water mark. 

6. By means of the canal systems of Ohio, barges and canal-boats, loaded with 
produce, may be towed to the Atlantic, to the Great Lakes, or to the Mississippi 

6. The Falls are the only obstruction to the navigation of the Ohio River. 
At seasons of high water, steamers may pass over them ; but during low water, it 
is necessary to go through the canal which has been built around the falls. 

7. Other important Oitiee.~Iir Wisoovsik,— i?ad>M (ra sSnO is a lake-ix)rt and 
manufacturing center. Oah'loMi is noted for its lumber trade and manufactories. 
La Cro$9$ (la krteO and Bau CUAre (6 kl&r) are important cities In the western part. 

8. In Miohioan,— (TrtmcT Rapids is a railway and manufacturing center. Bay CUy 
and Sag' in aw are salt and lumber markets. Muskegon and Jackson are important places. 

0. In Illinois,— i¥ ^ H a is the center of a large com trade. Quiney is a manu- 
facturing center, and the metropolis of the western part of the state. BtoonUngton ia 
a produce market. Bockford and Joliei contain large manufacturing establishments. 

10. In JufDiAVA^—Fori Wayns has manufactories of farming implements and car- 
riage wheels. Terrs Haute (ter' 6 hdt) and South Bend are manufacturing and railway 
centers. New Albany contains the largest plate-glass works in the United States. 

11. In Omoi— Cleveland is the center of an extensive commerce with Canadian 
ports. It is noted for its manufactories and petroleum refineries. ToWdd \b Ok grain 
and lumber market. Dayton^ the metropolis of the Miami (ml am' e) Valley, contains 
extensive car factories. Youngstown and Springfidd are manufacturing centers. 

12. In Kbntuokt,— Cbrin^ton and Newport^ opposite Cincinnati, are important 
river ports. Leocington is the center of a fine agricultural region. 

13. Natural Qoenery.—DeviPs Lake and the IkUUs* of the Wisconsin and St. Croix 
timers are favorite summer resorts of 'Wisconsin. The northern shores of Michigan 

and the islands near Mackinac {mMk^ aw) Strait are ftoied for their besntifal 
scenery. Starved Rock and Buffalo Rock, near Ottawa, Illinois, are connected 
with Indian tradition. Wyandotte {vH an ddi^ Cave, Crawford County, Indiana, is 
one of the largest caves in the world. One of its chambers is 250 feet in height. 
Mammoth Cave, Edmondson County, Kentucky, is asserted to be the largest cave 
in the world ; its galleries aggregate over 200 miles in length. 

14. DiBtingoiahed Men.— Bom in OMo^ UlysBes S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, 
and James A. Gktrfleld, presidents : in Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln, president ; and 
Jefferson Davis, statesman. 

16. Hiatorioal Notes.— In various parts of the Mississippi Valley, especially In 
Ohio, there are relics of a people usually known as the Mound BuUders, who piy^ 
ceded the Indians. Some of these remains, which have the character of defensive 
works, are variously shaped ; and, in nearly every case, they consist of an embank- 
ment surrounded by a ditch, or moat. Usually, they are regular and geometrical in 
shape. Many of them were manifestly connected with religious rites and ceremonies. 
The elaborate * stone carvings, decorated pottery, and ornamental articles beautij^ully 
wrought in silver and copper, imply that these people had reached a high degree 
of civilization. Who they were, whence they came, and whither they went, are 
questions, to which, thus far, human investigation has failed to famish a reply. 

16. Father Marquette established the first settlement at Sault Sainte Marie 
(soo sSnt mJ'fi), in 1668. Detroit was the first permanent settlement. The settlers 
were greatly harassed by Indians, and many massacres took place. Michigan 
became a state in 1837. Wisconsin was admitted as a state in 1848. 

17. A French mission was established in Illinois, in 1682, and called KaBkaskia. 
IllinoiB was ceded to the English, by the French, in 1763, and captured by the 
Americans in 1778. Illinois was admitted as a state in 1818. A destractive fire 
burned the entire business portion of (Z^hicago in 1871. The rebuilding began 
almost before the embers had cooled. 

18. Indiana Territory was formed from North-west Territory in 1800, and included 
nearly all the land between Pennsylvania and the Mississippi River, except Ohio. 

19. Michigan Territory was set off in 1805, and Illinois Territory, in 1809. 

20. Indiana was admitted to the Union as a state, In 1816. Tippecanoe was a 
baUle-field of the War of 1812. 

21. The putHe land north of the Ohio was organiud as the Korth-west Territory, in 
1787. It cominrised what is now the States of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, and a part of Minnesota. In the following year, a settlement was 
formed at Marietta. Shortly afterward, a settlement was established on the 
present site of Cincinnati. In 1800, the North-west Territory was divided. Its 
eastern part was Ohio, which was admitted into the Union, as a state, In 1903. 

22. Kentucky was settled by emigrants from North Carolina and Virginia. Settle- 
ments were made by Daniel Boone. It was admitted into the Union, as a state, in 1793. 

* diBles (dabO, a succession of cascades. * eUUb^orate^ pre duced with laboft 

NORTH CENTRAL STATES (Western Section). 


Location.* Is this grroup nearer the Atlantic, or the Paolflc, Coast? 
— the Atlantic, or the Gulf, Coast ? What country Is its northern boundary? 
What lakes form boundaries of one or more of these states?— what riv- 
ers? Mention the states in this grroup, beffinningr at the most northern. 
Which of these states are partly bounded by the Mississippi River?— 
by the Missouri River?— by both rivers? 

Latitude an J Lonsritude. ~ Between what parallels of latitude is the 
greater part of this group? What meridian coincides with the greater 
part of its western boundary? What one crosses its eastern part? What 
countries in Europe are in the same latitude as this section ? 

Surface. — In what part of this section is the highest land? In what 
direction does the land slope? What is the elevation above the sea-level, 
of the western part? — of the eastern? Where is the Arctic Ocean and the 
Gulf of Mexico Divide ? What is it ? Mention the mountains. Where are 
they? What large river has its source in this section? What large river 
flows through this section ? Between what states does it flow ? 

Climate and Products. — What is the difference in temperature be- 
tween the eastern and the western part of this section? What is the 
mean temi)erature in the northern pUrt?— in the southern? 

What is the principal occupatton of the inhabitants? Where is the 
lumber region?— the wheat and. corn region? — the gold region?— the lead 
region?— the iron region? 

Cities.— What city is the metropolis of this section? Where is it lo- 
cated? Mention a lake-port. Where is Minneapolis ? — Kansas City?— St. 
Paul? Mention and locate the largest city in Nebraska, — in Iowa. 

Commercial Geography. — By what two routes may the products of 
this section be sent to the Atlantic Coast ? In how many hours can you 
cross Iowa, from east to west, by railroad?— Kansas? 

Standard Time. — In what two divisions of standard time is this 
section? Where is the boundary line of these divisions? 

M I SSO U R 1. 

What two large boundary rivers has Missouri?— what two small ones? 
In what direction would you travel from. Jefferson City to reach Kansas ? 
—the Indian Territory? 

In what part of the state are its mountains? Mention them. What 
river on the north-eastern boundary flows into the Mississippi River? 

"What large river crosses the state ? Into 
what does it flow? Where is the Osage 
Into what does it flow? 
What Is the mean temperature of the 
northern part of the state?- of the south- 
em part ? How does the temper- 
ature compare with that of Kan- 
sas? What minerals are found in 
Missouri? Where? Mention three 
leading agricultural products. 

What large cities in this state 
are on the Mississippi River?— on 
the Missouri River? Which Is 
the capital? The largest city? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map 
of Missouri, as directed on page 87. 


In what part of the United States is Kansas? (5m map <f U, S.) What is 
tts distance ftrom the Atlantic Ocean? — from the Paclflc Ocean?- from 
the Gulf of Mexico? — from the Dominion of Canada? What river is on 
the north-eastern boundary ? What states border en Kansas ? — what ter- 
ritory ? What meridian passes through the central part of Kansas ? 

How high is its surface in the western part? What large river flows 
through the southern part of this state ? Where is the Kansas, or Kaw, 
River ? Into what does it flow ? What two cities at its junction with the 
Missouri River? Where is coal found? Where is wheat raised?— com? 

In what part of the state are its principal cities? Mention them. 
Which is the capital ? What railway center In the south ? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Kansas, as directed on page 87. 


Which boundary of Nebraska is formed by the Missouri River ? What 
does it separate flx>m Nebraska? What meridian is the western bound- 
ary of this state? What parallel of latitude is its southern boundarv? 

In what direction does its surface slope? 

too MUei. 

100 Miles, 







m. ^ 


\ ' 1 ■! J 


l''^ ^ 


V' ''i' 


"''!'' il|| ■ 


\ , 1 



l;;l ]#"■ \^ 


What two large branches of the Missouri lu this state? On whioh 
side of the Platte are its branches ? What river in the southern part ? 

How does the climate of 
this state compare with that 
of Oregon ? What causes the 
difference ? What is the mean 
temi)eraturo in the north- 
western part of Nebraska?— 
In the southern part? Where 
is the pasture land?— the 
grain section ? 

What three large cities on 
the Missouri River? What 
L North Jtatu £.,-1. Lo*9 /{.,-«. jflMowH A and Where is the capital ? 

Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Nebraska, as directed on page 87. 


What large rivers are boundaries of Iowa ? From what does the 
slppi separate it? — the Missouri? 
What state is north ?— south ? 

Mention the longest river that 
crosses the state. 

What minerals are found in 
this state? Where? What is the 
chief occupation of the people? 
What grain is raised extensively ? 

What important cities on the 
Mississippi River?— on the Mis- 
souri? Mention and locate its 
capital. Where is Cedar Rapids ? 

Map Drawing.— Draw a map of Iowa, as directed on page 87, 


What two lakes on the northern boundary ? Into what does the 

water of these lakes flnally flow? 
J<«#. Hudson Vay, What river on 
the northern boundary flows into 
Lake Superior? What river rises in 
Lake Traverse ? In what direction 
does it flow ? Into what bay does 
this water And its way ? (5te poqs t8.) 
What river rises in Big Stone Lake ? 
In what direction does it flow ? Into 
what gulf does its water flnally flnd 
Its way? What large lake In the 
northern part of the state ? What 
lake is the source of the Mississippi 
River? ^ns. JSik Zale, What two 
lakes near the source of that river? 

^-vv\i /\ ^ What two large cities on the Mis* 
i!^ — — J_1L — — IJ slssippi River near the head of navi- 
gation ? What large city in the south- 
eastern part of the state ? What other 
— 4. A. route &|^ £«*« Aiy«rior. important cities in the state? 
Map Drawing. — Draw a map of Minnesota, as directed on page 87. 



L MUttwri R.,—1. MiM$i$9ippi S, 


In what parts of these states 
are their mountains ?— the Bad 
Lands? What river crosses both 
states ? On which side are its prin- 
cipal branches? Mention three. 
Where is the Dakota River? Into 
what does it flow? 

What is the principal agricult- 
ural product of North and South 
Dakota? What mineral is found 
in the Black Hills? 

Mention the capital of South 
Dakota, —of North Dakota, — the 
principal cities of South Dakota, 
—of North Dakota. 

Map Drawing.— Draw a map 
of each, as directed on page 37. 
What is the extent of each from 
north to south?— east to west? 


\ 48< TJte Uiifieral re- 

sources are vt'r\' great. 

Coal-fleltls underlie more 

than half the area of the 

state, and the supply of iron 

ore is inexhaustihle. Lead, zinc, and 

nickel, also, are abundant 

49. In contmcrce and mamifactureSj 
Missouri excels every other state west 
of the Mississippi, 

50. Jefferson City, on the Missouri, is the capital. 

51. St Louis is the largest city, and a great dis- 
tributing point for the products of the Mississippi Valley. 
This city contains extensive flour-mills, meat-packing and 
manufacturing establishments. 

52. Kansas occupies the geographical center of the 
United States. Its surface is a rolling prairie. 

1. The lake region, in the north-weetem part of Iowa, is the highest i;>art of 
the state, and the summit, or divide, from which nearly all its rivers flow. 

2. I'o ws is Grossed by several lines of railway which connect the two sides of 

the western part of the state, where the grasses retain 
their nutriment and afford pasturage all the year. Coal 
is mined in the east, and zinc ami luad, in the south-east. 

54. Topef^a, thu capital, is an important niilway center. 

55. Kansas City and ^Vi€hiia are aLst> important 

50. Nebraska, in (\rva, is nearly equal to Kansas. It is 
situated in the hcsirt of the region known as The Plains. 
The central and western parts of the st^te are diversified 
by rolling and sandy tnicts of land. 

5 7. Agrirvltviy' m the chief omployment in the eastern 
part, and stock-raising in tln' western. Tree-plan ttng^ ^"' 
couraged by Congress and tlie State Legislature^ is making 
rapid progress. 

58. Llricohi, the capital. Is the center of an extensive 
trade in agriculturnl jiroducts. 

5y. Omaha (6' mo ti^i, the largest city, is an important 
grain market and supply deprit, 

00. Iowa is midway between the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of the United States.^ 

61. It is a leading state in the production of graui» 
live-stock, butter, and flax. Bituminous coal is abundant' 

62. Des Moines (da moinO is the capital and metropolis. 

63. Sioux City, on the Missouri, and Dubuque^ on the 
Mississippi, are the next cities in size. 

64. Minnesota is a little larger than Kansas. It is cele- 
brated for its picturesque lakes, cascades, dalles, and forests. 

the continent. Nearly every western trunk-line of railway terminating at Chicago 
haa branch roads extending to St. Paul, Council BluflTs, and Kansas City. 

3. It IS estimated that there are nearly 10,000 lakee within the boundBriee of 


p^<? 06, St. Fttulj the capital, is the oldest 
fxj^ city in the state. It is one of the iftipurtant railway centers north-west of 
f^*^ Chicago, and is also the center of an immense river commerce. 

B7. IfmfieapoIiSj the largest city, is situated near the Palls of St Anthony. It is 
a leading grain market, and contains the largest flour-mills in the United States. 

68, N, and S. Dakota contain a vast extent of rich prairie land which is easily cultivated. 

69, Wheats corn, and other grain are largely produced. Stock-raising in both states, 
^and the mining of gold and tin in the region of the Black Hills, are important industries. 

70. Bismarckj on the Missouri River, is the capital of N. Dakota; and Pierre^ of 8, Dakota. 

71. IhrgOj a railway center, is on the Red River of the North, near the head of navigation. 


Each pupil may writ-e a letter about the North Central States^ as described on page 4^. 


JJoc/i pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on ifie North Central States, as shown on page 43. 

Minnesota. Becent surveys have shown that Elk LAke is a few inches higher tnan 
Ijake Itaska, into which the former discharges its water ; and it is sometimes recog- 
nised as the sonroe of the MisBiflBippi Biver. 

4. Other important Cities.— Iv Mnsouiu,— JToMOf OUif is a railway center con- 
necting transcontinental Unas, and also the depot of an extensive river commerce. 
St. Jottph is one of the largest manufacturing centers west of the Mississippi Biver. 

6. In Kassaa,— Leavenworth and Atchison are important commercial centers. 

6. In Nebraska,— B«a/rM0 is growing rapidly. Nebraeka CUy is an important river 
IK>rt. Ormid leUmd^ Hastinge^ and PUUtsmouth are busy towns. 

7. In low jl^— Council Bhtge is the eastern terminus of the Union Pacific Hallway 
on the Missouri Biver. Cedar Bt^akit is a commercial depot. Ke'okuk, Davenport, 
and Burlington are important river-ports and commercial depots. 

8. In Minnxsota,— Winona (wl nd' n4) is a grain market and manufacturing city. 
Stillwater is a lumber market. Duluth (du lobthOi the chief lake-port, is the terminus 
of the Northern Pacific Bailway. 

0. In Nobth and South Dakota,— iSloux FaUe, Yankton, Orand F&rk»y and Pembina 
(iwm'be na) are important cities. 

10. Natural Soenery.— 7^ rapid* in the MissisBippi above MixmeaxtoUs, the FaUe 
qf Min ne hd' hd, and the scenery around Minnetonka and other lakes in Minnesota, 
are very attractive to tourists. The Falle of St. Anthony (an'to ne) lost most, if not 
all, of their beauty when a wooden chute, or inclined plane, was built over their 
rocky predptoe. 

11. Historical Hotea.—JRnneeota was explored in 1680, by French for traders ; 
but no settlements were made for nearly one hundred years thereafter. Tort Snell- 
ing was established in 1810. The eai-ly settlers suffered greatly from Indian 
depredations. Since 1864, the growth has been wonderful Minnesota was admit- 
ted as a state in 1858. 

12. Ifelfraeka was admitted into the Union in 1867. 

13. Iowa was a part of the Louisiana purchase. The first settlement was made 
by Julien Dubuque, a Canadian. Settlements were made at Burlington and other 
points along the Mississippi. Iowa was admitted in 1846. 

14. The eouth-weetem pari qf Kaneae was acquired from Mexico ; the remainder 
formed a part of the Louisiana purchase. Prior to 1854, the region now forming 
the State of Kansas was inhabited, mainly, by Indians. When Kansas was organ- 
ized as a territory. Congress gave its citizens the right to choose whether it should 
become a free, or a slave, state. This decision was followed by six years of violence 
and bloodshed. The free-soil party finally triumphed, and a constitution prohibit- 
ing slavery was adopted. 

15. Mieeouri was set off from the Louisiana Territory, under the name of the 
District of Louisiana, in 1803. Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Mis- 
souri. It became a state, after a long and bitter political struggle, in 1821. 

16. Dakota was formerly a part of Missouri Territory. The first extensive 
explorations were made by Lewis and Clarke, and the first settlement was formed 

at Pembina iphn'Un§). 

It was organised as a territory in 1861. 


5 a 

*%l^TS3e=<;i* V.I / J ^ 














1. Position. — This section is commonly called the Pa- 
cific Highlands. It extends from the eastern boundary of 
Colorado to the Pacific Ocean, and occupies portions of 
three physical regions: the Mississippi Valley, the Great 
Basin, and the Pacific Slope. 

2. Surface. — This region is traversed from north to 
south by the ranges of the Rocky Mountain System, 
whose culminating ridges are the Cascade and Sierra 
Nevada Mountains in the west, and the Rocky Mountains, 
proper, in the east. 

3. In these highlands^ there are more than forty peaks, 
each of which is more than 10,000 feet above the level 
of the sea. Mt. Whitney, Mt. Shas'ta, and Mt. Tyndall, in 
California; and Pike's Peak, in Colorado, have each an 
altitude of more than 14,000 feet.^ 

4. West of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mo^mtains, 
is the Coast Range, a low range of mountains which shapes 
the western coast of the United States.' 

5. These mountains inclose a number of large valleys, 
famous for their fertility. The Willamette (wil a'met), 
Sacramento (sakram^n'to), and San Joaquin (sftn ho a keen') 
are the most important. 

6. The Gfreat Basin is a plateau inclosed between the 
two great chains of the Rocky Mountain System. It is 
crossed by a number of parallel mountain ranges, of which 
the Wasatch (^wa'sfitch) is the highest. Its elevation above 
the sea-level is from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. 

7. Lakes. — ^Lakes are numerous in the Great Basin. 
Many of them are salt, or alkaline. 

8. Rivers. — Many of the river basins, instead of being 
wide and fertile valleys, are deep, narrow canons whose 
sides are nearly vertical. The Grand Cafion of the Colo- 
rado, in some localities, exceeds 5,000 feet, in depth. The 
canons of the Colorado, and the Dalles of the Columbia 
River, are noted for grandeur and beauty. 

9. The Colurribiay Colorado^ and Klamath (kia' mat) rivers 
flow through passes to the ocean. Portions of the Great Basin 
are treeless, and their rivers have no outlet to the ocean. 

10. Soil. — There is every variety of soil, from the most 
fertile to the most barren. 

11. Climate. — The climate of that portion of this section 
lying CEtst of the Rocky Mountains, is celebrated for its 

1. Many of these peaks, especially those of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
Chain, are extinct volcanoes having well-defined craters. 

2. The Coast Bange is connected with the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Chain 
by numerous cross-spurs of mountains. 

3. During the dry b^ASon, tLe atmosphere of the high region is remarkable 
for its purity. Fresh meat left in exposed places does not putrefy, but dries, or 
cures. Grass cures in the same manner, and, although parched and brown, retains 
its nutriment until the spring. Cattle graze on the plains all the year. 

4. The southern ixurt of the Great Basin contains two remarkable depressions, 
the HnJu of the Ar ma' go sa and Felipe {fa Of pa) rivers, which are 200 to 300 feet 
below the sea-level. The former is usually known by the name of Death Valley. 
During the early history of California, a party of emigrants attempted to pass 
through this valley. Their supply of water was soon exhausted, and none could be 

dryness and healthfulness.* Owing to the lack of ra;i 
crops require irrigation.* 

12. In the northern part of the Great Basin ar- 
many fertile valleys ; but the southern part is hot, dry. 
and barren.* 

13. The climate of the Pacific Slope is unlike that f 
any other part of the United States. Owing to the wan. 
winds from the Pacific Ocean, ice and snow are alni.>- 
unknown, except at high altitudes. There are but nr* 
seasons, — the rainy, or winter, and the dry, or sumniK. 
seasons. The rain-fall varies, being slight in the soum. 
and excessive* in the north. 

14. Vegetation. — The highlands of this section ai-: 
covered mostly with vast forests of fir, pine, cedar, and r^^i- 
wood. In the southern part, cactus, mesquite (mSs kets 
yucca (yOk'kA), and various species of agave, or centun 
plant, abound. Sage-brush, a low shrub, is a characteristi 
of the Great Basin ; yellow pine and mountain mahogan; 
of the mountain slopes; and cotton-wood, of the riv^r- 
bottoms. Wild grasses are every-where abundant. 

15. Animals. — The grizzly, brown, and black bears art 
common in the mountains. Deer and antelopes are forni 
on the foot-hills. The coyote* (koy 6'te) is every-where com- 
mon : panthers, cougars (koo'gars), and Rocky Mount: - 
sheep are occasionally found. Beavers and other f :- 
bearing animals are abundant in the north. Prairie-do^. 
animals resembling squirrels, live in holes T^hich the. 
burrow in the dry plains. Salmon are extremely abundaci 
in the rivers of the Pacific Coast.' Whales, seals, and wa- 
ruses are numerous in the neighborhood of Alaska. 

16. Minerals. — Gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, leac 
iron, nickel, coal, salt, and sulphur are found in th> 
region, which has for many years been the chief sour- 
of supply of the precious metals in the United State.s. 

17. Industries. — The mines, farms, forests, and stock- 
ranches* furnish the chief employments. 

18. The Pacific Slope produces large crops of wheat 

1 9. The manufactures comprise farming and mining ini- 
plements, and the products of smelting furnaces, lumber-mi!.- 
woolen-mills, fruit and salmon-canning establishments. 

20. The foreign commerce comprises the exports titu 
of grain and lumber to Europe, and the importation j: 
sugar, rice, tea, coffee, and silk. 

found in the valley. Owing to the intense heat^ they perished one by one, until, of 
the 152 persons entering the valley, only four or five lived to complete the journey. 
6. Salmon spend most of their lives in salt water; but, at a certain x)erinii :- 
the spring, they leave the ocean, and make their way up the rivers and creeks f<>r 
the purpoee of depositing their eggs. At this season, the smaller streams are 
often completely filled, and the channels blocked, by the enormous massee of t^ 
In the autumn, the survivors return again to the ocean. 
* irrigd'tkm^ conducting water from ex ^m^ lev, beyond the ordinary amount 

streams by means of ditches, or 
canals ; and, when necessary, allow- 
ing it to cover the ground. 
Btbckri^ndies^ farms for raising cattle, 
sheep, etc. 

coyiyUySk fleet animal resembling a dog 
Its height is from twenty to twent> 
four inches, and its color is a 6m.'. 
yellowish-gray. It is known, also, ae 
the prairie-wolf. 

21. The domestic eammerce con- 
sistSj chiefly, in the exchange of min- 
ing products, live-stock, wool, wine, 
fruits, raisins, and canned goods, for 
raanufactiired articles. 

22. People,— The settlement of the 
greater part of thia section resulted 
from the discovery of gold and silver. 

23, Nearly all the Indians of the United States are in 
the Pacific States and the ten-itories. In the South, are many 
Spanish Americans, 

24. California, the second state, in size, in the United 
States, is more than twice as lai'ge as Kansaa 

25. The Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Coast Hange 
inclose the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, the richest 
agricultural region of the state. 

There are many lakes in this state, the largest of 
which is Tulare (t<5t>ia'rs) Lake. Some of them contain 
mineral salts.* 

2 7. The Tosemite {y6 B&m't i^) Valley is noted for the 
grandeur of its scenery; and some of the trees of California 
are the largest in the world*' 

28. The south-eastern part of the state is a desert region^ while 
the south-western is celebrated for its mild winter climate." 

1. The water of Mono lAke contains ao much of alkaline salts, that 
nothing, but the larv» of a species of fly, can live in it. There are 
l9orax and soda lakes in several parta of the state. 

2. Bome of the Beqtioi'aa» or "big trees,** are 850 feet in height, and 30 feet in 

3. Tha aoutli^westem part of Calif omia contains extensive vineyards and orange groves. 




% ^ 





29. The i'fuef ivdnsh-y in the vfillpys of California ifi wheat- 
]vtisiiig ; on the western .slope uf the Sierra Ni-viidit Mountains, gold- 
rnining;^ and on the Cotust Kan^e, hinih(*ring and qiur-ksilvor-mining. 

30, The valleyi^ in the CoaBt Kan^^e, esp*^nially those in the 
southern part ui the state, are noted for tlieir viueyerds, 
cr* hards, and orange grovfv;. California is the first state in the 
Union in the production of gohl, quicksilver, and vrine. 

31. Siock-rcinchi's and iumbcr-^idllB an^ niunenais arnon^ the mountains. 

32. Sacramento^ the capital, iw a railwuy eent*-r, 
HE. San Francisco^ the eoninionual inetropolis of the Pacitlc Coast, is 

J^ noted for its fine harbor, foreign eoninit*rc:e, and nmgniticent 
buildings. Lines of steamers connef^t it, commercially, with 
China, Japan, Australia, and the Sandwich Island.s. In this 
city, are extensive manufat^tories of woolen 
", ••^ , . - . ^uo<ls. 

-^ T**r ,^ 


[m^- p£AK* 

.ju'sj/ r* 












84. Nevada is the fourth state in the Union, in size. Its 
surface is more than 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. 

86. The western part of the state is a dry, treeless 
region, containing a large number of lakes,* or sinks.* The 
vegetation is principally sage-brush and wild grasses. 

86. The silver mineSj which are found in nearly every 
part of the state, are the chief source of wealth. 

87. Carson City, on Carson Lake, is the capital 

88. Virginia City, built on the site of the Comstock 
lode," is a mining center and metropolis. 

89. In Utah, is Great Salt Lake, the largest salt lake 
on the Western Continent.* 

40. The valley of this lake is fertile ; and, by means of 
irrigating canals and ditches, immense crops of grain, hay, 
fruit, and vegetables are raised. 

41. Mining is an important industry. 

42. Salt Lake City, the capital, is the chief commercial 
center, and the seat of the Mormon-church government 

48. Ogden City is a railway center. 

44. Arizona is, like Nevada, a high, mountainous region. 
Much of its surface is covered with cactus and mesquite. 

46. The Grand Cation of the Colorado River is in the 
northern part. 

46. The principal occupation is the mining of silver, cop- 
per, and gold. Crops of barley are raised along the bottom 
lands of the Gila (hs'ia) River, by means of irrigation. 

3. Gk>ld is found most frequently in river bottoms and old sedimentary depoaltB. 
In order to extract It, a stream of water, nnder immense pressure, is directed 
a^^ainst the auriferous* earth, which is rapidly washed away and carried through 
a sluice, or canal, made of timber. On the bottom of the sluice *-boxes, "riffles," 
or blocks of wood, are fastened, and quicksUver is poured between them. As the 
gravel and gold are carried by the swift stream of water through the sluices, the 
gold, on account of its weight, sinks to the bottom, and is caught by the quick- 
silver. This method is called hfdrmMc mMing, The sediment conveyed into the 
streams has obstructed the navigation of the Sacramento Biver, and raised its bed 
higher than the streets of Marysville and Sacramento, making it necessary to con- 
struct levees. Whenever the gold is found In ledges of quarts rock, the latter Is 
crushed by heavy stamps. This is qwtrU m/Mng. 

3. lAke Tshoe {td M'), one of the most beautiful bodies of pure water in the world, 
1b situated among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, about 6,000 feet above sea-level. 

4. The ainln of this region are not places where the water disappears in 
underground channels, as has often been asserted; but the water of the rivers, 
having no outlet, spreads over the ground, until the evaporation equals the supply. 

6. The Oomstook lodo is a vein of gold and silver bearing rock, that has pro- 
duced more bullion than any other mine in the world. Some of the shafts in this 
lode are more than 3,200 feet deep. 

6. The depth of water in Qreat Salt lAke is, at present, increasing. At some 
period in the past, this lake must have been of great else. Its former shores are 
plainly visible, on the mountain slope, 500 feet higher than the present surfiioe of 
the lake. The water of TTtah Lake, which is fresh, flows into Ghreat Salt Lake 
through the Jordan Biver. Why is one lake fresh, and the other, saltt 

7. Colorado is bounded by meridians 102<> and 100", and parallels 37* and 41*. 
Its shape is not a perfect rectangle, however, because a degree of longitude on the 
southern boundary is about three miles longer than one on the northern boundary— 
a difference of twenty-one miles between those botmdaries. 

8. Besides the mines of preoioiui metals, there are enormous deposits of coal 
and iron in this state. The Bessemer steel-works, at Pueblo {pwiVUfi^ produce a 
quality of steel that is unsurpassed. 

0. The elevation of Leadville is so great that pure water boHs at about 102* F.— 
a temperature twenty degrees lower than at the sea-level. On this account, it is 
much more difficult to preinre food by boiling. 

10. Several distinot tribes of Indians inhabit this region. The Apaches 
(dpdfcMz) are remarkable for their fine appearance and warlike disposition. The 
Plmas {p9*maz) and Maracoupas (mdrdkdi/paz) are peaceful and industrious. The 
Moquls (md AlvO inhabit the elevated table-lands. They live in houses, and have but 
little resemblance to other Indian tribes. 

47. PJioRnix is the capital. 

48. Tucson (t<5bs6n'), the principal city, is a mining 

49. Colorado is called the Centennial State.** Its east- 
em part is situated in the Mississippi Basin ; its western, 
in the Great Basin.'' 

50. The western part of the state is crossed by the 
Rocky Mountains, the numerous spurs and ranges of 
which inclose beautiful, elevated valleys, called parks. 

51. Mining and cattle-raising are its chief sources of 
wealth. In the production of silver, Colorado is the lead- 
ing state. Nearly every useful mineral is mined here.* 

52. Owing to the abimdance of wild grass, the raising 
of stock is very extensive. 

58. Denver, the capital, is the metropolis and railway 
center of the Rocky Moimtain Region. 

54. Pueblo is the second city of the state. Leadville is 
the center of a rich mining region.' 

55. New MexicOi although moimtainous, contains large 
tracts of level country. 

56. Mining and stoch^aising are the chief industriea 
In the southern part, there are many vineyards and 
orchards. Most of the people are of Spanish descent.*® 

57. Santa Fe' (fa), the capital, is, next to St Augustine^ 
the oldest town, or mission, in the United States.^ 

11. Santa ¥& (the heiy faUh) was an Indian xmeblo, or ylllage, of considerable 
size, when the Spaniards visited It in 1642. 

12. Other important Gltias.— Ik Caufobvia,— Ai4afamf, on the east side of San 
Francisco Bay, is the western terminus of the principal transcontinental railways. 
It is noted for its excellent pabUc schools and beautiful residences. Lot Angdi$ (Loa 
ang'Mte) is the center of the wool, wine, and fruit region. San JoeS (san hosaO 
and Stockton are agricultural centers. San Diego is growing rapidly. 

13. Ik '^EVADA^—JSktreka (ard'ka) and Oold HUl are mining centers. Baio is the 
center of the farming region. 

14. Ik VtusL^—Prd' vd and Logan are in the center of rich agricultural regions. 

15. Ik ABSzovA^—Prstcott was formerly the capital of Arizona. Tom^tons and 
OUbe are mining towns. Tuma is a river-port. 

16. Ik Colorado,— CWorodo Springt and Man'itou l^pringt are famous health re- 
sorts. TrMdad^ In the south, has many fine coal mines. Elghlandt is a growing 

17. Ik New Mszico,— Xo* Vegat (las va'gtts) is a health resort, and the center of 
a large, farming district. Aibuguerque (lU booker' k&) is a stock market. 

18. ZTatuml 8oener7.--This region is unsurpassed in the variety and grandeur 
of its natural scenery, especially that of Its vaUeys, cafions, and mountain passes. 

19. Historioal ZTotea. — Oo^omia was visited by Cabrillo in 1582. Many 
Spanish missions were established during the succeeding 200 years. Gtold was dis- 
covered by Spanish Americans, In Southern California, as early as 1839. The 
settlement of the state began, however, with the discovery of this metal near the 
present site of Coloma {kdUymd), by James Wilson Marshall, in 1848. Mcu<8hall 
found a bright, yellow metal in the mill-race where he was working. When it was 
ascertained that the metal was gold, the news rapidly spread, and within a year, 
an immense Immigration began. In 1850, Callfomia was admitted as a state. 
Until the Meidoan War, Califomia was a part of Meidcan territory. 

20. Nevada is a iK>rtion of the territory ceded by Mexico to the United States, 
at the close of the Mexican War. It became a state in 1804. 

21. Utah was settled by the Mormons in 1847. 

22. Colorado was explored, in 1843, by John C. Fremont, then colonel in the U. S. 
army. Gk^ld was discovered about fifteen years afterward, and a large Immigration 
followed. The Territory of Colorado was organized from parts of Kftnaas, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, and Utah. Colorado became a state in 1876, or 100 years after the 
Declaration of Independence; hence its title— the Centennial* State. 

23. Arieona and New Mexico are spcunely • settled. Most of the towns and villages 
have sinning into exlstenoe since the discovery of the precious metals. 

• au ¥\f'ercAey producing gold. epdntfly^ thinly scattered. [nlversary. 

«ttif0, an artificial passage for water. fenten'rUal^ belonging to the hundredth an- 





58. Oregon is the most western state, excepting Wash- 
ington. West of the Cascade Range, are the Willamette 
and other fertile valleys. East of that range, is a plateau, 
known as Eastern and Southern Oregon. 

59. Wheat is the principal product. Oats, barley, apples, 
pears, etc., are raised in abundance. The forests of pine, fir, 

and cedar are extensive, and lumber is 
exported, in large quantities. Stock- 
^"'" — raising, mining, and salmon-fishing 
are, also, important 

60. Salerrij the capital, contains excellent 
educational institutiona 

6L Portland^ the metropolis, is the com- 
mercial center of Oregon, Washington, Ida- 
ho, and Western Montana. 

62. Washington extends farther west 
than any other part of the United States, 
excepting Alaska. 

63. Puget (pa'jet) Sound affords ex- 
cellent harbors. 

64. The leading industries are agri- 
^ culture, lumbering,^ ship-building, min- 
ing, stock-raising, and salmon-fishing. 

65. Olympia (onm'pta) is the capital. 

66. Seattle (se&t'tl), the largest city in 
the state^ is an important sear-port 

67. Idaho is a little larger than Kan- 
sas. It is remarkable for the pictur- 
esque scenery of its mountains, 
lakes, and water-falls.^ 

68. Nearly all the valtuible 

minerals and metals are found 

here. Gold and silver mining, 

. and stock-raising, are the 

' sources of wealth. 

69. Boise (boi'z^) City, the 
■-' capital and metropolis, is the 

center of an important mining 

70. Lewiston is at the head 
of navigation on Snake River. 

71. Montana is nearly twice 
the size of Kansas. Its sur- 
face, except in the north-east- 
ern part, is rugged and mount- 

72. Mining and stock-raising are the chief industries. 

73. Hel'ena, the capital, and Butte (bat), the second 
city in the state, are centers of rich mining regions. 

74. Wyoming contains a part of the great continental 
divide, or water-shed, of the United States, and some of the 
soiu'ces of the Mississippi, the Colimabia, and the Colorado. 

1. The Imnbei^millB of Washington are the largest in the world. The straight, 
tough fir-trees, many of them exceeding three hundred feet in height, are unsur- 
paased for masts and spars of vessels. The most productive coal mines on the 
Pacific Coast are in this state. 

2. Fend d'Oreille {pend do reel'—ear-fing) and CcBur d'Alene {kur dd Idn—ths 
heart qf Alene) lakes, renowned for the grandeur and beauty of their scenery, are 
favorite summer resorts. SMthVnt Fallg rival Niagara, in magnificence. Per miles 

above and below the falls, the Snake River passes through a volcanic ca&on, nearly 
1,000 feet in depth. The height of the main fall is 210 feet. The Three Tetons 
(td tbns^^ extending into Idaho and Wyoming, are famous landmarks to travelers. 
The Grand Teton, or Mount Hayden, is more than 13,800 feet above the level of the sea. 
3. Mauvaisee Terres occupy the greater part of the region between the Yellow- 
stone and Missouri rivers. Some of the river cafions rival in extent, the Grand 
Cafion of the Colorado. 

tHU pacific coast and rooky mountain division. 


75, Stock-raising is the leading 
employment. In the south-west, are 
valuable coal mines, 

7G. Cheyenne (shi^nOj the capital 
and comnaercial center, is an impor- 
tant cattle market, 

7 7. The Tellowstone National Park 
contains beautiful 
lakes and cata- 
racts, the Grand 
Canon of the Yel- 
lowstone River, 
and the most re- 
markable gey- 
sers and boiling 
springs in the 

78, Alaska oc- 
cupies the north- 
western portion of 
North America, One third 
of the territory is situated 
within the Arctic Circle. 
Its area is about one sixth 
that of the United States.* 

HiQ boCk i aiVAH LARI. 

79, The climate of the 
Pacific Region is mild and 
moistj while that of the 
Arctic Slope and the inte- 
rior is extremely cold,* 

80. The Arctia Slope is 
remarkable for frozen 
swamps ; the Fticific SlopCy 

for glaciers and fogs; and the interior drained by the 
Yu'kon, for evergreen forests. 

4. The AleutiAn ZdandB consist of a chain of peaks, TMng to a hei^t of a 
few hundred feet above the sea-leveL They are all of voloanic origin. 

6. The Yukon Biver is one of the longest rivers on the continent, lieutenant 
Sohwatka, who descended it on a raft, reports its length to be 2,044 miles. 

6. The male seals are about seven feet in length. They begin to land on 
St. Paul Island about the middle of May ; and, from this i)eriod until the inTtaing 
of the female seals in June, are engaged, chiefly, in fighting for possession of their 
respective places. These are over four feet in length. The pelts, or skins, are 
taken from the young male seal only. The seals are killed by striking them on the 
head. The pelts are dressed, and the long hairs plucked from them, leaving the 
dark, gray for, which is then dyed. 

7. Other important Gltles.— Ik Obboov,— JRwl Btrtkmd is a railway terminus. 
Albany is situated in the midst of a rich agricultural district. 7%t DaOet is the 
center of an extensive trade with Eastern Oregon and Idaho. AttoHa is the center 
of the salmon packing interest. 

8. In Washikqtov,— TVed'fikK, the terminus of the N. P. K. B., IS a business 
center. BpO'Mne is the chief commercial center of Bastem Washington. 

9. In iDABo^—Man^idier, BaeatsUo, MotofW, BoaOnurg^ BdUwi, BaUey, Wardntr^ Eagk 
Boek, maekfooi, Paris, MA Ud' OUy, are mining towns. 

10. IH Montana,— C^nof JUZf, Anaeanda, MUsaula, BoMman, MUa CUy, Fort BaUon, 
IMtiation, BUUngi, Dm Lodgi, Wiektt, OlmUtkn, Vk^la CUy, 

81. Fnr seals^ whales, walruses, 
and sahnon are plentiful. The 
Pribiloff' Islands contain the 
chief seal-fisheries of the world.* 

82. Most of the inhabitants of Alaska are Indians. 


Uach pupil may write a letter aiHmt this seciionf aa 
directed on page 4^, 


Ea4^h pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on this 
section^ as shown on page 43. 

11. In Wtoxino,— XdKamitf OUy is a cattle market JBt^anMton Is the center of 
the coal-mining region. 

12. Natural Soeoery.— Among the objects of Interest in this region are the cas- 
cades and dalles of the Columbia Biver, the Spokane Palls In Washington, and 
the glaciers of Mt. Rainier {rdfph'). The lakes of Northern Idaho are favorite hunt- 
ing-grounds, and attract tourists from all parts of the country. The Yellowstone 
Park, the "wonderland of America,** contains over 1,000 geysers and hot springs. 
Some of these geysers send up great jets of hot water to the height of two hundred 
and fifty feet. The park is about sixty-five miles long, and fifty-five miles wide. 
It is under the control of the Seoretaiy of the Interior. 

13. Historical Notes.— 7!^ CohmMa Biver wu diteovered by Captain Ghrey, in 
1792. This territory was explored by XjCwIs and Olarke in 1804. The Territory 
of Oregon embraced what is now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Oregon was 
admitted into the Union, as a state, in 1860 ; Washington and Montana, in 1880. 

14. Montana and Wyoming formed a part of Missouri Territory. Father de Smet, 
a Jesuit missionary, spent many years among the Indians of this region, and founded 
several missions. Montana and Wyoming have been the scenes of much bloodshed, 
owing to Indian wars. In 1876, Oeneral Ouster and his entire command were sur- 
rounded and massacred by the Sioux (ft^, under their famous chief, " Sitting BnlL** 

16. AUuka was purchased of the Russian Gtovemment in 1867. It was organ- 
ized as a territory in 1884. Idaho and Wyoming were admitted as states in 1880. 

warn f I ^ r ¥ »- 

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1. British America comprises the Dominion of Canada 
and the province of Newfoundland. 

2. The Dominion of Canada embraces the provinces of 
British Columbia, Manitoba (man i to bao, Ontario, Quebec', 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, 
besides several territories and districts. Its area is about 
equal to that of the United States. 

8. The surface is mostly a vast plain, bordered by 
a high plateau in the west, on which stand the Rocky 
Mountains and the Cascade Range. 

4. A chain of lakes ^ extends from the mouth of the 
Mackenzie River to the Great Lakes. The St Lawrence, 
Nelson, and Mackenzie rivers drain the principal basins. 

5. The Arctic Archipelago is a cold, desolate region. 

6. The Magnetic North Pole is situated near the west- 
ern coast of Boothia (bcJb'thsA) Peninsula. 

7. The climate of the Pacific Slope is mild; but else- 
where, the winters are of great severity. The summers 
are short, and in the southern provinces, hot. 

8. A belt of timber, mostly pine, extends from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. The Pacific 
Slope is covered with forests of fir; the valley of the St. 
Lawrence contains growths of maple, oak, and elm. 

9. The central prairie regions are covered with luxu- 
riant crops of wild grasses, and, where cultivated, yield 
large crops of grain. 

10. The wild animals comprise the bison, bear, moose, 
wolf, beaver, otter, ermine (gr'min), mink, and marten, 
most of which are hunted for their skins. The coast 
waters abound in seal, cod, and salmon. 

11. The minerals comprise gold, silver, and coal, which 
are mined in the west, and copper, which is found near 
Lake Superior. Coal is mined in Nova Scotia, also. 

12. The chief industries in the eastern provinces are 
lumbering and fishing. The central regions are agricult- 
ural. The uninhabited regions of the north yield valuable 
furs, in great quantities. 

13. Most of the inhabitants are of English descent. 
In the eastern provinces, however, there are many de- 
scendants of the early French settlers. 

14. The government of the dominion is vested in the 
Governor-General and Parliament. The Governor-General 
is appointed by the sovereign of Great Britain. Parliar 
ment consists of a Senate and a House of Commons. The 

L The lakee and ri^exB of the central region form such a net-work, that, during 
part of the year, portage, or canoe communication, may he effected between the 
different rivers, or even between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay. 

2. Vaxux>uver (van hob' ver) was an English navigator, who discovered the island, 
and explored much of the North Pacific Coast region. 

3. Steamen ply on the Bed Biver of the North, and on Manitoba and Winni- 
peg lakes. 

4. WdUand Ouuil« conneotizig lakes Brie and Ontario, and Bideau (re diy) Canal, be- 

members of the Senate are appointed by the Governor- 
General. The members of the House are elected by the 
people. Each province has a Lieu ten' ant-Qovemor, and a 

15. Ottawa is the capital of the Dominion of Canada. 
It contains magnificent public buildings. 

16. British Columbia, including Vancouver and other 
islands, is the largest and most mountainous province of 
the dominion. Its mines of gold and coal are valuable. 
Lumber, fish, and wool are exported. 

1 7. Victoria, on Vancouver Island,^ is the capital and 

18. Manitoba is noted for wheat and furs.' 

19. Winnipeg (win'l p6g), the capital, is the agricultural 
and commercial center. 

20. Ontario, the most important province, contains 
nearly one third the population of the dominion. Grain, 
fruit, and lumber are the principal products. Petroleum. 
copper, and iron are obtained near Lake Superior.* 

21. Toronto, the capital of the province, is noted for 
its manufactures and educational institutions. It is an 
important railway center and lake-port. 

22. Hamilton, situated near the western extremity of 
Lake Ontario, is an important lake-port and manufactur- 
ing center. 

23. Quebec is hilly. Its winters are extremely cold; 
its summers, warm, short, and foggy. 

24. Its agricultural region is south of the St. Lawrence. 
and produces good crops of oats, potatoes, and hay. The 
most valuable export is lumber. 

25. The people of this province are, chiefly, descendants 
of early French settlers. 

26. Quebec, the capital, is the oldest city in the do- 
minion. The heights, on which the upper portion of 
the city is built, are strongly fortified.' The principal busi- 
ness part of the city occupies the low ground. 

27. Montreal, the metropolis, is noted for its magnifi- 
cent cathedrals, and the tubular bridge* across the St 
Lawrence River. 

28. New Brunswick is noted for lumber and ship- 

29. Fredericton is the capital of New Brunswick. 
80. St. John is the metropolis and largest port 

tween Lake Ontario and Ottawa River, enable vessels to pass from the Oreat LakatB 
the ocean, thereby avoiding Niagara Falls and the rapids In the St. Lawrence BiTer. 

5. The fortresB of Quebec, next to that of Gibraltar, is considered the 8dx)ng«t 
in the world. It was, however, captured by Gtenera' Wolfe during the French 
and Lidian War. 

6. The Bay of Fundy is remarkable for its high tides and the rapidity with 
which the tide wave travels. 

• Wlfu lar drid^, a bridge in the form of a tube, made of iron platee riveted togetlitf- 

31. Nova Scotia has more aea-coast than any other 
province. Ship-building and the fisheries constitute the 
chief industries. Its coal-fields are eztensive. Gold and 
gypsum {jip'sum) are also mined. 

32- SalifaXj the capital^ has an excellent harbor, and 
is the chief British naval station in North America* 

33. Prince Edward Island, the smallest province, is the 
most densely populated. Agriculture and fishing are the 
chief occupations ; fish and eggs, the principal exports. 
84. Charhttetovm (shftr'l6tto^wTi) is the capital 
86. Newfoundland is noted for its barren soil, cold 
climate, and dense fogs.' 

86. Its cod, salmon, and seal fisheries give employment 
to about nine tenths of the inhabitants. 

87. St John' 8 the capital, is the most ecwterly city in 
North America, south of Greenland.* 

7. The denM ibgs which prevail in this latitude, are dne to the meeting of the 
cold, Arctic Current with the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. Ihiring the spring 
and sommer, icebergs and pack-ice are bronght down by the Arctic Current, and 
drift about until melted. It ii for this reason, that the steam-ship route between 
America and Great Britain is one of the most dangerous in the world. 

8. The Distriot of lAbrador is under the control of Newfoundland. 

0. Hudson Bay Oompaay, an English corporation, was organised by Prince 
Bnpert and others, to whom was granted the ezdusiTe privilege of trade and 
commerce in this region. The chief trai&o was in furs. The land was purchased 
from this company, by the Dominion government, in 1868. 


38. The Terri- 

t o r ie s were f o r m e rl y 
owned by the Hudson ..i 

Bay Company.* ' ;" 

39. TJic southern par- J 
iions are becoming impor- 
x»nt wheat-raising regions. 
Iiegi7ia(r&irndi) and Battle- 
ford are fur-trading centers. 

40. Most of the inhabitants of the territories are Indians. 


JEkich pwpil may write a letter ainrnt the Dominion of 
Canada, as directed on page 32. 


Each pupil mxiy prepare a Written Exercise on the 
Dominion of Canada, as shown on page 32. 

10. Historioal Notes.— The French claimed Canada by right of the discovery 
by Cartier (Mr (y(!0. French missionaries explored the St. lAwrence and parts of 
the Mississippi Valley, and their latwrs with the Indians, who soon became their 
steadfast friends, bore testimony to their honor and sincerity. The English claimed 
the territoiy by virtue of Cabot*s discovery. Several wars resulted from the oppos- 
ing claims. The last, known as the French and Indian War, was a bitter struggle 
which ended in the cession of the oountry to England. 

11. Naca SooHa (New Scotland) was first settled by the French, who called it 
Acadia, During the French and Indian War, it fell into the hands of the EngUsh, 
end mai^ of the inhabitants were driven into exile. 


4.40ygag^A.M B 3:aO>ggxA.M. q_ 

— *'^Cit^o5J%:,ico 






Location. — In what direction Is Mexico from the United States ? 
What two rivers form part of the boundary between Mexico and the 
United Stares? What large gulf east?— west? What ocean west and 
south? What sea south-esist? What tropic crosses the central part? In 
what zone is the southern part ? — the northern part ? 

Outline. — In what greneral direction is the trend of the western coast? 
How does this direction compare with that of the mountain chain ? 
What peninsula in the north-western part? What grulf and bays indent 
the western coast? Where is the Gulf of Tehuantepec (fatDdntapSif) What 
cape at the southern extremity of Lower California? Where is Cape 
Corrientes (iWrri#n'«f«)?— Cape Roxo?— Cape Catoche ikdtOchOf)? 

Surface. — Of what does the grreater part of the surface consist? ^w#. 
M high piaieau, ealted the Mexican Ttaieau. In what part of Mexico are 
the Sierra Madro {a Sr'rdma'drS) Mountains? Where are the lowlands? 
"Where is Volcano Popocateptl ? — Volcano Orizaba (^rtftW'Wf)? — Volcano 
Colima (kdlS'md)? What part of the Colorado River Is In Mexico? 

States. — In what part of Mexico Is Sonora («^ nym)? — Chihuahua 
(cAJmkI'w*?)? — Coahuila (iWdltcyW) ?— TamauUpas (tJ maw 19' pds) ? In what 
part is Vera Cruz (r(5' rdf ArdWA)?— Guerrero (^rra'r^)?— Yucatan? — Jalisco 
(hdOt'kO). In what state is the capital of Mexico? 

Climate and Products.— What isotherm crosses the southern part? 
WTiat minerals are obtained in Mexico? What grains? What fruits? — 
other tropical products ? Where are the i)earl oyster fisheries ? 

Cities. —What is the capital of Mexico? What large city In Guana- 
juato (^u\i na Atoa't^)? — in Jalisco? Where Is Mataraoras (mdt a nuy rat) ? 
VThat sea-ports on the Gulf Coast? — on the Pacific Coast? 

Commercial Ceogrraphy.— What railway connects the city of Mex- 
ico with the leading cities of the United States? ^»/. The Mexican 
Central, by way of El ^\ieo {it pd^sd). Where Is the narrowest part of 
Mexico? What isthmus is it? What is its width? {See $oate qf mUst.) 


Location. — In what direction is Central America from the United 
States ? — from Mexico ? — from South America ? What sea north-east ? 
What ocean south-west ? In what zone Is Central America ? 

Outline. — In what direction is the trend of the western coast? What 
bay indents the northern coast?— the western coast? What firolf washes 
the south-eastern coast? Where is Cape Graclas a Dios (ffrd^tidi d di'Ot)? 

Surface. — Is Central America a highland, or a lowland, region ? Men- 
tion three high volcanoes. Where are they ? Mention two lakes. Which 
is the larger of these lakes ? What is its distance from the Pacific Coast V 
With what sea is it connected ? How wide is the Isthmus of Panama ? 

Countries. — What republic in the north-western part of Central 
America? What British colony In the northern part? Where is Hon- 
duras ihiindcd^rru)? Which of these republics border on the Pacific Ocean 
and the Caribbean Sea? Which borders on the Pacific Ocean only ? Which 
is the smallest ?— the most southern? Which contains the largest lakes? 

Climate and Products. — What is the mean annual temi)erature of 
Central America? Mention its principal products. 

Cities. —Mention the largest city in Central America. Of what is it 
the capital? Of what republic Is Tegucigalpa (fd gOb a gdi' pa) the capital? 
— San Jose {adnhOsd')? Mention the capitals of the other republics. 


Location. — What part of the United States is nearest the West In- 
dies? Point toward the West Indies. Which is the most northern of 
these islands? — the most southern? What Is its latitude? 

Surface. — Which Is the largest Island of the West Indies? In what 
part are its highest mountains?— Its lowlands? Which Is the next In 
size? What is the character of Its surface? What republic forms its east- 
em portion? — Its western? Which Is the larger of these two republics? 

Islands. — In what group are the four large islands comprised? What 
group north of Cuba ? — east of Porto Rico ? \VTiere are the Windward 
Isles? What group west of the Windward Isles? Where is the Island of 
St. Thomas? — Trinidad? Where are the Barbadoes (bdrbd^dOe)? What 
island was the first land discovered by Columbus ? — when ? Where is it? 
Between what two Islands is Windward Passage ? — Mona Passage? Be- 
tween what bodies of land is the Channel of Yucatan ?— Florida Strait ? 

Cities. — Where Is Havana?— Ma can' zas ?— Port au Prince ?— Kingston ? 
-Puerto Principe (ptoir' td prJn'atf |*I) ?— Nas' sau ?— San Juan («on h(fd dn*) ? 

Commercial Geography. — In what direction does the water of the 
Caribbean Sea fiow? — of Florida Strait? On what waters would you sail 
trom New Orleans to Havana ? — from New York to Havana ? — to the 
Isthmus of Panama ?» — from Vera Cruz to Nassau?— to Trinidad? 

1. Th4 Itthmui of Panama is croflsed by railroad. Commercial rotUm between the AtUintic 
and Paciflc oceana, proposed, or ander constnictlon, are the Paoama Canal, acroia the Isthmoa ; 
canals connecting with Nicaragoa Lake ; and a ahip nilway acroea the lathmoa of Tehuantepec. 




1. Mexico is a republic, composed of twenty-seven 
states, a federal* district, and the Territories of Lower 
California and Tepic.^ It is situated in the North Tem- 
perate and the Torrid Zone. The Tropic of Cancer crosses 
the center of the country. Mexico is about one fourth 
the size of the United States. 

2. The surface is a high plateau, fringed by a belt of 
low, narrow coast. Several ranges of the Rocky Mountain 
System, of which the Sierra Madre (sssr^rfi maMrS) is 
the highest, extend through the country from north-west 
to south-east. 

3. A remarkable chain of volcanoes^ crosses the highest 
part of the plateau. The summits of several of these are 
above the limit of perpetual snow. Vol. Popocatepetl is the 
highest mountain in Mexico, and next to Mt. Wrangel and 
Mt St Elias, the highest in North America. (See page 4,) 

4. The lakes are small and ijnimportant. Most of 
them are situated in the Valley of Mexico. Tezcuco (tfe 
kc5b'kO) the largest, is navigable. 

5. The rivers are short, and, excepting the Rio Colorado 
and Rio Grande, not navigable above tide-water. 

6. The climate is hot and pestilential along the nar- 
row coast, but mild and healthful in the high interior. 
In going from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, one may, 
within a few hours, experience nearly every gradation of 
climate, and find the productions peculiar to each zone. 
There are but two seasons; the rainy, and the dry. 

7. The vegetable productions comprise mahogany, 
rose-wood, mesquite,^ various dye-woods, the agave,* and 

1. The official title Is, Eftados Unidoe de ifc^,— the United States of Mexico. 

2. Most of these TOloanoes show si^rns of activity. Popocatepetl constantly 
emits vapors. Its crater is large, and contains immense deposits of sulphur. The 
Bite of Jomllo was formerly a level, cultivated plain. In 1759, a series of violent 
earthquakes occurred, which continued for several months. Then, without warn- 
ing, the ground burst, and a fissure,* several miles long, formed. Enormous 
quantities of lava, ashes, and scoria were ejected.* Within twenty-four hours, 
six volcanic cones had been formed, the highest of which is now Jorullo. During 
the past few years, however, activity has almost wholly ceased, and vegetation now 
covers the sides of the mountain, nearly to the rim of the crater. 

3. The wood of the meaquite is prized for its fine brown color. The foliage is 
an excellent fodder,* and is often the only food of the animals which form the 
numerous pack-trains.* The bean of the mesquite is an excellent substitute* for 
the ordinary bean or frijole {fte Wla), It is frequently used as an article of food 
by the natives. The grum exuding from the bark of certain species of mesquite is 
similar to gum ar'abic. 

4. The agave, or American aloe, of which the common century plant is a 
species, is valuable for its juice, from which a fermented* liquor, called pulque 
(pOdl'kd)^ is made. By distilling* the pulque, a strong, spirituous liquor, known as 
mezquel (mez *w/*), is produced. Both are much used in Mexico. The root of the 
agave is composed, mainly, of starch, which, when heated for several days, is con- 
verted into sugar,— the whole forming a mass of delicious, sugary pulp. The fibers 
of a similar variety yield sisal (m adl') hemp. 

5. There are about forty species of oaotos growing in the ar'id regions of 
Mexico. Certain species are the home of small bugs, or insects, whose bodies, 
when dried, constitute the edch' i nial of commerce. Carmine, a valuable dye, is 
prepared from cochineaL 

6. The oaoao {ka ka*o) tree produces a bean from which cocoa and chocolate 
are prepared. 

7. VanillSy the seed, or bean, of a climbing plant, is valuable as a flavor. 

8. A hideous lizard, called the Gila {hi' In) monster, is found in the rivers near 
the coasts. The ta ran' tu la is an enormous spider whose bite is iwisonous. The 
centipedes* of Mexico sometimes attain a length of ten or twelve inches. 

9. The gold and silTer mines were worked by the Aztecs and Tuiiecs, many 
years before the conquest of Mexioo by the Spaniards, 

cactus." Oranges, lemons, pine-apples, olives, and bananas 
are extensively cultivated. Tobacco, com, sugar-cane, 
cocoa,' beans, coffee, vanilla,' and th6 indigo-plant are also 

8. The wild animals of Mexico comprise the grizzly bear, 
puma or Mexican lion, and coyote. Venomous* reptiles 
and insects are numerous.® Cattle, horses, and donkeys, in 
vast numbers, are the principal domestic animals. 

9. The minerals include gold, silver, tin, quicksilver, 
and marble.' 

10. The leading industries are agriculture, stock-rais- 
ing, and mining. Coffee, sugar, cotton, cochineal, vanilla, 
metals, hides, and ornamental woods are exported. Great 
progress has been recently made in the building of rail- 
roads ; but the unsettled condition of the government de- 
presses every kind of industry. 

11. The people consist chiefly of mixed races: those 
of Spanish and Indian origin, being called mestizos (m€z 
le'zos), and of Negro and Indian origin, zambos (zam' 
boz). About one tenth are Creoles,^® or descendants of 
Spanish colonists. Spanish is the language of the countr>\" 

12. Mexico, the federal capital, is the metropolia It 
is situated in the Valley of Mexico, and has an elevation 
of about 7,400 feet above the sea-level. 

1 8. Quadalaxara (g>?va da la ha' ra) and Puebla (pwSb' ifi) 
are manufacturing centers. 

14. Vera Cruz is the chief Atlantic sea-port. 

15. Acapulco (a ka pdbrko) and Quay mas {QyjvV mSs) are 
the principal ports on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. 

10. The Creoles and native Spaniards live and dreas in much tbe same nuui- 
ner as the people of the United States. Among the lower classes, the chief articlos 
of food are frijoles, cooked with chile Colorado {chUfUl cHord'dSiy or red pepper, 
and tortillas {por ted' yah»). The latter are made of meal, or bran flour, rolled, or 
pressed, into thin, wafer-like sheets, and then baked. 

11. Meiioan houses are nearly all constructed of sdobe (<Id9^M), or mud, 
molded into large bricks, and dried in the sun. The roofs are flat, thatched with 
coarse grass, and then covered with mud. The floors are conunonly of hardened 
earth, or cem'ent. Such dwellings, while not remarkable for their beauty, are 
more comfortable than if built of burnt bricks or of wood. The houses of the 
better classes are frequently built of stone, the interior being richly frescoed * and 
ornamented. But few houses are more than one story high. 

12. Historioal Notes.— At the time of its discovery by the Spaniards, Mexico 
was the home of an intelligent and civilized people, known as the Aas' teca. 

13. Early in the 10th century. Cor* tez^ a Spanish adventurer, invaded the coun- 
try, seized the native king, Montezuma {monti tw/ma)^ and, after a short, but 
fierce cenflict, made Mexico a dependency of Spain. 

14. For three hundred years^ Spanish viceroys, or governors, oppressed and plun- 
dered the country, with the utmost barbarity. 

15. In 1821, incited by Hidalgo (edal'go), a priest, the people threw off the 
Spanish yoke. Mexico, soon after, became a republic. Ever since, however, the 
country has been distracted by wars and revolutions, brought about by the schemes 
of rival military leaders. 

16. In 1846, war broke out between Mexico and the United States, because of 
a dispute about Texas. 

17. In 1861, McoBimUUm, supiwrted by the French government, invaded Mexico, 
and proclaimed himself emperor. His conquest* was short'-Uved, for he and several 
of his followers were executed. 

♦ /9d'er al, composed of states, or districts, fer minted^ changed by heat, or ohem- 

vSn'omo&8, poisonous, noxious. ical action. 

fis^eare, cleft, narrow chasm. die M' ing^ rectifying, purifying. 

ejietf tfrf, thrown out. fXn' H pede (lit. , a hundred feet), an insect 

fiki'der, food for cattle, hay, straw. with a great number of feet. 

jpadUraifw, numbers of animals carry- fHfe'eoed, painted on walls. 

Ing baggage. clh%' quett^ overthrow, subjugation. 



16. Central America forms the most southern part 
of North America. It comprises five republics, and the 
British colony of Balize (ba \&z'y It is situated in the 
Torrid Zone. 

17. The surface resembles that of Mexico, being a 
high plateau situated between low coasts. The climate, 
however, is hotter and more moist, and its vegetation is, 
therefore, more luxuriant. 

18. It contains several volcanoes, two of which, Fuego 
and Agua,* were recently in a state of eruption. Destruc- 
tive earthquakes are of frequent occurrence. Lake Nicer 
ragua (nekarfi'gwa) is the largest lake. 

19. The principal products are coffee, dye-woods, and 
sugar. Q-old, silver, and coal are found in the highlands. 

20. The inhabitants are, chiefly, meztizos and Indians. 
The white people are mainly of Spanish descent.* There 
are many European merchants* and planters* in Balize 
and Costa Rica (k6s'ta rs'ka). The language of the 
country is Spanish. 

21. Chiatemala (ggi te maMa), the largest city of Central 
America, is the chief commercial port. 

22. Salvador (saivador') and Le'on are also cities of 
commercial importance. 

28. The West Indies comprise two chains of islands, 
extending south-east from the coast of North America. 

24. The Bahama (baha'ma) Islands, about 600 in 
number, are low, coral formations. Their climate is warm 
and healthful. 

25. The sponge fisheries constitute the chief industry." 

26. Oranges^ lemons^ and pine-apples are the principal 
fruits. Salt is obtained from the lagoons* of Turk's 
Island, by evaporation. 

27. Nassau^ the capital and commercial port, is situ- 
ated on Providence Island. 

28. The Greater Antilles (anttriez) comprise the 
islands of Cuba, Hayti (ha'tl), Jamaica, and Porto Rico. 
Their surface is mountainous; their climate and produc- 
tions are those of tropical regions.* The population is 
made up of Spaniards, Creoles, and Negroes. 

29. Cuba exports sugar, molasses, coflFee, fruits, tobacco, 
and cigars. Its forests contain ebony, mahogany, and 

80. Havana, the capital, is the center of a vast com- 
merce. It is an important sugar market. 

31. Ma tan' zas also is an important city in Cuba. 

32. The Island of Hayti comprises two independent 
republics, Hayti and Santo Domingo (san'to do men'oo). 
The people and their rulers are Negroes. 

33 Port au Prince is the capital of Hayti; and Santo 
Domingo, of Santo Domingo. 

34. Jamaica yields allspice, in addition to the products 
which are similar to those of the other islands. Rum 
is the principal export.* Turtle-fishing* is important. 

36. Kingston is the capital 

86. Porto Rico contains many large and fertile plains. 

37. The Lesser Antilles extend from Porto Rico to 
the mouth of the Orinoco River. 

88. St. Thomas, a free port, has an excellent harbor. 

39. Trinidady the largest of the group, is famous for 
its mud volcanoes and its lake of pitch.' 

40. T?ie Berinudas are noted health resorts. 

Each pupil may write a letter about one or more of 
these countries and islands, as directed on page 32. 


Ea^h pupil way prepare a Written Exercise on these 
countries and islands, as shown on page 32. 


The Bepublics or 




TTioMTftg^i fv, ...... ^ . 

Manafrua (ma nS'pioa) 
Tegacigalpa. .. 

San Joee 

Coffee, India rubber. 

Coffee, hides, mahogany, India nibber. 

Coffee, indigo. 


Costa Hies 

Coffee, fruits, sugar. 

Salvador . . . .^ 

j San Salvador 1 
\ (founded, 1528) f • • 


Indigo, sugar, balsam. % 
Coffee, dye- woe ds, etc. 

Baliae (colony) 

2. Foego ifwd'go), ftre^ and agua {fVgtedj^ water. In 1541, a torrent of water, 
ejected from Agua, destroyed the city of Quatemala. The present city of Guate- 
mala, sometimes called New O^uatemala, has been built near the site of the old city. 

3. The sponge of commerce is the skeleton of an animal that resembles a 
plant, growing from the bottom of the sea. In shallow water, the sponges are 
detached by means of long-handled shears. In deep water, trained divers are 
employed. The sponges are first exposed to the hot sun, or buried in sand until 
the fleshy substance has decomposed. They are then washed, bleached, assorted, 
and shipped to various parts of the world. 

4. The West Indies are situated in the region of the cyclones qt the Atlantic 
Ocean, and are, therefore, frequently visited by most destructive hurricanes. 

5. "Rum. is made by distilling fermented molasses. 

6. mie turtle is one of the necessaries of life among the negro population. Its 
flesh is used for food, its oil is a substitute for butter, and the shell is wrought 
into ornamental and useful articles. 

7. The pitoh, in the middle of the lake, is constantly boiling. 

8. HiBtoriaal Notee.--8an Salvador Island was discovered by Columbus on his 
first voyage to the New World. The Bahama Islands, Jamaica, and Trinidad belong 
to Great Britain; Cuba and Porto Bico, to Spain; Guadaloupe and Martinique 
{mar A nXk'), to France ; and St Thomas, etc., to Denmark. (See p. 105^ f if.) 

9. Th£ Cubant have made several unsuccessful attempts to free themselves 
from the Spanish government. They are permitted to send a representative to the 
Spanish cortes {kSr' U8\ or parliament. Since 1880, arrangements for the liberation 
of the slaves have been gradually carried out. The remains of Colimibus are buried 
in one of the cathedrals of Havana. 

10. Hayti was formerly a French iKissession. Prior to the French Revolution, 
most of the Negroes were slaves. In 1793, they revolted and obtained their free- 
dom. At this time, the English attempted to seize the island, but Toussaint 
rCuverture, a brave Negro, hastily raised an army, and repelled the invaders. 
L^Ouverture was appointed governor, and proved to be a statesman of extraordi- 
nary ability. Napoleon Bonaparte treacherously attempted to restore slavery; an<l, 
seizing rOuverture, conveyed him to France, where he died. The attempt was 
unsuccessful, for the Haytians revolted, and, in 1804, gained their independence. 

11. Santo Domingo became a republic in 1844. 

12. The region included in Central America was discovered by Columbus, in 
1502. It was made a Spanish possession in 1525, and so remained for about 300 
years. Several times, the republics were united as a confederation, but the imion 
was not lasting. The last attempt was made in 1885, by C^neral Barrios, the 
president of Guatemala. The attempt was resisted by the other republics, and 
the civil war which followed, ended in the defeat and death of Barrioc 

* detfint^ lineage, birth. mgr'chantt, traders, traffickers. 

pldntferf^ agriculturists, generally on a la goM^ a marsh, or shallow lake, espe- 
laige scale. cially one into which sea-water flows. 


AMERICA -%^^^^^^- A 

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F K K r 

B O I. I T I A 

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Location. — In what part of the Western Hemi- 
sphere Is South Amerloa? In what direction is it 
from North America? What isthmus Joins South 
America to North America? What strait south of 
the continent? 

Latitude and Longrltude. — What great circle 
crosses the northern iwirt of South America? What 
Is reckoned from it? What tropic crosses South 
America? In what two zones Is South America? 
What is the dividing line between the Northern 
and the Southern Hemisphere ? Is the greater part 
of South America north, or south, of the Equator? 
What season of th« yet4,r is it 
now in that part ? Whnt in 
the length of the lonj^*'*- 
day at the Equator 
at the parallel of m 
south latitude? 

What parallel 
of latitude crosses 
the northern 
part of South 
America ? — the 
southern part ? 
How many de- 
grees between 
these parallels ? 
What countries 
and islands in thu 
Eastern Hemisphere 
are between the same 
parallels? What me- 
ridian passes through 
the western part of 
South America? What 
part of North America 
is crossed by that 
meridian ? 

Outline. ~ What oceana wash the coast!^ of Souih 
America? What sea north? Into what ocean does It 
open? What two trulfs open into that &ea? What lake 1b 
connected with the Gulf of VeneKnela ? Where is the Gulf 
of Paria ipd*r$d)7 What gulf Indents the south-eastern coast 
of South America ?— what bay ? "What gulf Indents the north-west 
em coast?— what bay? Where Is the Gulf of Penas ipih^fOM)"^ 

Islands. — What Islands north of South America? Which Is at thii 
entrance to the Gulf of Parla? What island at the mouth of the Amazon 
River? Where are the FaUtland Islands? What group of Islands forms 
the southern part of South America? What atralt eeijarates this group 
from the main-land? Which Is the largest of this group? Mm*. Mn^i Tiertm 
det FuegOf or MCing Vhariet ^o$iik J^and. Mention other islands in this group 
What archipelago w<>st of Chill? Where la the Island of Juan Fernandesfi 
{Hob in' fMrnan' aith)'i Where is the Cho'uos Archipelago? — Wellington Islaud ?- 
Chlloa ifihiaif) Island ?— where are the Chlocha ((Ajwi'dy) Islands?- Lo^bos Islands V 

Capes.— Which Is the northern cajKa of South America ? — the eastern?-* the 
western? Whafr ce-po Is north of that cupe ? What cape projects from the eouth- 
eastern part of Tlerra del Fuego ? Where Is Cape Horn? — Cape Frio {JH'&)1 

Mountains. — What is the general direction of the mountains in the northern part of 
South America ? — eastern part?— western ? Of what mountains in North America are the 
Andes a continuation ? What three mountain ranges in the northern part of South America ? 
What mountains in the eastern part of Brazil?— in the western part? What high i)eaks on 
the eastern boundary of Chili ? Mention three volcanoes in the north-western part of South 
America. Which is the highest ? {S«$ prqffU.) What volcano in the southern part of Peru ? 

Lakes and Rivers. — What large lake in the northern part of South America? — in the 
western part? What lake in the south-eastern part? How far is it above the level of the 
sea? {jSke prqfOe.) Mention the principal river of South America. In what country are its 
head waters? What small lakes are supposed to form its head waters? What two rivers 
drain those lakes ? What is the general course of the Amazon ? Where is its mouth ? About 
how wide is its mouth? What country comprises most of the Valley of the Amazon? 
Mention its longest tributaries. Where is the Orinoco River ? By what is the Orinoco con- 
nected with the Amazon ? What short river forms part of the bonndary of the Island of 
Marajo (wdlnlMo')? Mention its principal tributary. What wide, but short, river in the 
south-eastern part of South America? By what two rivers is it formed? Mention a large 
tributary of the Parana {pdrdnd'y Where Is the San Francisco River? Why are there no 
large rivers west of the Andes? To what tributary, or place, is the Amazon navigable?— 
the Orinoco?— the Madeira? Toward what points of the compass would you sail in ascend- 
ing tho Amazon ttoxti ita mouth to its source?— the La Plata and Paraguay ?— the Tocantlns? 

— the San Francisco ? — the Magdalena ? — the Orinoco? Where Is the Ohagres {chdfgrUi Blver? 
{Set mtn> of (hi Mhmut qf Panama.) In what direction, and Into what, does it flow ? What is 
being done to enable 8hli>s to cross the Isthmus? Near what two rivers will that canal 
pass ? What waters will it connect, when it is completed ? How does it pass the mountains ? 

Countries. — Which is the largest country of South America?— the smallest? What 
countries border on the Caribbean Sea ? — on the Atlantic Ocean ? — on the Paclflc Ocean ? 
What two countries have no sea-coast ? What country is entirely west of the Andes 
Mountains ? To what two countries does Tlerra del Fuego belong ? Which country extends 
farthest south ? What Is Its most southern point ? What two countries extend farthest 
north ? What country belongs to three Eurox>ean governments ? Mention those governments. 

Climate. — Where Is the Thermal Equator, or line of greatest heat? What is the mean 
temperature of the southern part of Brazil ? What country is in the rainless region ? In 
what part of South America would you And snow at no time during the year?— at all 
times ?^ only In winter? lu what months of the year Id it winter, In the southern part 

of South America? 

Products. — In what parts of South America are cotton and sugar produced?— coffee 
and bananas? Where are cattle extensively raised? In what country is gold found? 
— diamonds? - copper? — qnlcksllver? What medicinal bark Is obtained in South 

- What Is the capital of the largest country In So tit h America ? — of the 

smalleBt?— of the narrowest 7— of the most north-western? 

of the largest republic In South America?— of the 

country which Is drained by the Orinoco River?- 

of the British Colony ? — of the Dutch Colony?— 

of the French Colony? — of Peru?— of Bolivia? 

What capital is very near the Equator? 

Commercial Geography. — Mention the 
sea-ports on the Caribbean Sea. In what 
direction doei the ocean current flow 
near the north-eastern cocist of South 
America?- the eastern?— the western?— 
the north - western ? — the southern ? 
Which are warm currents?— cold cur- 
rents ? 

Would a ship sail with, or 

against, the current, In 
going from, the Isth- 
mus to Cape St. 
Roque?— ftom Cape 
St. Roque to the 
Strait of Magel- 
lan?— in sailing 
around Cape 
Horn Trom the 
Atlantic Ocean ? 
— along the 
coast of Peru ?— 
from Peru to 
the Isthmus? 

If you should 
make a voyage 
around South 
America, what prod- 
ui'i, or products, could 
your ship receive at La 
Giiayra (fd gwi'rd)? — &t 
fJeorgetown ? Of what capital 
city is La Guayra the sea-port? 
sniAiT or iiAOELLAK. j^^ ^^at port could your ship ob- 
tain pepi)er ? — drugs ? — coffee ? — sugar ? — hides ? — 
tallow?— horns? Why? Of what uses are these 
articles? Where would you go for a cargo of cop- 
per ?— niter ?— guano ? Mention some of their uses. 
What part of South America Is as far south of 
the Equator as your state Is north of It? How do 
the seasons there compare with yours? 

Map Drawing.— To draw a map of South Amer- 
ica, construct an oblong diagram eight measures 
from east to west, by twelve measures from north 
to south. On the sides mark the four principal 
capes: — Cape, or Point, Galllnas, one and three 
fourths measures, and Csipe Horn, three measures, 
from the left side; Cape Blanco, three and one 
fourth, and Cape St. Roque, three and one half 
measures from the upper side. Between them draw 
the outline of South America, then mark the 
mountains, rivers, countries, cities, etc. Each meas* 
ure represents the length of Kansas — 400 miles. 



l»AailXO OOABT. 





1. Position. — South America, the southern part of the 
Western Continent, is situated chiefly in the Torrid Zone. 
Its southern extremity is in the South Temperate Zone. 

2. Size and Outline.— Its area is nearly twicejthat of 
the United States. In shape, it is a triangle, which tapers* 
to a point toward the south. The coast Une has but few 

8, Surface. — ^Like North America, it has mountain ranges 
in the west and east, and a vast plain in the center. 

4. The Andean Plateau^ the main axis of the conti- 
nent, extends along the entire western coast. It supports 
parallel ranges, which constitute the Andean System. Its 
high peaks are always covered with snow. The highest 
measured peak is Mount Aconcagua (a k6n ka'gwfi), which 
is about 24,000 feet in height.^ The most celebrated vol- 
cano is Cotopaxi (ko to pftks'e).' 

5. ITie Brazilian highlands are traversed by low, 
mountain ranges. 

6. The plateau of Guiana is covered with dense forests. 

7. 2%6 plains of South America cover about one 
half its area. The llanos (lyft'nos) of the Orinoco are tree- 
less plains. During the rainy season, they become a vast 
inland sea. With the disappearance of the water, comes 
a profusion of tropical vegetation, which quickly withers 
under the intense heat of the sim. 

8. TJie selvas of the Amazon are in the region of 

1. In Boliyia and Fern these ranges widen out, forming the Bolivian Flatean. 
CrosBpspurs of mountains connect the parallel ranges, inclosing elevated parks sim- 
ilar to those of Colorado. The Andes are, in many places, veiy steep, with sharp 
cliffs and precipices, narrow passes, and deep chasms. The scenery is grand and 
beantiful. Here, travel and trade are conducted, chiefly, on the backs of horses, 
mules, and llamas (fifmd*), and, sometimes, in chairs strapped to the backs of Indians. 
Chasms are crossed on suspension-bridges made of rope, or of wire. Among the peaks 
which are more than 20,000 feet above the level of the sea, are Sahama (#5 hafmO), Chim- 
borazo {ch\m b9 rl' zS), and Sorata {sd riVtJ) ; and volcanoes Gualateiri {guS IdtairV) and 
Arequipa id rH W p 7). Over 18,000 feet, in heisrht, are volcanoes Atacama {d td kd' md), 
Antisana (dnaed'nd)^ and Cotopaxi. The height of the snow-line, above which the 
mountains are covered with perpetual snow, is, in the tropical regions, 15,000 to 
18,000 feet: in Central Chili, 8,000 feet; and in Southern Chili, 3,000 feet. 

2. The Toloanoea of the Andes are apaong the most in' ter eating physical 
fsaturoa of tho coatiAjat. TLero aro aovsral hundred extinot craters, and a large 

heavy and almost daily showera They are covered with 
forests, vines, and thick nndergrowths. 

9. The pampas are covered with coarse grass, which 
makes them vast herding-places for cattle, horses, and 
sheep. They are treeless, and, in some places, barren. 

10. Lakes. — ^The largest lakes in South America are 
Maracaybo (marakrbo) and Titicaca (titeka'kfi). The 
latter is 12,000 feet above the sea-leveL 

11. Rivers. — On account of the nearness of the Andes 
to the Pacific, there are no large rivers west of those 
mountains. The Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata, with 
their tributaries, drain nearly the whole eastern slojya' 

12. Ths Amazon is the largest, and one of the longest 
rivers of the world. Its course is nearly along the Equator. 
Its highest source is within 70 miles of the Pacific 
Ocean. At its mouth, the river is nearly 200 miles wida 
Its current and the freshness of its water are perceptible • 
200 miles out at sea.' 

13. Th^ basins of the Amazon and Orinoco are not 
separated by any well-defined water-shed. The Cassiquiare 
(kassksa'rfi) River, at the summit of the divide, sends 
part of its waters into the Rio Negro (r©' 6 na'gro), a trib- 
utary of the Amazon, and part into the Orinoco. 

14. The La Plata River and its tributaries flow from 
the Torrid Zone through the South Temperate Zone. Its 
course, therefore, is through regions diflfering from one 
another in climate and productions. The water-«hed, 
which separates its basin from that of the Amazon, is 
low, and in the rainy season, covered with water. 

nnmber that show constant signs of activity. The region of Toloanio actarlty la, 
also, subject to violent earthquakes. In 1868, a series of earthquakes occurred, 
during which the cities of Tacna {fakfnd\ Iquique (liS'iJ), Arequipa, and Arica 
{drVkS^ were destroyed. 

3. The aouioe of the Amaeon has not been determined. Some geographers 
consider the Apurimac (d p6t> rl mdkf)^ a tributaiy of the TJcayale (^HS'la), the 
chief source ; others, a small lake near the town of Pasco. The Amawn Siter is not 
confined to a single channel; in its lower course, it flows through an intricate 
net-work of minor channels. At all seasons of the year, canoe portage is possible 
between the Amazon and the Orinoco. 

4. Quito, Cusoo, Fotosi, Bogota, and Paaoo have elevations varying from 
8,500 to 14,000 feet. In a day*s ride, among the tropical Andes, one may find all 
gradations of climate, with their characteristic vegetable produota. 

* Af'jMT, to beoome smaller gradually toward one end. 
JMT ^11 Mt, diaoemible, capable of being peroeiyed. 



B,— ineOBO BITIB. 





15. Soil. — ^The soil is fertile in nearly all parts of the 
continent The southern part, however, is barren, rocky, 
and desolate. 

1 6. Climate. — ^The climate along the sea-coast is gener- 
ally warm, except in the south. In the interior of the 
lowland plains, the heat is almost intolerable. 

17. On the plateaus and western slope of the conti- 
nent, the climate is noted for its mildnesa Many of the 
cities within the Torrid Zone are situated at such great 
heights that their climate is that of perpetual spring.* 

18. In the Torrid Zone, the prevailing winds are from 
the east. The moisture they bring falls between the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Andes Mountains. The Andes 
are here so high that they intercept* all the moisture, 
causing long, narrow strips of desert between them and 
the Pacific. 

19. In the South Temperate Zone, these conditions are 
reversed.* The rain-bearing winds being from the west, 
the rainless region is east of the Andes. 

20. Vegetation.— The selvas of the Amazon produce a 
wonderful variety of ornamental woods, such as mahogany, 
rosewood, vegetable-ivory, and tortoise-shell wood. The 
India rubber, cacao, and cocoa-palm trees are abundant.' 

21. The lowlands abound in wild grasses, and on the 
mountain slopes, are found the cinchona-tree (slnko'nAJ* 
and many kinds of medicinal planta 

22. TTie chief cultivated plants are coflFee, sugar-cane, 
cotton, tobacco, indigo, manioc,^ and spices. 

23. Animals. — In the Torrid Zone, are found the jaguar 
Cjfig Q ar'), the largest carnivorous* animal of the continent, 
several species of monkeys, the boa-constrictor, tapir, enor- 
mous bats, and reptiles.' 

24. Farther south, the peccary, ant-eater, and arma- 
dillo are numerous. In the mountainous regions, are 
the 11a' ma and vicufta (ve kc5bn' yft).* 

25. The condor, the largest bird of flight, lives in the 
Andes Mountains. Parrots and other birds of beautiful 
plumage abound in the tropical forests. 

26. Minerals. — South America is rich in minerals. A 
large part of the silver now in use in the world was 
obtained from the Andes Mountains. Gold is mined in 
Colombia and Brazil. Chili is the chief source of niter.* 

2 7. People.— Indians are the native inhabitants of South 
America. They were preceded by a civilized people, who 
disappeared soon after the conquest of the country by 
the Spaniards. 

28. Most of the civilized inhabitants are of mixed 
blood, being descendants of the Spaniards and native 
Indians. They speak the Spanish language. The people 
of Brazil are, chiefly, of Portuguese descent, and speak the 
Portuguese language. There are, also, many Negroes. 

29. Industries. — The chief industries of the inhabitants 
of South America are herding,* agriculture, and mining. 

6. The India xnbber tree, when tapped, sives out a milky Juioe, which is 
received in a day cup, or Jar, placed at the incision in the trunk. The juice is 
dried and colored black by exposure to the heat and smoke of a Are. The iyory-nut 
contains a fluid which hardens into a substance resembling ivory. From what animals 
ii ivory oUainsdf The oaoao-tree bears beans, or seeds, from which chocolate and 
cocoa are made. ChdcfolaU is a paste compoecd of the roasted kernel, ground and 
mixed with sugar and cinnamon, or vanilla. The ooooa^pelm bears cocoa-nuts. 

6. Oinohona is one of the most valuable medicinal plants. It was bo named 
from the wife of Count Cinchon, Viceroy of Peru, in the seventeenth century, 
who, by its use, was cured of intermittent fever. From its bark, called Peruvian 
bark, gt4' nIfM is made. 

7. Manioc {mOfrXbc) flour is prepared from the root of the c&s'sava plant. 
The dried pulp,* when ground, is an excellent substitute for flour. The milky 
fluid, when left to stand, deposits a fine starch, which, when washed and dried, 
is the tapiooa {Uip i (foa) of commerce. 

8. Th» bott-oonitriotor often attains a length of 30 feet. The South American 
moDkeyi are Bmall; and, unlike the monkeys of the Old World, have prchensllo* 

tails. The pecoary {pikfka fj^) is a species of wild hog, very savage in its nature. 
The ant-eater is noted for its long, worm-like tongue, which is covered with 
a viscous* fluid. This fluid attracts the ants, and they cluster upon the tongue of 
the animal, which quietly makes a meal of the unwary* insects. The armadil'lo 
is so named from the homy scales which constitute on effectual armor for its 
body. When attacked, it rolls itself into a balL It burrows in the earth, wherj 
it remains during the day-timj. The Ticiina and alpaca {aljOta) arc valuable for 
their flne, woolly hair, used in making delicate fabrics. They resemble the guanaco 
igud nd'kSi and the llama. Tho Uama, a sx)ecie8 of sheep, resembles a cameL It l<) 
used as a beast of burden. Heptiles (rep' tils) are animals which creep, such as 
snakes, lizards, etc. The tapir (tu'pir) resembles a pig, but is much larger, and ha^ 
a short proboscis. The tapir of South America is all black, while that of Asia is 
partly white, or light colored. 

* inter f9pt\ to stop on its passage. 
rs terseeP^ changed to the contrary. 
ear fAv^o tefit, feeding on flesh. 
pUpt soft animal, or vegetable, matter. 

ni'f^r, saltpeter. riyooiis, sticky. 

htnfing^ the care of catUe, horses, etc. 
prthin'AU^ adapted to seize, or grasp. 
unwVry^ not cautious. 




80. The Republic of the United States of Brazil is the largest country in South America, 
the Torrid Zone.» 


uiMA, BaaBSji-TS££^ iStd fiOfft ySt noU 6,) 

It is almost wholly in 

81. It comprises the east-em plateau and the basins of the 
Amazon and the La Plata. The northern and western parts are 
low, swampy, and, during the rainy season, completely inundated. 

82. Near the coast, the valleys are rich and well cultivated. 

33. The greater part of the cowatry has a tropical cUmate. 
The southern part has a temperate climate. 

34. Coffee, cotton, sugar, tobacco, rice, grain, tropical fruits, nuts, 
and spices are raised in abundance. 

85. The leading industries are cattle-raising and agriculture. 

36. The native tribes live in the interior. The ruling people 
are the Portuguese, or their descendants. 

87. Rio Janeiro is the capital and largest city.*® Its chief ex- 
ports are coffee and sugar. 

38. Bahia (bae'a) is the center of the di'amond trade." 

89. Recife (rasfi'fa) exports sugar, cotton, and dye-wooda 

40. The Andes Republics, comprising Colombia," Ec ua dor', 
Peru, Bolivia, and Chili (chil'e), occupy the mountainous region 
along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. 

41. The coast is steep, affording very few harbors. 

42. The ^wrface is rugged. The high plateaus are sterile. The 
chief exports are niter, copper, guano, Peruvian bark, and dye- 

48. This region is subject to earthquakes, and it contains some 
of the most celebrated volcanoes in the world. 

44. The governments are republican in form, modeled after our 
own ; but they are subject to frequent revolutions. 

45. Bogota (bogotao, the capital of Colombia, although near the 
Equator, has a temperate climate all the year.*^ 

46. Panama (pfin a mftO, on the isthmus, is the largest and most 
important city. It is connected by railroad with Colon <ko lonO, or 
As' pin wall.^* Its climate is tropical and unhealthy. 

47. Quito (k6'i6), the capital of Ecuador, is situated on a ver}^ 
high plateau, surrounded by volcanoes. 

48. Guayaquil (gwia ksiO is the chief commercial city. 

49. LiTua (\&'m&), a few miles from the coast, is the capital of 
Peru. Its port is Callao (cfil la'o). 

50. Arequ/ipa (ftrakS'pA) is often shaken by earthquakes. 

bl. La Paz (lapath) is the largest city of Bolivia, and the resi- 
dence of the government. 

0. Brasil was discovered by Vicente Yafies Pinzon, a companion of Columbus, early in 
IBOO. It was settled by Portuguese in the sixteenth century. It became an empire in 1822. 
and remained so until 1889, when It became a republic. Portuguese is the language of the 
country. The area of Braadl is about as great as that of the United States without Alaska, 
while its population is less than one fifth. 

10. Bio Janeiro is situated on a bay, celebrated for its beauty. 

11. •p^'HiA- has one of the finest harbors of South America. 

12. The population of Colombia (iW »»»' bl a), about equal to that of Illinois, is about one 
half Spaniards, one third Negroes, and one sixth Indians. 

13. Bogota, although within four and a half degrees of the Equator, has a <aitnate of 
perpetual spring, due to its altitude of nearly 9,000 feet. Its wet seasons are our spring and 
autumn; its dry seasons, our summer and winter. It is warmest in February, and coldest in 
December. Grain is sown twice a year. Most of the houses are built but one story high, owing 
to the frequency of earthquakes. There are, however, many large, splendid buildilM!^. 

14. The oonstrootion of a uM p-^^^i acrozs the Isthmus of Panama has been -undtrtaken. 


52. Chili is the most powerful and enterprising of the 
Spanish-American republics. 

53. It is situated on the western slope of the Andes, 
and extends from the Bay of Arica to Cape Horn." 

54. Along the coast are numerous islands, which are 
rich in guano* and niter. 

55. Its climate is temperate and rnoist. 

56. The people are, chiefly, of Spanish origin. They 
are active, industrious, and intelligent." 

57. Santiago (santsa'go) is the capital. Valparaiso 
(vai pa rV SO) is the largest commercial city on the west 
coast of South America." 

58. The Argentine (ar'flSntTn) Republic is a broad and 
level country, comprising most of the pampas. 

59. The people are engaged in herding, and in prepar- 
ing dried beef, hides, tallow, and horns for export. 

16. Ohili is the same in extent from north to south as the United States from 
east to west,— about 2,000 miles. 

16. The people of Ohili are, chiefly, a mixture of Spanish and Indians. About 
one flfth are of pure Spanish blood. Schools are numerous. Next to the United 
states Chili is the most prosperous nation on the Pacific Coast of the Western con- 
tinent. It is freer from revolution than any other republic in South America. 

17. Santiago is a beautiful city situated on a fertile plain, 2,000 feet above the 
sea-level, and 120 miles inland. It is connected with Valparaiso by railroad. 

18. Other imiK>rtaiit Oitiee.— Ik Brazil,— Pdrd' isA great India rubber port. 

10. Iw Colombia,— Pi>p<iiifan (p6 pi ftn'), 6,000 feet above sea-level, was the first city 
built in this region by Europeans. Cdr tagVna^fi, sea-port, is low, hot, and unhealthy. 

20. In Peru,— Cuzoo (kdbs'kd), the ancient residence of the Inca sovereigns, is 
Bituated on a plateau, at an elevation of about 11,600 feet. 

21. lie BouvTA,— C9 cha bam' bd is over 8,300 feet above the sea-level. Nearly all 
its houses are but one story high. Sucre (soo'kra) is the constitutional capital, 
though La Paz is the virtual capital, ibftwi (pd td seO is more than 12,000 feet 
ubove the sea-level. 

22. In Chili,— C&ncepdon was several times destroyed by earthquakes. It is now 
a well-built city, and has an active trade, exporting grain, hides, tallow, and beef. 

^3. In Aboixtine RxpuBLio.— Cdr' dO vd is situated in a beautiful valley, and 
carries on a large trade in hides and wooL MmuUma (men do' tha) is lest than 3,000 

6U. Buenos Ayrcs (bo'nu^fi'rizK the capital and 
large5>t city, has an extensive conimerct% 

01. Paraguay (pa ra gwn and Uruguay (cTb ic5^ 
Qvs^T') resemble the Al'gtMitine Kepublir ill 8ii rfuce, 
prt>dm*t8, and the occupations of thu people. 

62. Man ie vkV e o, the capital of Uruguay, is an 
iiniK)rtant cummerrial city. 
U 3 . A « n nr io n ( a soo ii i h e o n ' ) i s th e ca p i t a I r > f Pu i*aguay . 

64. Venezuela (v6n e zws'la) lies almost entirely within 
the basin of the Orinoco. Its climate is tropical. 

65. The people are engaged in cattle-raising and agri- 
culture. Hides, meat, tallow, coffee, cocoa (ko'ko), cotton, 
sugar, and dye-woods are exported. 

66. Caracas (ka ra'kAs) is the capital. It has frequently 
suflFered from earthquakes. 

67. Guiana (gea'nfi) embraces three colonies, — British, 
French, and Dutch. Its products are like those of Venezuela. 

68. Cayenne (ka yen') is the capital of French Guiana; 
Georgetown, of British Guiana; and Paramaribo (para 
mar' i Ido), of Dutch Guiana. 

Each pupil may write a letter about South America, 
as directed on page 32. 

Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on South 
America, as shown on page 32. 

feet above sea-level. It was overthrown by an earthquake, in 1869. Its trade with 
Chill and Buenos Ayres is important. The elevation of th' mountain pass on the 
road connecting it with Santiago is nearly 13,000 feet. 

24. Historioal Notes.— South Ameriea was diaoovered by Columbus, in 1498, near 
the mouth of the Orinoco. The early Spanish discoverers found an Indian village 
near Lake Maracaybo, built over the water on piles. As it reminded them of 
Venice, they called it Venezuela, which means Ldttle Venice. 

25. Bdf/M'J, in 1513, croe&ed the Isthmus, and was the first white man who 
saw the Pacific Ocean, from the coast of the Western Continent; but, long before 
all this, the ancient Peruvians had lived there. They had built strong citieb, fine 
temples, great aqueducts, and splendid roads and bridges, ruins of which still 
remain. Peru was invaded by the Spaniards, imder Pizarro {pi tdr' o), who cruelly 
treated the natives, destroying their cities and plundering their temples. 

26. South America was thus conquered and settled by Spaniards, except Braoll, 
which was settled by Portuguese ; and Guiana, which was settled by British, Dutch, 
and French. 

27. About 300 ytart qfterward, the people of the countries of South America 
(except Guiana) declared themselves independent of Spain and Portugal. 

28. Shnon Bol'i var was the most distinguished patriot of South America. 

29. SratU became a republic by the revolution of 1889. 

* gud no, a manure ; a fertlllsor. 

a 3 1 I N a 




• 1^ ^ o- 








1. Position.— Europe is a peninsula, projecting from 
Asia. It is situated, chiefly, in the North Temperate Zone, 
and is in the same latitude as the United States and the 
Dominion of Canada. 

2. Size and Outline. — Excepting Australia, Europe is 
the smallest of the grand divisions. It is a little larger 
than the United States.^ 

8. In the relative extent of coast, Europe surpasses 
every other grand division. It is partly to the great 
number of indentations of the coast, that Europe owes its 
commercial supremacy.* 

4. Islands.— The islands of Europe constitute about 
one twentieth of its area^ Of these, the British Isles are 
the largest and most important' 

5. Surface. — ^The greater part of the continent is low 
and level Russia and all the territory bordering on the 
North and Baltic seas constitute a vast plain, called Low 
Europe. The basin of the Caspian Sea and much of the 
Netherlands are below the sea-level. 

6. A high plateau, extending along the southern part 
of the continent, is known as High Europe. This plateau 
is surrounded by the irregular and broken mountain 
ranges which constitute the Alpine (&i'pin) System, the 
main axis of the continent 

7. The Alps are the highest range. The other princi- 
pal ranges are the Pyre nees, Ap'en nines, Balkan (b&i kan'), 
Caxpa'thian, and Caucasus mountains. 

8. The Scandinavian Mountains form the north-west- 
em border; and the Ural, the north-eastern. 

9. The valleys of the Danube and the Po are noted for 
their fertility. 

10. Glaciers.— The Alps have long been celebrated for 
the number and extent of their glaciers among which arc 
the sources of the Rhine, Rhone, Po, and several tribu- 
taries of the Dan'ube.* 

1 1. Lakes. — ^The chief lake region of Europe is in North- 
western Russia. Lake Ladoga (l&d^o g&) is the largest lake. 

12. 2%6 lakes in Switzerland, especially Geneva and 
Constance, are celebrated for their beautiful scener\\ 




▲Ln,~MT. BLAHO,— «WITZ£2U.UrA>. irw AifJUb aX1» VAUJI\. 


1. The extoeme length of Europe from north-east to louth-weitt ia about 3,600 
miles. The population is about six times that of the United States. 

2. Ite water boundary, if a continuous line, would reach four fifths of the 
distance around the world. 

8. The Brltlah Isles are separated from the oonUnent by the North Sea. which 
has an avera^ depth of about 000 feek ThMt% is muoh eTidenoe* to show that 

they were formerly a part of the main-land. Sicily, Oorsica, Sardinia, and the 
Balearic {bdl^iktik) Islands are projeotins portions of a volcanio chain, in the 
Mediterranean Soa. 

4. The marks of slaoien of a former age are notioeable throu^oot BuropeL 
The rK<nf between the Baltic and Black seas are strewn with bowlden* and drift* 
from the Soandinavtan platean. Bngland and Bootland are also strewn with 




There are many salt lakes in Russia, most of which are 
situated in the basin of the Caspian Sea. 

18. Rivers. — The two principal water-sheds of Europe 
are the Alps and the Valdai (vardi) Hills. The Rhine, 
Rhone, Elbe, Danube, and other rivers flow from the former ; 
the Dwina (dws'n^), Don, Duna, and Volga, from the latter. 

14. Most of the rivers of Western Europe are con- 
nected ^th one another by canals, and are navigable. 

15. Climate.— Europe enjoys a mon. equable climate 
than any other grand division situated in corresponding 
latitudes. Its mildness is due, chiefly, to the south-west- 
erly winds, which are warmed by the water of the Gulf 

16. Bain is most abundant on the western coasta 

17. Vegetation. — ^The extremes of luxuriance* and 
sterility* which characterize other continents are not 
found in Europe. 

18. The tundras, or frozen marshes, of the Arctic Slope 
are covered with mosses and Willows. South of this region, 
is a belt of dense forest, chiefly of pine, oak, elm, and ash. 


19. Grains, hemp, flax, and tobacco are cultivated in 
the central regions. The cultivation of the grape, olive, 
orange, lemon, fig, mulberry, and cotton is confined, chiefly^ 
to the Mediterranean Coast. 

20. Animals.— Most of the wild animals have disap- 
peared. The reindeer, white bear, and other animals 
valuable for their furs, are, however, found in the more 
thinly settled regions ; the wolf and wild boar are com- 
mon in the forests; and the chamois (sh&m' nny) and i'bex 
inhabit the Alpine heights. 

21. Water-fowl are numerous. The sardine (sftiydeen), 
herring, pilchard, anchovy (fincho'vy), and other fish suit- 
able for food, aboimd in the surrounding waters. 

22. Minerals.— Coal, iron, and copper are very widely 
distributed. Silver, zinc, and lead are plentiful in the 
central highlands; quicksilver, niter, sulphur, and salt, in 
volcanic regions. Coral of great beauty and value is 
obtained in the Mediterranean Sea. 

23. People. — The inhabitants of Europe, numbering 
about 360,000,000, beloner to the Caucasian and Mon go' 
li an races. 

▲iMUATio asA,~AU8rjiu,— DAirusi^ luvjui and 

till* and bowlders; each bowlder having a face ground flat, and aoored with pax^ 
allel scratches. 

5. fDie port of Hanunerfbst, the most northern town in Boiope, situated about 
three degrees north of the Arotio Cirole, is never ioe-bound. This is due to the 
Influence of the winds and water from the Oulf Stream. Toward the esstem box^cr 
of Europe, ^^xwever, the oUmate is sohjeot to great eztt^mes of heat and ooldi 



6. Point to and mention, the principal mountains, rivers, and cities ^presented 
in these transcontinental views. * di^Y, looee earth and rocks distributed 

* lux g'H OHM, overabundance. over parts of the eartVs surface. 

le' i dmM, testimony, proof. This now, also, refers to water f oroed 

jC« fV i <|f, barrenness, unproduotiveness. onward by an ooean current 
fidMTdM*, alazge, smooth stona. eOT, a deposit of clay, sand, and gravel 

i f 



001V1PARATIVB3 TIMBJ ^^JH'm'S^ ¥>" 

OON AT r.oN'i>OTa'. 

f OCkAS 1_ 

S^^..^>^rm»8^e^TRAL PLAIN ^^^^" ^^ 1 

N G li A N D 1^515 

CorTRJtfUT. 188&. ȴ JaXKS AtOVTKIZil. 



Location. — What do tlie British. Isles comprise ? By what waters 
are they surrounded ? Which country has the most Irregrular coast line ? 
Which contains the most mountains? 

Latitude, Longrltude, and Climate.— What parallel of latitude crosses 
f.Vift southern part of Enj? land ? — the northern part of Scotland? What 
parts of North America and Asia are l)etween these parallels ? (See mar- 
gku qf the map.) What is the longitude of places on the meridian which 
pchsses through Greenwich, near London? What Is the mean annual 
temjierature of the southern part of Engrland ?— of Newfoundland, at the 
same latitude — Bl" ? {See brown numbere in Itft margin.) What is the mean 
annual temiperature of the northern parts of Engrland and Ireland?— of 
XAbrador, at the same latitude ? What is the chief cause of this dif- 
ference in temperature ? {See page lU, paroqraphe lU and 15.) 

Cities. — Mention the principal city in the British Isles,— in Scotland, 
— in Ireland. 


In what dlreotion ftom England is France ? — Ireland ? — Scotland ? 
What natural boundary "between England and Scotland? What sea 
north-west of England? What channel south?— south-west? What 
island south of England? What group of islands near the coast of 
France belongs to England? An»,^Channet li^andt* What cape projects 
from the south-western part of England ? 

What mountains in the north-west?— south-east? — south-west? 

Mention two of the longest rivers in England. On which is London 
Bituated ? Into what does that river flow ? Into what does the Severn 
flow ? What minerals are found in England and Wales ? (Sm maJH choH.) 
Mention the principal manufactures, — the principal fisheries. 

What large sea-port in the north-western part of England? On 
what river is Liverpool ? Where is Newcastle ?— Birmingham {bfr^nAngiim) ? 


What flrths indent the eastern coast of Scotland?— its northern and 
western coasts ? What flrth south of Scotland ? What water separates 
Scotland from Ireland? What islands north?— north-west? 

In what part of Scotland are the Highlands ?— the Lowlands ? Mention 
two mountain ranges. Mention four mountain peaks. (See sectional (Hagram 
under mtq).) What river between Scotland and England? Mention the 
principal rivers, — lakes, — cities. WTiat city is on the Clyde River? 
What Is the length of the longest day at the northern part of Scotland ? 


What bays Indent the west coast of Ireland ? Where is Dublin Bay ? 
—Cork Harbor? Which is the most northern cape of Ireland? — the 
most southern? Where is the Giant's Causeway? 

In what part of Ireland are its lowlands ? Which are the principal 
mountains of Ireland ? Which is the largest lake, or lough, in Ireland ? 
What beautiful lakes in the south-west? 

Which is the longest river of Ireland? Through what two lakes 
does it flow? What are the principal products? What city is the me- 
tropolis and capital? Which is the largest city in the north?— in the 
south ? 

Comnnerclal Geography. — Which are the principskl sea-ports of 
England?— of Scotland ?— of Ireland ? At what port in the southern part 
of Ireland do steamers stop, on their way to and from Llverjiool? 

EzPLANATioK ov THB iLLUSTaiTioMS.— In the Center, the Houses of Parliament, Lon- 
don ; at the top, a view in the lake region of England ; on the right, a street in Dublin ; 
on the left, the Giant*s Caoseway ; at the bottom, on the left, Edinburgh, with castle in 
the distance ; at the bottom, on the right, the Clyde River. 




24. The British Empire comprises the British Isles, 
Australia, New Zealand, and possessions in North America, 
India, South Africa, and other parts of the world. It 
covers about one sixth of the land surface, and is the 
most powerful and populous empire of the world. 

25. The British Isles include Great Britain and Ire- 
land, besides a number of small islands near them. 

26. Their outline, or coast, is very irregular, having 
many excellent bays and harbors, wonderfully adapted 
to commerce. 

27. Gh^eat Britain and Ireland, with less than half 
the area of Texas, have a population about three fifths 
that of the United States. 

28. Great Britain is divided into three parts, England, 
Scotland, and Wales. 

29. Its surface is rugged in the north, and level in 
the south. It is well watered by beautiful rivers, many 
of which are navigable. These furnish water-power for 

80. The principal foreign possessions of Great Britain 
are the Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, British 
Guiana, India, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony. 

81. The soil of England and of the lowlands of Scot- 
land* is very fertile, and carefully cultivated. Pine horses, 
cattle, and sheep are raised in England. 

32. Th^ agricultural products are wheat, oats, hops, 
barley, and potatoes. 

33. Grain and provisions, in immense quantities, are 
annually imported to England from Russia, Austria, and 
the United States. 

34. in Ireland, the surfa^ce of the land is undulating, 
and the soil, productive. Flax, hemp, and potatoes are 
the principal cropa* 

36. The mountainous regions in the north of England, 
and in Wales, are very rich in minerals. Coal, iron, lead, 
tin, copper, zinc, and salt are abundant.' 

86. The best wooden and iron ships are built in En- 
gland and Scotland, and the English flag floats over ships 
in every quarter of the globe. Almost half a million men 
are engaged in sailing these vessels. 

37. The manufactures of England, stimulated by the 
presence of vast stores of iron and coal, are very exten- 

1. The Iiowbuida of Scotland ore in the south ; the Highlands, in the north. 

2. Owing to the iniluenoe of the Onlf Stream, the climate of Ireland is mild 
and moist, and its fields are fresh and; green throughout the year— hence its ];>op- 
ular title. Emerald* Isle. Labrador, although in the same latitude, is covered 
with snow nearly all the year. 

3. The value of the ooel annually produced in the British Isles is about 
$250,000,000 ; and of iron, about $80,000,000. 

Their six principal exports are cotton goods, about $400,000,000 annually ; iron 
and steel, $150,000,000; woolen goods, $100,000,000; linen goods, $50,000,000; 
coal, $50,000,000; and machinery, $48,000,000. 

Their six principal imxKirts aie com and flour, $300,000,000; cotton, 
$260,000,000; sugar, $120,000,000; wool, etc., $120,000,000; wood and timber, 
$84,000,000 ; and tea, $56,000,000. 

4. The nobility possess most of the land, and live on the rents; the middle 
claoa comprises merchants, manufacturers, and farmers. 

sive. The principal manufactures are cotton, wo 
linen, silk, and leather goods, carpets, machinery, hard- 
ware, cutlery, tools, and earthenware. 

38. There are three classes of people in Great Britain 
the nobility, the middle class, and the laboring class.* 

89. The people of England are mainly of Anglo-Saxon 
origin, with a mixture of Norman-Prench, and others 
who, at diflferent times, invaded the country and settled 

40. The people of Scotland, Ii*eland, and Wales are 
in part, descendants of the early Celta 

41. The people of Great Britain and Ireland are ad- 
vanced in civilization and education, and many are skilled 
in the arts and sciences. 

42. The British government is a limited monarchy. 
The laws are made by Parliament, which consists of two 
houses, corresponding to those of the United States Con- 
gress. The higher house is composed of lords who 
inherit* their seats; while the other, the House of Com- 
mons, is composed of representatives elected by the 
people. The ruler is a king, or queen.^^ 

48. London, the capital, is the metropolis of the world, 
being the center of the world's wealth and business. The 
city covers an area of about 120 square miles. It is 
situated on both sides of the Thames (tfimz) River, which 
is spanned by many elegant bridges. 

44. Liverpool, the second city, is the chief center of 
trade and travel between the United States and Europe. 

46. Man' Chester is the foremost city in the world for 
the manufacture of cotton goods. 

46. Birmingham is celebrated for the manufacture of 
hardware, cutlery, engines (Sn'(jlns), and machinery. 

47. Glasgow (gifts' gO) is the largest city in Scotland, 
and the chief commercial center. It is noted for its 
iron ships, which are built on the Clyde River. 

48. Edinburgh (fid' in bar ro) is the seat of fearning 
and the center of literature and education. Edinburgh 
Castle is one of the most celebrated in the world. 

49. Dublin, the capital of Ireland, is a manufacturing 
and commercial city. 

50. Belfast' is a large manufacturing city. 

51. The silks of Dublin and linens of Belfast are noted. 

6. Other important OitieB.— In Ekolakd,— Zesefa excels in woolen manufactures; 
Sk^gUUl, in cutlery; and KiddermkntUr, in carpets. Bristol, Btrismonth, and BM, ue 
large sea-ports. 

6. Ik SooTLAim,— Z>uim2m is noted for commerce, ship-bnlldlng, and linen gooda 

7. Iv WAhE»,—Merihfr TydvU (mer'ther tid' vll), the largest town in Wales, is ia 
the center of an iron and coal district. Car' dig, its port, is noted for fine docks aod 
iron ship-building yards. SwanMa (sw6n's6) is noted for copper and tin smeltiiig- 

8. Ijt Ireland,— CbrA is celebrated for its fine harbor; and lAmeriA, for linen 

9. Historical Notes— ^ eariy times, England, Scotland, and Ireland were md^ 
pendent of one another, but they are now united under the name, The rnit«i 
Kingdom of Oreat Britain and Ireland. 

10. The sovereign, Victoria, is styled Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, »nd 
Empress of India. • in Mr^it, to take by descent from an ancestor. 

im^e fxUd, a precious stone of a rich, green color. 


62. Sweden and Norway form the Scandinavian Pen- 
insula, the Sc€tndinavian Mountains constituting a natural 
boundary between them. The greater part of Sweden is 
level ; but Norway is mountainous, with a rugged coast, 
broken by islands and deep bays, called fiords. 

11. TIm dhittf a a epor te from Norway are Imnber and fish ; from Sweden, Imn- 
ber« iron, and grain. 

19. Oth«r important Oitiaa.— Iw Swsdsw,— (To^ttery (ytlteborg), or Oothenburg 
(ftOt'in bilrft), is i>artly built on piles driven into marshy land. 

18. Hlstorioal Votd^.—Ths eari^ inhabUaiUt of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 
ware oalled Northmen, or NorMmen. Between the 8th and 11th oentnriee, they 

53. TJie mountains are covered with valuable timber, 
which is used for sliip-building in Dearly every country 
of Europe- The mines yield lead, iron, copper, and zinc. 

54. Commerce^ skip-building^ and fishing are the leading 
industries. The exports are lumber^ grain, fish, and iron. 

The chief agricuUural products are oats, rye, 

wheat, and potatoes, 

56. Each kingdom has its mvn constitutia?}^ capital, and 
legislature ; but both are ruled by the same king. 

57. Stdck'holm is the capital and largest commercial 
city of Sweden ; Ckristiania (krts tefi'nea), of Norway. 

58, Denmark comprises the northern part of the Penin- 
sula of Jutland and the islands near it in the Baltic Sea. 

59, Its surface is very low. In some places, the land, 
being below the sea-level, is protected by dikes.* 

6 0. Its soil is fertile ; the climate, moist and mild. 
Much of the land is used for pasture. The chief products 
are grain and vegetablea 

61. The occupations of most of the people are farm- 
ing, stock-raising, commerce, and fishing. 

62. The Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians are caUed 
Scandinavians. Denmark is a kingdom. 

68. Copenhagen (kOpSnha'Qfin), the capital and me- 
tropolis of Demnwk, is finely situated for conmierce. 

dieoovered loeland, Greenland, and the eastern coast of the United States, and, for 
a while, ruled in England and Ireland. Three iueoeteive DSn' ieh Hnge (Canute, Har- 
old, and Hardioanute) ruled England from 1017 to 1042. Gustavus Adolphus 
(1523) and Bemadotte (1818) were celebrated rulers of Sweden. DmrnarVi roeeet- 
ekmt include Greenland, Iceland, and the Fa' roe Islands ; alK>, three Islands of the 
West Indies,— Santa Cruz, St. Thomas, and St. John. 

* dUw, mounds thrown up to preyent the overflowing of the water. 















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8. The Netherlands, or Holland. — This country is 
wholly in Low Europe. Its area is less than one sixth 
that of Kansas. 

9. Its sunrfcbce is mostly low and flat. Those parts 
which are near the coast are below the sea-level, and 
the water is kept from overflowing the land by means 
of di^ces, or mounds, which are maintained at a great 
annual cost The country is crossed, in all directions, by 
streams and canals." 

10. Its climate^ like that of England and Western 
Germany, is moist and foggy. It is celebrated for cattle- 
raising, butter and cheese-making. 

11. Hague (hag) is the capital of the Netherlands. 

12. Amsterdam^ the metropolis, is noted for its com- 
merce, banking, and diamond-cutting. Like Venice, its 
houses are built on piles driven into the sand, and many 
of its streets are canals. 

18. The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. — This empire 
comprises the empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hun- 
gary. The emperor of Austria is king of Hungary. 

14. Its surface is mountainous, except the great, tree- 
less plain of Hungary, which is in the eastern part. 

16. The mountains yield valuable minerals ; the forests, 
limaber; and the plains and valleys, grain and grapes. 
Iron, coal, and salt are very abundant. Cattle and sheep 
are numerous on the pasturea Bears and other wild 
animals are hunted in the wooda 

16. The principal occupations are agriculture, herding, 
and mining. The people comprise many nationalities. 
The court languages are the German and Hungarian. 

1 7. Vienna (ve Sn' na), on the Danube River, is the cap- 
ital and metropolis of the empire. It is a great center of 
traffic, and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 

5. Water Is zemoved from the oanalB by means of pumps. When the canals 
axe frtusen over, skating is enjoyed by old and yoimg of both sexes. Portions of 
the land were long ago covered by the water of the North Sea. Bemains of forests 
may be seen nnder the water, and ancient roads and traces of villages are found 
under the swamps. 

0. BuBsia, with its possessions in Asia, is called the Russian Empire, which 
comprises more than one seventh of the land on the earth*s surface. Notwith- 
standing its large population, it is, on account of its great area, the most thinly- 
settled country in Europe. 

7. Many of the mines are woilced by convicts, who have been exiled * from 
their homes for crimes and political offenses. 

8. lATge portions of the south are treeless ptains, on which grapes and other 
fruits are raised, in abundance. Here snow seldom falls. 

9. The oommeroe of Bussia is greatly hindered by the closing of its northern 
and western harbors, by ice, for several months in the year. The fairs at Nizhnee 

^ovgorod (nUA'nl nJhgVr^ and Kharkov (JoSrhl^') are celebrated. At the former, 
over 200,000 merchants, from all parts of the world meet eveiy year for trade. To 
attend the latter, about 80,000 sledges convey the people over the snow, in winter. 

10. The Bnasian Smpixe is next to the British Empire, in extent and popula- 
tion. The people are slow-going, and have not advanced In civilization with the 
other nations of Euroi)e. They comprise numerous tribes, many of which are 
hardly civilized. Education is confined to the wealthy. 

11. St. Fetenburg was built by, and named after, Peter the Great. Situated 
upon small islands in the Neva Biver, it is very low, but healthy. Some of the 
government buildings are magnificent, notably the emperor's winter palace. 

12. Moscow is celebrated for the citadel, called the Kremlin, which includes a 
cathedral, churches, palaces, forts, and barracks. 

IS. Other Important Cities.— In the Gsbman Eupots,— BrM'fou, on the Oder, is 

18. Bu'dor-Pesth (p6st), two cities on opposite sides of 
the Danube, but connected by a fine suspension-bridge, 
form the capital a^d commercial center of Hungary. 

19. Prague (prag) is an important manufacturing and 
commercial center. 

20. Trieste (trsssf) is the chief sea-port of the empire. 

21. Russia is the largest country in Europe. Its area 
is about two thirds that of the United States, while its 
population exceeds that of the whole of North America.* 

22. Its surface, generally, is low and level. Its highlands 
are the Caucasus Mountains in the south, the Ural 
Mountains in the east, and the Valdai Hills in the interior. 

28. Its mines yield all the precious and useful metals. 
Gold, silver, and lead abound in the Ural Mountains.' 

24. Its principal rivers are navigable, when not blocked 
with ice. 

25. Its climute is very cold in the north, temperate in 
the middle, and hot in the south. Except the cold, marshy 
region of the north, and the grassy and salt plains of the 
south-east, Russia is covered with forests of valuable 
timber, and farms which yield grain in abundance. Three 
fourths of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture.* 

26. Foreign commerce is carried on with European 
countries by way of the Baltic and Black seas, and with 
Asia by caravans. Much wheat is exported to England ; and 
the trade with China, especially in tea, is very extensiva 

27. Domestic commerce is conducted at annual fairs.* 

28. The czar rules with absolute* power. The people 
have no voice in legislation.*® 

29. St Petersburg, the capital and largest city, is ex- 
tensively engaged in commerce and manufactures." 

80. Moscow (m6s'ko), formerly the capital of Russia, is 
the winter residence of the royal family.^ 

a famous wool-market. Dret^dany the capital of Saxony, is celebrated for woite of 
art. Munich (mu'nik) is the capital of Bavaria. 

14. Ix THE NsTHEBLAKDs,— J?o^/«r(fom, on the Mouse (mftr) Biver, is remarkable tts 
street canals and extensive commerce. 

16. Ik Bussia,— Tfarsatr was the capital of the former kingdom of Polaad. Si' go, 
on the Baltic, and Odes' ta^ on the Black Sea, are the chief commercial cities ; the latter 
being the greatest grain market of Europe. , Crojutattt {krOnftfdf) is the great naval 
station of the empire, and is the port of entiy, as well as the defense of the capital 

16. Historical Notes. — The name NetherUmdt means low oountries; BoBoHd, 
muddy, or marshy, land. 

17. In 1815, HoOand and Belgium formed the kingdom of the Netherlands ; but 
since 1831, they have been separate kingdoms. 

18. In 1870, JTapQiflon III. declared war against Prussia. The fdllowin^r year, 
all the German states were united to form the German Empire. The French were 
defeated, and Naitoleon m. was taken prisoner. 

19. The foundation of the Jhueian Empire was laid in 862, by the Bus, a body 
of Scandinavians under Burick, whose descendants ruled for 700 years. Its most 
distinguished ruler was Peter the Oreat, who governed the empire more than forty 
years (until 1725). He learned seamanship by cruising on English and Dutch ships; 
and, in disguise, spent a long time in Holland (the Netherlands) woridng as a ship- 
builder, and learning philosophy, astronomy, and geography. 

20. The Kingdom qf l\>land was dismembered, the most of it becoming a past 
of Bussia. The other parts were taken by Prussia and Austria. 

21. other important events in Bweia were the burning of Moscow by the Russians 
and the consequent retreat of the Erench, tmder Napoleon I. (1818) ; the Cri me' an 
War (1853-'5); the abolition of serfdom, or slavery (1861); the sale of Alaska to the 
United States (1867); the Turkish war a878); and the Nihilist troubles aS79). 

* ix'Ved, driven from one*s country. i^eoUUe^ arbitrary, despotic. 

81. The Kingdom of Italy comprises the middle peninsula of Southeru 
Europe, and the islands of Hicily and Sardinia,^ Its latitude is the same as 
that of the New England and Middle Atlantic States. 

32. lis mouniciins, plains, mountain passes, valleys, streams, and lakes 
are celebrated for their picturesque beauty. 

33. T?ie plain of the Po is said to be the most fertile 
in the world.' The narrow plains along the coasts are 
marshy ana unhealthy. 

34. Agriculture is the leading occupation of the people. 
In the north, where the climate is temperate, grain is cul- 
tivated ; and in the warm south, orange and olive groves, 
and vineyards, cover large sections. The mulberry-tree is 
extensively cultivated for the support of the silk-worm. 

35. The manufactures include silks, velvets, olive-oil, 
and wine. 

36. Borne J the capital, is one of the most famous cities 
in the world.' 

87. Naples, the largest city in Italy, is situated on the 
beautiful Bay of Naples.* In and around the city, roses 
and other flowers bloom in the gardens, and orange-trees 
bear fruit in the open air, even in winter; while in New 
York, which is in the same latitude, the winters are re- 
markable for cold weather and deep snow. 

38. Mix an contains a grand cathedral and celebrated 
works of art.' 

39. Venice is built on seventy small islands, between 
which are canals, used for streets. People, usually, go 
from one part of the city to another in gondolas* instead 
of carriages. The houses are built on piles.* 

1. Italy is diTided into 69 provinces, which are distributed among 16 com- 
partments; the principcd of which are Lom' hardy, Piedmont <p9d'mihi), Venetia 
(p8 nifita J), Tuscany, Rome, Campania (ibdmpan'yo), and Sicily. 

2. The Fo, the largest river in Italy, is fed by the outlets of Co' mo, Maggiore 
imddjfyra), and other lakes of the Alps. 

3. Borne was founded by Bdm' u Ifbs, about 750 years before the Christian era. 
The grandest and most noted ruins of the ancient city are the Forum,* Coli- 
seum,* baths, and several triumphal arches. It was built on seven hiUs, and has 
been called the Eternal City. It is divided into two parts by the Tiber River. 
The ivresent city contains St. Peter's, the most magnificent cathedral in the world ; 
the length of which la over 600 feet ; the width, 280 feet ; and the height, 430 
feet. Adjoining it, is the palace of the V&t'ican, the residence of the Pope. 
The mu se'ums and galleries of Rome contain many of the best paintings and 
other works uf art in the world. Rome is, therefore, a city of art and artists. 

4. Near Najdes, is the celebrated volcanco Ve su' vi us, and the ruins of Pom- 
peii {p6mpS'y9) and Her cu la'ne um, two cities destroyed by eruptions of the vol- 
cano, in the first century. Silks, macaroni,* and coral ornaments are manu- 
factured in Naples. 

5. The Oathedral of Milan, built of white marble, is one of the most celebrated 
in the world. On its spires are about 5,000 statues. 

6. Venice was built on islands at the head of the Adriatic Sea, because, when 
Italy was invaded by barbarians in the fifth century, many of the inhabitants fled 
to the islands for refuge. In the fifteenth century, it was one of the most pros- 
perous and powerful cities in the world. Its commerce and manufactures brought 
it great wealth. It is celebrated for fine glass ware. {8d8p. lis, notm 11 and 12.) 

* /^ rvm^ a market-place, or public place, g6nr do lot, flat-bottomed pleasure-boats, 
in Rome for trials and orations. cU i O^um, an amphitheater in Rome. 

mi$ a rff'iil, an article of food made in Italy, of wheat flour, in long, slender tubes. 






I J 


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60, Switzerland is a repub- 
lic, cumposfd of states, or 
can' tons. Its area is about 
one fifth that of Kansas. 

51. Its mountains^ lakes, 
AMSFERDAW. ^ and ualer-faUs are celebrated 
for their grandeur and beauty*'* 

52. The principal occttpations of the 
people ai*e agriculture, stock-raising, and 
manufacturing. 1' 

53. Bern is the capital. 

64. Genera, at the outlet of Lake Gen- 
eva, ia the largest city. It is celebrated 
for the manufacture of watches, jewelrj*, 
aud music-boxes. 

16. Amonfi tbe celebrated mpiuitaiiu on tho si^uthem border of Swltitfrlan ^ 
are Ecisa, 8t. Got hard \j<dii ^S t^t }, find Gn^nt f?t. Bt^r^narrL In the Inttuior^ hjb 
FirjAt^i^r Aar'Uom and the Junji^fruu {ij^i^frcftr]. 

The principal lokea are Gonovn, <^cinwtanco, Keofchatel {n^ sM Hl% Zurich 
itmi' fik)^ rmU I^nct-rtif; {foon^m^. Xoarly all the laki^i^ in SwitaeHajid bjtb becomm<^ 
f^^r^xluoMy hinallcr. T>Ufi Lh caustsl hy tho Trcariin; s^Jiy and ciqtiseq'Ueiit lowertiig 
of thu bodg of tho outlets, and by the tlt^posiUTii^ of j*f;.iil in llio basin of the lake, 
by the inkts, Scvpi-hI uivcicnt lakes have thus disappeared. 

17. BwijA manullM^tu^efl inclurlts tott*>n aiid «ilk p«odB, embroidery, atnl 
watch cij. 

18. Other hnp{>ttant Cltiefl.— Tw BEHJini^— .4wri/iCTp la tho loading poii. 
IfK Ix 'FKA^crE.^—MariieiUrjf ^marBal!^') is tho chief eea-port. BcrdMOUX {bArdol 

1)3 a jareat market fur fruit and wiijo, Zi^^ (lot) niaTJufEw^tures cotton aad Uuen 
^nuivl^, etc. /7rt7-n* (hav'r) m t!io iK>rt of Pai'm. 

;.'i>. In E^ffiTzERLAyn,— Basol (M'w/) is an important mannfaeturiTig tofwn. 

*J1. HjBtoricai 19'otea. — TTie moet difttlitjtfuiHhof! general of Ma time -was 
ya]vjlffm Bonajxirk, wh) -^raa bom In Corsira, an inland Ixilonging to Prance. At 
(he head of thn FrenL'h arti^y, bo iron tnuny battlosi, and conqnered BBTeral 
IvLirrjpean nations. ITo waa overthrown, in IS 15, at the battle of Water lot/, in 
liel^utii^ by the allied armies of Eiutspo, under the /?uJb cf WdHngUm. Bonaparte 
was sent as a prisoner to the Island of St. {pent) He le'na, where he died. 



55. The Balkan Peninsula is the most easterly of the 
three peninsulas of Southern Europe. 

56. It inclvdes Turkey in Europe, the kingdoms of 
Roumania, Servia, and Greece, and the principality Monte- 
negro (ta na' gro). 

57. Except the plain, or valley, of the Danube, this is 
a mountainous region; cold in the north, but warm in 
the south. 

58. The chief occupationa of the people are agriculture 
and stock-raising. 

59. Turkey in Europe is smaller than Kansas. Until 
recently, it comprised all the smaller countries between 
it and Austria. Its government is under the sultan, who 
is the ruler of the Turkish Empire' and the head of the 
Mohammedan religion.® 

60. The Turkish Empire includes Turkey in Asia, 
Egypt and Tripoli (trip' oil), in Africa, and the western 
side of Arabia. 

61. Constantinople is the capital of the Turkish, or 
Ottoman, Empire. Its situation commands the shores of 
both Europe and Asia, and the trade of the Mediterranean 
and the Black Sea. 

•62. Salonica (saions'ka) is an important port of Tur- 
key. It exports grain, tobacco, silk, and wool 

63. The Kingdom of Greece is a country of mount- 
ains, valleys, peninsulas, and islands.* Its area is about 
one fourth that of Kansas. 

64. Its climate is usually mild, but the summers are 
often very hot. 

65. The principal productions are currants,* lead, sil- 
ver, wines, and olive oil. 

66. Ath'ens, the capital, was formerly the center of the 
world's learning, culture, science, and art. 

7. The Bultan ia an absolute monarch. His prime, or chief, minister is called 
the errand vizier (ois'yer). Bulgaria and Eastern Koumelia, since the Treaty of 
Berlin in 1878, are self-governing principalities. Nominally, however, they are 
tributary to Turkey. 

8. MohammedaniBm, or IsMamis'm, is a religion founded by Mohanmied, In 
the seventh century. Its doctrines, or revelations of Mohammed, are contained in 
a collection of writings, called the Ko'ran. 

9. Qreeoe oomprises a northern part, or main-land, and a southern i>eninsula, 
called Morea {mo r^ d), which is joined to the main-land by the Isthmus of Corinth 
^pir'inth). The Ionian (}G^T&dn) Islands on the west, and Euboea {euboefiTi^ Syra 
(98' r5), and other islands, on the east, belong to Greece. 

10. The Spaniards delight in games and in all kinds of amusements. The 
bull-flght is a national game. The means. for travel are very i)oor.. Education Is 
in a backward state. 

11. Madrid is famous for its royal palace, museums, and university. 

12. Other important Gitiea.— Ik Italy,— O^n'do, the birthplace of Columbus, 
is an imixjrtant sea-port. Faiermo^ in Sicily, has delightful winters. Its vineyards 
and orange groves are extensive. TV'rin, on the Po Biver, manufactures eilk 
goods. Florence, on the Amo, is a beautiful city, noted for its museums and art 
galleries. Flsa (pS^za), with Venice, Gknoa, and Florence, attained great impor- 
tance in the fifteenth century. Among the remarkable buildings of Pisa, is the 
Leaning Tower, built of white marble. Its height is 178 feet, and its diameter, 
50 feet. Its top projects 13 feet beyond its base. 

13. Sak Marino {sdn marl'no)^ on the eastern slope of the Ax)ennine8, east of 
Florence, is an ancient and peaceful republic, containing 24 square miles, in 
area, and a population of 8,000. Although in Italy, it is independent. Similar 
to this, is the small republic of Andorra {an d&r' n7), situated in a high, forest valley 

67. Spain and Portugal, countries occupying the 
Iberian Peninsula, are separate kingdoms. 

68. Their surface is a vast table-land traversed by- 
parallel ranges of rugged mountains, with fertile valleys 
between them. The mountains contain deposits of coal, 
iron, lead, copper, silver, quicksilver, or mercury,* and salt. 
Precious gems are also found. 

69. The products of the highlands are grass, grain, 
flax, and hemp ; of the warm valleys, grapes, olives, and 
tropical fruits. The cork-tree grows in Spain. The 
merino (mere' no) sheep is raised for its valuable wool. 
The mulberry is extensively cultivated for the support of 
the silk-worm. 

70. The industries of the people are farming, stock- 
raising, manufacturing, and commerce. 

71. The inhabitants ot both countries, like the Italians, 
are of Celtic origin. Their languages are different, although 
derived from the Latin. The wealthy classes are proud 
and high-tempered ; the poorer classes, lazy and ignorant.*® 

72. Madrid' is the capital and largest city of Spain." 

73. Barcelona (barseio'na) is the second city, and the 
chief searport 

74. Lisbon is the capital of Portugal, and the chief 
commercial city. It was destroyed by an earthquake, in 
1755, and 60,000 of its inhabitants perished. 

75. Oporto (opor'to) is noted for its export of wine. 


Each pupil may write a letter^ or description^ of one 
or more of the cotmtries of Europe, as directed on page 32. 


Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on one or 
more of the countries of Europe, as shown on page 32, 

on the southern slope of the Pyrenees. These, with France and Switzerland, are 
the four republics in Europe. 

14. Is Spain,— Fo^mda (vaUn'shi a) is noted for silks; SSv'UU^ for art; and 
MdL'a ga^ for grapes and wines. Pd'lOt is the i>ort from which Columbus sailed on 
his first voyage across the Atlantic. Grd nd'dd\B celebrated for the Alhftm'bra, an 
immense Moorish structure, whose interior is gorgeous* beyond description. The 
town and fortress of GibraUar^ in the southern extremity of Spain, belong to Great 
Britain. The fortress is on an immense rock, 1,400 feet in height. It com- 
mands the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, and is of immense strength. 

15. Historical Notes.— ^&ou^ four hundred veare ago^ Spain and Portugal were 
the foremost countries of £uroi)e in commercial enterprise. Their fleets sailed on 
every known sea, and they took possession of every foot of territory that they 
could conquer and occuiiy. 

16. The discovery qf America^ by Columbus, was due to Spanish enterprise. 
Both nations gained a firm foothold in the New World, and the whole continent 
of South America, except Guiana, is held by descendants of Spanish and Portu- 
guese. Spain has valuable possessions in the West Indies. 

17. Civilization in Europe began in Greece. It was introduced by Egsrptians and 
Phoenicians. Greece became famous for its men of learning,- i)oet8, philosophers, 
orators, sculptors, etc. 

18. JRome^ founded long after Greece, became the most powerful government in 
the world, conquering all the nations and tribes around the Mediterranean and 
the Black Sea, and penetrating into Britannia (now called England). Bome was 
greatest about the beginning of the Christian era. 

• •eOr'rantt^ a fruit dried for preservation ; mir^-eu ry, a heavy metal, liquid at com- 
those of Greece are small grapes. mon temperatures, but congealing at 

ff^geo&a^ splendid, magnificent. 37.0» below sero. 


3 1 y I 8^031 I N /? * I 80 NV18I V I a N I 183 M \'VN3^, *! 



0^8 2 

c5 P< 


*----■ •"_*fx'-tS^' 


1. Position, — Asia, the largest grand division, occupies the eastern part of the 
Eastern Continent, Its northern boundary reaches nearly to the parallel of eighty 
degrees, north latitude ; its southern peninsula, nearly to the Equator. Like North 
America, it is situated in three zones,^thc Torrid, North Temperate, and North Frigid. 
2, Size and Outline, — Asia contains about one third of the land surface of the 
earthp It is twice as large as North America^ and nearly five times the size of 
the United States, From Bering Strait to the Strait of 
Bab el Man' deb, its line of greatest length, the continent 
is 7,500 miles long, nearly one third the circumference 
of the earth- 


3. Islands. — The islands of Asia form a continuous chain, 
from the Peninsula of Kamchat'ka to the Java (jaWa) Sea. 
They are a partly submerged mountain chain. All of them 
are volcanic* They contain a majority of the active vol- 
canoes of the earth* 

4. Surface. — The north-western part of Asia is a continuous 
plain ; the south-eastern, an elevated plateau, traversed by high 
raountains. The hne of greatest length is also the line which 
separates the highlands from the lowlands* From the Ilin'doo 
Koosh, the mountain ranges of Asia radiate* toward the east. 

5. The Ilirmdaya {htm fl'iaya) System is the main axis of 
tlie continent The Thian Shan, Altai {§[ tr), and Stanovoi 
(sta n6 voi') form a broken chain of mountains extending from 
the Hindoo Koosh to Kamchatka. These two systems inclose 
ttie central steppe region of the continent, forming the basin 
of the Yang-tse-Kiang (ke angO, and the Hoang Ho (ho Sog ho')- 

6. The Himalaya Mouniains are the highest in the world. 
The summit of Jit, E%^erest^ the culminating peak, is over 
2 9,000 feet above the sea-level.' 

I. lit, Erereat la more than 6.000 feet lilghar than the highest pe^k of tlid 
Amc'dcjui continent. Sever&l peak» In the vidnl ty, howerer, nearly equal it In height. 
* rd'MSUy to proceed in atrai^ht lines from a common center, like rays of light. 

sosirxBT or thb tosbzd, kobth 










7. The plateaus of Asia, in their extent and height, 
surpass those of every other grand division. Those of 
Arabia, Persia, and Gobi (go' be) vary from 2,000 to 8,000 
feet in height. Much of the Plateau of Thibet is over 
15,000 feet high. 

8. Most of the peninsulas of southern Asia are low 
plateaus, diversified by river valleya' 

9. North of the Altai and Stanovoi mountains is a series 
of plains, descending by terraces, to the Arctic Ocean. 

10. The high terraces are rolling plains, covered with 
forests, or with wild grasses. 

11. The lowest terrace, which borders on the Arctic 
Ocean, consists of tundras, or marshes, covered, principally, 
with growths of coarse moss. The surface of these is, in 
the northern parts, constantly frozen. 

12. Alluvial plains are found along the courses of all 
the larger rivers. 

13. Lakes. — ^The Caspian Sea and the Sea of Ar'al 
are thought to have been formerly arms of the ocean. 
Both are salt lakes. The former is below the sea-level. 
There are several other salt lakes, of which Lake Balkash 
(bai kash') is the largest. All are situated in the central 
steppe region of the continent. 

14. Lake Baikal (bi kar) is the largest body of fresh 
water in Asia. It is about as large as Lake Erie. 

15. Lake Sirikol (sirekcr), the source of the Amoo 
(flmcJC)'), or Ox' us River, has an altitude of 15,600 feet 

16. Rivers. — The rivers of Asia are long. Those of the 
south have narrow valleys, rather than latrge basins. Most 
of them rise in the central highlands, from which they 
radiate in three directions, — north, east, and south, and 
mingle their waters with those of three oceans. 

17 The Obi (6' be) is an important river of the Arctic 
Slope.' The Amoor (a mcs^r') of Siberia, and the Tang- 
tse-Kiang and HoancfHo^ of the Chinese Empire, are the 
great commercial highways. 

18. The Indus and Cambodia arc noted for the fer- 
tility of their valleys. The Ganges^ (gftn'jez), the sacred 
river of India, has the largest delta in the world. 

19. Soil. — ^The river valleys and the plains which are 
well watered are extremely fertile. The high, central 
region and the western plateaus are dry, sandy, and 
barren. These comprise marine plains containing salt. 

20. Climate. — Every degree of temperature and moist- 
ure may be found in Asia, from that of the frozen tundras 
of Siberia, to that of the hot, pestilential jungles of India. 
The ar'id deserts of Arabia, Persia, Turkestan (uj^rkfetfin'), 
and Gobi receive little or no rain,* while the southern slope 
of the Himalaya is annually inundated.* 

21. Siberia is swept by icy winds from the Arctic 
Ocean ; Arabia, by the hot and fatal si moom'. Lidia is 
traversed by winds which scorch the entire surface for 
half the year, and flood it with rain the remaining part.^ 

22. The winds of the coast regions of Western and 
Southern Asia are, chiefly, monsoons ; in the interior, they 
are local. 

23. Destructive cyclones often visit the coast, fre- 
quently piling up the waters of the Bay of Bengal imtil 
the lowlands of the Ganges are submerged. 

24. Vegetation. — Southern Asia is covered with a dense 
tropical vegetation. The palm, bamboo,* and ban'yan- 
tree are abundant. Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, flax, jute,* 
hemp, poppy,* and the spices, are the principal plants cul- 
tivated in the plains and valleys of Southern Asia.* 

2. Oentr^^l Hindooetan is often called the Plateau of the Deocan. 

3. The Obi is the only river navigable to any considerable difttance. 

4. The Yang-tse and Hoang riven are subject to groat changes, brought about 
by the shifting of their channels. In 1851, the Hoang Ho burst through its banks 
and poured its waters into the Gulf of Pechelee (pJ cW W\ and within two years, 
its lower course had so changed that the mouth of the river had shifted 250 miles 
from its former position. Kiang and Ho signify rivers. 

6. The delta of the Ganges comprises a large area known as the Sunderbunds. 
The whole ♦ract has been formed from the soil brought down by the current of the 
river. From recent surveys, it has been ascertained that the Sunderbunds are 
Alowly sinking, and that their subsidence coes on about as rapidly as the elevation 
from the Increasing dei>oeits of sediment. 

6. These deserts are rainless, not because the air contains no moisture, but 
because the winds pass over a region intensely heated, and, until they reach the 
high mountains, the air is not sufficiently cooled to permit the condexusation of 
the moisture it contains. 

7. The mon soons' of India blow six months of the year from the land ; the 
remaining part of the year, from the ocean. The latter are the rain winda. 

8. Most of the valuable food-plants are native to Asia, and have followed 
man in his migrations about the world. 

* in tin' dSUy to overflow. T^P^PW^ a plant from which opium is obtained. 

bam Md', a plant with round, hollow stems, applied to many useful purpoees, as 

the manufacture of furniture, baskets, etc. 
JuU resembles hemp, and is used In the manufaoture of mats* coarse oshrpela, etc 









25. Central Asia produces the plants which thrive 
best in the temperate zones. Vast forests of pine, larch,* 
oak, maple, and birch are on the upland terraces of Siberia. 
The chief cultivated plants of Central, Eastern, and South- 
easteri;! Asia are rice, wheat, sugar, cotton, and tea. 

26. Western Asia produces the famous Mocha (mo'ka) 
coffee, tobacco, the fig, date, and olive. 

27. Nearly all the domesticated animals of the earth 
are foxmd in Asia, and most of them are native to it 
The Bactrian* camel and the elephant are used as beasts 
of burden. The Cashmere goat furnishes the fine wool 
known as camel's hair. 

28. Animals. — ^Tropical, or Southern, Asia aboxmds in 
fierce animals and dangerous reptilea The largest ani- 
mals are the elephant, rhinoceros, tapir, lion, tiger, hyena, 
and jackal.* The reptiles include the crocodile, python, and 
cobra de capello. Monkeys and beautiful birds are numerous. 

29. In the colder regions, the bear, wolf, fox, buffalo,* 
and several species of wild cattle are common. Here, also, 
are many kinds of deer. 

80. Minerals.— Gold and plat'inum are widely diffused 
throughout the Ural Mountains and the central plateaus. 

31. Silver is mined in Siberia. Copper and iron are 
abundant and widely distributed. 

82. Tin is abundant in the Malay Peninsula and the 
Island of Banca, near Sumatra (sc5&ma'trft). 

88. Petroleum is found in the basin of the Caspian Sea. 

84. Asia has always been famous for precious stones. 

Most of the large and valuable diamonds, sapphires, rubies, 
and emeralds are from the mines of India. 

85. The finest pearls are obtained in the Persian Gulf 
and in the water along the coasts of Ceylon. 

86. People. — Asia is probably the birthplace of the 
human race.* Fully one half the inhabitants of the earth 
live in China and India. 

87. The Chinese^ Japanese, Turks, and Tartars are of 
Mongolian descent 

88. The inhabitants of India, Persia, Turkestan, and 
Arabia are classed among the Caucasians.'® 

89. The Malays inhabit the Malay Peninsula** 

40. Siberia, Russian Turkestan, and Transcaucasia 
are subject to Russia, whose capital is St. Petersburgh. 

41. Siberia may be divided into three belts; agricult- 
ural and grazing land, in the south ; forests, in the middle ; 
and frozen marshes, in the north.** 

42. Chid J silver, copper, and other metals are mined in 
the mountains; and numerous wild animals are himted 
for their furs.** 

48. Trade is carried on by means of caravans and 
camel trains. In siunmer, boats navigate the rivers, and 
in winter, sledges are drawn on the ice and snow by dogs, 
horses, and reindeer. 

44. The chief cities are Tiflis (tif iss'), in Transcaucasia, 
west of the Cfiwpian Sea; Tashkend', in Russian Tur- 
kestan ; Omsk (6nnsk), in Western Siberia ; and Irkootsk 
(ir kcJbtskO, in Eastern Siberia. Yakootsk (ya kcJbtskO, on 
the Lena River, is said to be the coldest city in the world.** 

9. The strongest ev i d e neee of historj, langnsge, and tfoienoe point to the 
highlands of Asia as the birthplace of man. Somewhere in the valleyB of Persia, 
the old name of which was Arya (dr* ya), there lived a people who built houses, 
cultivated tho soil, and had forms of government. They believed in the Omnipotent 
Being, and also in a spirit of evil. 

10. Near the Aj^yan race, somewhere in the valley of the Buphratee and 
Tigris rivers, another race of i)eople had risen. This i)eople, now known as the 
Se mit'ic race, had also reached a high state of civilization. The Aryan race colo- 
nized Europe ; the Semitic remained in Afda. The Persians and the Hindoos are 
the descendants of the Aryan race who remained in Asia. In Europe, they sepa- 
rated into four branches. The Semitic race includes the Arabs, Syrians, and Jews. 

11. All other peQEde of Asia were called the " dark i)eople " (Turanian). They 
include the Mongols and Malays. 

12. SibeEia has long been used by Buaaia as a place of exile for crimJnals. One 
or two per cent of the exiles havo been political offendexB. 

13. FoTiliTmting in Siberia is next to Tn^ning in importance. The anlmalfl 
hunted are the sable, ermine, elk, deer, bear, wolf, marten, beaver, and fox. 

FooBa-ivory is found all over Northern Siberia, and in the islands north of it. 
This ivory is from the remains of mammoths,— huge animals which perished ages 
ago, when the tropical climate of Siberia was suddenly changed. Their dead bodies 
carried north by the rivers and floods, became imbedded in the soil, which froze 
and preserved them in ice. Ivory is, therefore, obtained from four sources:— the 
elephant, walrus, ivory-nut, and fossil mammoth. 

14. In Yakootsk, the temperature faUs in winter to 70* below zero. In the short, 
hot summers, potatoes, cabbage, and a few other vegetables grow. The gulfb and 
bays on the northern coast are frozen for nine months in the year. 

* Bd/cftHa^ a country of Asia, mentioned Vif'faV^y a wild animal of the same 
in ancient history. The Bactrian genus as the ox. It is unlike tho 
camel has two bunches on the back. bison, 

tf^t*, a oone-bearing tree. JiidifQ/L^ an animal roscmbllng a wolf. 



45. The Chinese Empire is larger by one half than the 
United States, and contains about six times as many- 

46. Chma, its most important division, contains the 
greater part of the population. The land is fertile and 
well cultivated, agriculture being the chief occupation of 
the people. Rivers and canals are numerous, and traveling 
is generally done in boats.^ 

47. The food of the Chinese consists, principally, of rice 
and fish.« 

48. The leading exports from China are tea, silk, sugar, 
porcelain, and pottery." 

49. Its trade is carried on, mainly, with Great Britain, 
Australia, and the United States, by means of ships ; and 
with Russia, by means of caravans. 

50. Many of the inhabitants of the other divisions of 
the empire are wandering tribes, whose occupation is the 
raising of horses, sheep, and goats. 

51. Peking the capital of the Chinese Empire, is noted 
for its surrounding walls, magnificent gates, and heathen 
temples.* Its houses are only one or two stories high. 
Its population is about that of New York City.* 

52. Canton (kftn t6n') is the second city in the empire. 

58. Thibet (tlb'St) is situated on a high plateau, sur- 
rounded by the highest mountains in the world. 

54. Corea (ko rs'a) is a kingdom. It was, until recently, 
under the control of the Chinese government. 

55. The Empire of Japan consists of islands, which 
contain mountains, streams, forests, and a well cultivated 

56. The principal occupations of the Japanese are agri- 
culture, manufacturing, and mining. 

57. Its exports comprise tea, rice, silks, porcelain, fans, 
and lacquered (lak'erd) ware.' 

1. ThonamdJi of the inhabitants of China have their houses and gardens on 
rafts and boats, which float on the rivers. These people live by gardening and 
fishing. In their floating houses, their children are bom, are married, and die. A 
young child, falling overboard there, is kept from drowning, by means of an 
empty gourd which its mother had tied between its shoulders. 

2. Besides rioe and fish, the food of many of the Chinese, who can afford it, 
comprises oom-cakes, meat, poultiy, locusts, frogs, and oysters. Some of the poorer 
daases eat the flesh of the dog, cat, rat, and horse. All drink tea, but none use 
milk. The Buddhists, however, eat no meat. They do not kill any animal, for 
fear of disturbing the soul of a deceased relative or friend, which, they believe, 
may have migrated into it. The Buddhists believe in the transmigration * of souls. 

3. Other eacports from Ohina are camphor, medicines, and flre-crackers. 
Their imports comprise cotton goods, keroeene, and opium. The opium is cultivated 
In India, and supplied to the Chinese by the English. Although opixmi-smoking 
ruins both body and mind, it is jnracticed by one fourth of the male population. 

4. Buddhist temples, or pagodas, are generally octagonal,* built of bricks, and 
five, seven, nine, or other odd number of stories, in height. Their projecting, 
tumed-up roofs are hung with bells. Some pagodas contain as many as 10,000 
oarved images of Buddha. 

6. The Chinese who have oome to the United States, are mostly of the 
ignorant class. They hope to return to their native land, partly on account of their 
reverence for the spirits of their ancestors ; and partly because, when they are buried 
in the family grave-yard, they think their spirits may share in the offerings made 
there by their living relatives. At the beginning of winter, many of the people bum 
paper dothing over the graves of departed relatives, in the belief that, by means 
of the fire, the clothing may reach them. Food is also left at graves, for the 
dead, but it is usually eaten afterward by the living. Chinese oities are sur- 
rounded by walls. The streets in dtiee of the south are narrow, to keep out the 

58. Tokio (to'kso), the capital, is the residence of the 
emperor, called the mikado (mi ka'do). Its chief port is 
Yokohama (yo ko ha' ma). 

59. India is larger than all the Pacific States and Ter- 
ritories, and contains about four times as many inhabit- 
ants as the United States. 

60. Nearly the whole of India is subject to Great 
Britain, either absolutely, or as tributary states." 

61. India is remarkable for its high, snow-covered 
peaks, hot climate, and large population. 

62. Its low plains in the north are the most fertile in 
the world. The west and south contain desert tracts. 

68. The people^ generally, are engaged in agriculture 
and stock-raising. 

64. The principal exports are cotton, opium, rice, wheat, 
and jute. Cattle, camels, buflfaloes, sheep, and goats are 
numerous. The inhabitants subsist, principally, upon rice, 
fish, and tea.* 

65. Calcutta is the capital and the most imi>ortant 
commercial city in Asia. 

66. Bombay (b6m bao, on the western co£ist, and Madras 
(madr&sO, on the eastern, are important citiea 

67. Ceylon (sel6nO is a mountainous island, belonging 
to Great Britain. It is famous for coffee and spicea* 
Pearl oysters aboimd on the southern coast, and the fish- 
ery is often very profitable. 

68. Farther India, or Indo-China, forming the south- 
eastern peninsula of Asia, comprises Burmah, the king- 
doms of Si am' and A nam'. Lower, or French, C!o' chin 
Ohina, Cam bo' di a, and the Malay Peninsula. 

69. This division of Asia is remarkable for its long 
mountain ranges and fertile valleys, its hot, moist climate, 
and its dense forests and jungles. 

heat of the sun. There are no wheeled yehiclee. Travel is hy means of boats, 
carts, sedan-chairs, and wheelbarrows. In the north, the streets are wider, admit- 
ting of carriages, etc. The dothing of men, women, and children is long and loose. 
The fbet of Ohineee women of the upper classes are small and deformed. The feet 
are bandaged tightly to stop their growth, when the child is about five years of age. 

6. Jajwn contains beautiful lakes, rivers, water-falls, trees, and flowers of great 
variety; bears, deer, wolves, and foxes; pheasants and other beautiful birds. The 
oelebrated mountain in Japan is Fujiyama (fob tH d'md), whose summit is covered 
with snow nearly all the year. In summer, bands of pilgrims, dressed in white, 
travel to its summit, to worship idols there. 

7. Japanese houses are furnished with mats, on which the people both sit and 
sleep, using neither chairs nor bedsteads. Although rice, fish, and tea are their chief 
kinds of food, the Japanese have also sweet potatoes and other vegetables ; oranges, 
figs, grapes, pears, and other fruits ; also, chickens and eggs. like the Chtnese, they 
eat with chopsticks, instead of knives and forks. The Japanese are well skilled in 
agriculture, ivory carving, and the manufacture of porcelain and bronze ornaments. 
Grain and vegetables of the temperate zone are raised there. 

8. The parts of India which are under British control, occupy two thirds of its 
area. The states which are independent are Nepaul and Boo tan'. The Malay Penin- 
sula includes the independent Malacca States and the British Straits* settlements. 

9. The north-east monsoons are winds which, for six months, cause drought 
(drofci) and oppressive heat. These are followed by the south-west monsoons, 
which are rain-bearing winds. Suddenly the dry, parched, and deserted land is 
covered with dense vegetation, and teems with animal life. Countless fishes, which 
for months have lain torpid, are recalled to activity. 

* oe toff'O nal^ having eight sides. 
ipioet^ dnnamon, ginger, pepper, nutmegs, cloves, etc. 
trim nU ffr^ t^on, paaaing of the soul Into another body. 



70. It contains large, savage animals, and many tribes 
of people scarcely removed from barbarism. 

71. The chief occupation of the inhabitants is the cul- 
tivation of rice, which is their principal article of food.'^ 

72. Bangkok^ the capital of Siam, is the largest city in 
Farther India. It contains royal palaces and many pagodas. 
These are surrounded by bamboo houses built on piles. 

78. Man' da lay is the capital of Burmah. 

74. Saigon (si gon') is a sea-port of French Cochin 

75. Singapore (stngapor'), on the Island of Singapore 
is a sea-port, belonging to Great Britain. 

76. Persia, Afghanistan', Bel oo chis tan', and Bo- 
khara (b6k a'rfi) are remarkable for their desert tracts, 
forest-covered mountains, and fertile river valleys. 

77. The prodicctions include grain, fruits, sugar, indigo, 
and dates. 

78. Many of the inhabitants own large flocks of goats 
and sheep ; while others are engaged in the manufa^cture 
of silk goods, shawls, rugs, and perfumery, or in the cara- 
van trade. There are, also, many roving, warlike tribes. 
Nearly all are Mohammedans." 

79. T?iese countries are important because of their 
situation between Russia and the Indian Ocean. Afghan- 
istan has been called the "gateway to India." 

80. Teheran (teh reLn"), the capital of Persia, and 
Tabriz (ta breezO, are the chief cities. 

81. Odbul (ka hxJbio, Herat (her ato, and Candahar 
(kan da harO are the principal cities in Afghanistan. 

82. Arabia is chiefly a hot, desert plateau, with oases 
of different sizes, in which dates, grapes, tamarinds, and 
other fruits grow. 

83. It has no general government^ the inhabitants being 
ruled by sheiks (sheeks), or chiefs. The rulers of Oman' 
and Nejed (najd), or Nedjed (nM'jSd), are called Sultans. 

84. Arabia is celebrated for fine dromedaries* and 
horses, and excellent coffee. 

85. Mus cat\ the capital of Oman, is the largest city 
in Arabia, and the chief sea-port. 

80. Aden (a'den) is a fortified sea-port, belonging to 
Great Britain. 

87. Meccay the birthplace of Mohammed, is visited by 
many Mohammedan pilgrims every year. It is said to be 
the hottest city in the world. 

88. Turkey in Asia is a part of the Ottoman or 
Turkish, Empire, whose capital is Constantinople. 

89. Its northern part is remarkable for forests, mount- 
ains, and fertile valleys; its eastern part, for the fertile 
plains of the Tigris and Euphrates (Qfra'tez); and its 
southern, for a desert region. 

90. Tropical fruits] cotton, grain, and tobacco grow 

91. The people are chiefly Turks and Arabs (fir'abs), 
professing the Mohammedan religion. 

92. Smyrna^ an important commercial port and 
steamer station, is the largest city. 

93. Damascus is the oldest city in the world. It contains 
grand old mosques (m6sk), and is the center of the caravan 
trade. Its manufactures comprise saddles and silk goods. 

94. Palestine (pares tin), or the Holy Land, is men- 
tioned in Scripture, as the Promised Land of the Ancient 
Hebrews, and the birthplace of Christianity. It contains 
the cities of Jerusalem and Beth' le hem, the Valley of the 
Jordan (jdr'dan), the Dead Sea, and the Sea of Gal' i lee. 


Each pupil may urrite a letter about one or more of 
the countries of Asia, as directed on page 32, 


Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on one or 
more of the countries of Asia, as shown on page Si. 

10. other prodnoti of Itethar India are oom, wheat, sugar-cane, tobaooo, 
cotton, and indigo. In the foresta, are the elephant, rhinooeroe, tiger, and leopard. 
White elephants receive great honor in Siam. 

11. Ferda is remarkable for extensive salt deserts. Near the Caspian Sea, 
however, vegetation is luxuriant. Here, as in other Mohammedan countries, edu- 
cation is confined to learning portions of the Koran, and scraps of jxMtiy. The 
Persians are a slow, easy-going i>eople, hospitable, generous, but procrastinating.* 

12. EQatorioal Notea.-^hina is sometimes referred to as Cathay (tathOf)^ the 
Middle Kingdom, the Floweiy Land^ and the Celestial Empire. Its records extend 
back to the time of the Patriarch Abraham, about 2000 b. o. 

13. The Ortai WaBy over 1,200 miles in length, was built about 200 b. c, to keep 
out the Tartars, who were enemies of the Chinese. 

14. The §havinQ df maCe heaOt, in China, and the wearing of the queue (M), as evi- 
dence of submission to the throne, began in the 17th century a.d. Among all 
classes, great importance is attached to the possession of the queue. 

16. JFtrmertf^ the Chinese and Japanese refused Americans, Bngliah, and other 
foreigners admiasion to their countries; bat now, they trade freely with them, and 
permit them to inside in certain places. The Eknptrw <^ (Mna appoints his suc- 
cessor from the members of hia family. 

16. The maud <^ Hong Kong was ceded by China to Great Britain, in 1841. 

17. Oommodort Ptrry visited Japan, and made a treaty between that government 
and the United States, in 1853. Since that time, the Japanese have made rapid 
progress In civilization and learning. 

18. Japanete pugMe now sit at desks, instead of on the floor of the school-room, as 
formerly. In the principal cities in Japan, the people have adopted the style of 
dress worn in the United States and Europe. 

10. The Japanete claim that their empire was founded in the year 660 b.o., 
and that the present emperor is in the direct line of descent from the first rulers. 
The crown usually descends to the eldest son. 

20. The Empire ^f India is ruled by the OovemorOeneral, who is appointed by 
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India. Next to the 
Chinese Empire, it is the most populous in the world. JhtUa woe eetOed by the Ar'yane^ 
about 1400 B.o. They were Brahmins, but unlike the Brahmins of the present 
time, in their religious teaching and practices. Their language was the San'akrit. 
The people are dividMf into castes. They believe in the transmigration of souls. 
CknUama^ or Buddha^ about 600 b. c, introduced a form of religion, which, after a 
long struggle with Brahmanism, was overcome, in India, and transplanted in 
Cliina, where it has degenerated into a debasing form of idolatry. QiMsa EUtaheth 
chartered the East India Company in 1600 a. d. The vast empire, which had 
grown by its conquests, was transferred to the British Crown, in 1868. 

21. The eiege of OaleuUa, in 1766, was rendered memorable by the *' Horror of 
the Black Hole." In 1842, an English army, with many notable men and women, 
perished in the massacre of Cabid. Doling the Apoy nmUng of 1867, occurred the 
terrible massacre of Cawn poor', and the subsequent relief of Lucknow. 

*drom'edary, a camel which has bat one hump on its back. The Bactrian 
camel has two humps. pro crde^d ndie^ to pat off till to-mono w. 

Pgttade i|^j|J West 

West trom Greenwich 




Soato Of Statute MilM 
8 6 9 It 15 

Scale of Railroad Time on MUes per Hoar) y 

Scale of Steamship Ttane (UMUee per Bour)|| 

M,000 aa MILES I 





7<j e^ 





^ ittMoT Jiiiii.lfmqiTiTn» Am«»xr3iBQL 



^^'-^ ':^te western? — southern? Hentloa the two blarbeat peaJ 

Rivers. — Mention the lar^ lakes. Which la far- 
thest north? — aotith? Which ts erosEed hy the Equator? In what direction and Into "what water doea the Nile 
River flow 9 — the Congo V "\ "* foban^^i ? -= r ^"- X ' ' * -- -^^ tHe Zambezo (s^Im M' 2if) ? — the Oranffo Blver ? 

Countries.— What countries border on the Mediterranean Sea?— on the Red Sea? Where Is Senegambla?— Liberia?— Congfo Free State? 

Climate and Products.— What Isotherm crosses the northern part of Afrtca? — the central? — the southern? Mention the produots of the 
Mediterranean States, — of the South African Colonies, — of the Guinea Coast,— of Central Africa. —of the Nile Valley, — of Madagascar. 

Map Drawlnir-— To draw a map of Africa, construct an oblongr dlagfram eleven and three fourths measures, from, east to west, by twelve and one 
half measures, ftom north to south, and on its sldef;, mark the four principal capes. Draw the northern, eastern, southern, and western coast lines. 






1. Position. — Africa, the south-western continent of the 
Old World, is the only ^rand division stretching entirely 
across the Torrid Zone. 

2. It is a peninsula^ joined to Asia by the Isthmus of 
Suez. The ship-canal, constructed across the isthmus, 
makes it, artificially, an island.* 

8. Size and Outline. — Africa is the second, in size, of 
the grand divisions. Its length and breadth are each about 
5,000 miles. 

4. The coast is unbroken by bays and inlets such as 
make secure harbors for vessels. In proportion to its size, 
it ^^as a shorter co8wt-line than any other grand division. 

5. Islands. — There are many continental islands lying 
along the coast of Africa Madagascar, the largest, is 
separated from the continent by a very shallow channel. 

6. Surface. — ^The interior of Africa is a plateau, which is 
highest in the south and south-east. This, in most parts, is 
bordered by mountains, between which and the sea is a 
low and narrow strip of coast 

7. The average elevation of the high plateau is about 
2,000 feet; and of the northern region, about 1,000 feet 

8. The principal raountain system extends along the 
eastern side of the continent. Kenia and Kilima Njaro 
are about 20,000 feet above the level of the sea. 

9. The Atlas Motrntains^ near the northern border, are 
high and rugged. 

10. The Cameroons MoimtainSj east of the Bight of 
Biafra, are near the western border. 

11. The Peak of Teneriffe (tsn er iro, one of the Canary 
Islands, is more than 12,000 feet above the level of the sea 




12. The Great Desert has an undulating surface, and 
is covered mostly with shifting sand and gravel A small 
portion, south of Barca, is below the sea-level. 

13. Oases^ watered by springs and covered with groves of 
date-palm-trees, are met with in different parts of the desert. 

14. Soudan (sc5^danO, situated south of the Great Des- 
ert, is a region remarkable for its extreme heat, and 
excessive rains and droughts. 

15. Central Africa, or the region crossed by the Equa- 
tor, is remarkable for its fertility; and, owing to its great 
height above the sea-level, its climate is mild and health- 
ful. This region is drained by many large rivers.* 

16. Southern Africa is mountainous; but it contains 
many fertile valleys and plains, well adapted to agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The Kalahari (ka la ha' re) Des- 
ert, though destitute of streams, is covered, during a great 
part of the year, with grass. 

17. Lakes. — The lakes of Africa are confined chiefly 
to the high, equatorial region, and are remarkable for 
their number and size. 

18. Lake Victoria is one of the largest lakes in the 
world. Its outlet is the Nile River. 

19. Rivers.— The Nile flows through the most impor- 
tant part of Africa. Its lower course is in a region almost 
rainless; and for more than 1,600 miles, it does not receive 
a single tributary. It is fed by the annual rains, and the 
melting snows of the high mountains. 

20. The water of the Nile is highest from May till 
September, when the lower valley is covered with a fine, 
rich soil, brought down by the fiood ; and the seeds which 
are scattered over the water, as it subsides, bring forth 
abundant crops of grain. Cotton, also, is an important 
product of the Nile Valley. 

1. Thfb fehortMi distanoe acroaB the IsthzniiB of Suez is about seyenty-two 
miles; the line of the canal is one hnndred miles. The average height of the 
isthmus above sea-level is scarcely ten foet. 

The Sues Canal was completed in 1860. It has a depth of twenty-four feet, 
and a clear channel aeventy-two feet iii width. By connecting the Ked Sea with 

the Mediterranean, this canal furnishes a shorter route between European ports 
and India, than that around the Cape of Good Hope. 

2. This region has not yet been wholly explored. In 1800, Stanley found that 
the sources of some of the tributary streams of the Congo and the Nile are but a 
short distance apart. 


^Ul view of AFRICA. 



21. The Congo J first explored by Livingstone, and after- 
ward by Stanley, drains the most fertile part of the con- 
tinent. Its source is in the region of heavy rains. 

22. Climate. — The region of greatest heat is in the 
Egyptian Soudan. There the midday temperature during 
the summer months is often 140°Fahr., while the nights 
are sometimes so cold that ice forms. 

23. In the desert, hot winds, known as simooms, are 
prevalent, and sand storms are often destructive. 

24. The coast, generally, is very unhealthy. 

2 5. Southern Africa possesses a mild and genial climate. 
Here are the principal settlements formed by Europeans, 
in Africa. This is the home of the Caffre (karer.) 

26. Vegetation.— Northern Africa yields grain,' olives, 
wool, cotton, dates, almonds, and olive-oil. 

27. Bice is a leading product of the Guinea fgln'e) Coast. 

28. The date-palm flourishes along the shores of the 
Mediterranean and in the oases of the desert. 

29. The famoTjbs baobab-tree (ba'o bab) is found in 
Central Africa. It is famous for its great size and age.' 

80. Oroves of teak, mangrove, ebony, and India rubber 
abound on the western coast. 

31. Oum arabic (ftr'a blk), myrrh, cotton, coffee, sugar- 
cane, and spices are products of Eastern Africa. 

82. T?he islands produce tropical fruits, wine, and amber. 

88. Animals. — Africa is noted for large and ferocious 
animals, and venomous serpents. 

84. Th^ lion may be found in any part of the continent. 

35. Th^ hippopotamus inhabits the upper Nile, while 
the marshes and streams of the low coast contain many 
crocodiles, lizards, and other reptiles. 


86. The gorilla (Qo rW \A), the largest and fiercest of 
apes, and the chim pan' zee, are met with in the west 

87. The elephant, giraffe, and the two-horned rhinoc- 
eros, belong in Central and Southern Africa. 

88. There are many species of deer and antelope. 

89. The zebra and the gnu (nQ), or homed horse, are 
numerous in the grassy plains of Southern Africa. 

40. The ostrich (6s'trich) is hunted in various parts of 
the continent; but in Southern Africa, the rearing of 
these birds for their plumes, is an important occupation. 

41. The sacred ibis,^ parrots, and other birds of beauti- 
ful plumage, are found in various parts of Africa. 

42. The most useful animal in crossing desert regions 
is the cameL Travelers and merchants, with their camels 
carrying merchandise, cross the desert in companies, called 

48. Minerals. — ^The coasts of Guinea and Sen e gam' hi a 
have long been celebrated for gold. Copper, lead, salt, and 
saltpeter are obtained in some places. 

44. Important diamxmd fields are in South Africa. 

45. People. — Africans comprise three races — the Cau- 
casian, Negro, and Malay. 

46. The Moors, Arabs, Berbers, Egyptians, and various 
tribes of the north are Caucasians; the tribes of Central 
and Southern Africa, and the east and west coasts, Ne- 
groes: and those of Madagascar, Malays.' 

47. Ecccepting the European colonists who have settled 
along the coast, nearly all the Cauc8wian inhabitants are 
Mohammedans, and are in a low state of civilization. 

48. Most of the Negro tribes of Africa are savages, in 
a degraded condition. There are, however, several tribes 
which cultivate the soil, raise cattle, and observe laws. 

3. The baobab-tiee, one of the giants of the vegetable kingdom, grows to the 
height of abont forty feet. Its tmnk is from twenty to thirty feet, in diameter. 
Xts fiber is used in making paper, cordage, etc. Millions of these trees are foimd 
aonth of the Congo Biver. Some of them are, it is said, more than 4,000 years old. 

4. For more than four thouoand yean, camels have been almost the sole 
means employed to cany merchandise across the deserts. The camel will carry a 

load of four or five hundred pounds weight, fifty miles a day, for five or six days, 
although he may not be supplied with food or water, during that time. Vast 
herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are raised in Southern Africa. 

5. In the uxiper basin of the Congo live a race of pigmiei, or dwarf^ three to 
four feet high. In intelligence, they excel the negroes. 

* r M«, a tall, slender bird of white plumage, with tips of wings and tail black. 



4 9. The Barbary States, situated on the Mediterranean 
Coast, extend from the Atlantic Ocean to Egypt. 

50. The Atlas Mountains extend partly through this 
division. These, with a low range along the Mediterra- 
nean' Sea, inclose a number of large and fertile valleya 

61. The climate is mild and healthful. South of the 
Atlas Mountains, it is extremely hot and arid. There are 
two seasons, a rainy and a dry. 

52. The highlands are covered with forests of cedar, 
pine, cork-trees, and other valuable timber. 

58. The lowlands are finely adapted to agriculture. 

54. The most important prodv^tions are grains, olives, 
wool, gum, and fruits. 

55. The natives consist of Moors, Arabs, and Berbers. 
Although descended from a very enlightened people, they 
are extremely ignorant, degraded, and treacherous. 

56. The foreigners are mainly French and Jewish 
colonists. Wherever they settled, agriculture, manufact^ 
ures, and commerce quickly followed. 

57. Morocco (m6r6k'6) is under the absolute govern- 
ment of a sultan, who is subject to Turkey. The country 
is sparsely settled. Cattle, sheep, and goats are reared 

58. In tanning and dyeing leather , the people exhibit 
great skill, and the leather manufactured there is exported 
to all parts of the world. 

59. Morocco and Fez are the most important cities. 
The sultan holds court at one and the other, alternately. 

60. Algeria (ftlje'ria) is a French possession, and con- 
tains a large European population. It is one of the most 
prosperous of the Barbary Statea 

61. Several lines of railway are in operation, and 
caravans, trading in ivory, gums, and ostrich feathers, 
penetrate the interior of Soudan. 

62. Algiers is the capital and commercial center. It is 
connected with Marseilles by a submeu^ine telegraph cable. 

63. Tunis, also, is a French possession. It was for- 
merly subject to Turkey. It is noted for its olive groves, 
date plantations, coral fisheries, and the manufacture of 
red caps, soap, and leather. 

64. Tunis^ near the site of ancient Carthage, is the 
capital and sea-port It is a very old city. 

65. Tripoli (trip' oil), though nominally a Turkish 
province, is a despotic monarchy, governed by a bey.* It 
includes the Oasis of Fezzan. 

66. It contains no river s^ and rain seldom faUs; yet, 
on account of heavy dews, the soil is productive. 

67. The leading exports are wool, hides, and ivory. 

68. Tripoli is the capital and sea-port. Mowrzouk 
(m<52)r z<52)k'), the capital of Fezzan, is the center of a large 
caravan trade. 

69. The Nile Countries comprise Egypt proper, Nubia, 
and the Egyptian Soudan, or Kingdom of theMahdi(ma'd6). 
They are governed by a hereditary monarch called the 
khedive,* and are subject to Turkey. 

70. The greater part of Egypt is a desert Along the 
lower course of the Nile, only the narrow valley, which is 
annually inundated, is capable of producing crops. 

71. Since the completion of the Sicez Canal, rapid prog^ 
ress has been made in developing the agricultural and 
commercial interests of Egypt^ 

72. Railways have been built, and, by means of irri- 
gating canals, extensive tracts of desert land have been 
made productive. 

78. Most of the wealthier classes have been educated 
in Europe, and foreign customs are being introduced 
throughout the country. The fellahin (feriaxn),* or labor- 
ing classes, are greatly oppressed, and are practically in a 
state of slavery. The Arab inhabitants are Mohammedans ; 
the Copts,' Christians. 

74. The principal products of Egypt are cotton, grain, 
sugar, and rice. Gum arable, ivory, indigo, and ostrich 
feathers are obtained in the Soudan. Manufactories have 
been established in the larger cities and towns. 

75. Cairo (ki'ro), the capital of Egypt, is the largest 
city in Africa. Alexandria is the principal sea-port. 
Railways connect both cities with Suez, the southern sea- 
port of the Suez CanaL The northern, or Mediterranean, 
searport of the canal is Port Said. 

76. The other seorports of Egypt are Ro set'ta and 
Damietta (d&m l dt'ta). 

77. Nubia (nQ'bl A) and the Egyptian Soudan^ are in- 
habited by warlike tribes of Arab and Negro descent. 

78. Khartoom (kftrtcSbm'), at the junction of the Blue 
and the White Nile, is the center of a large caravan trade. 

1. The oommeraial importaiioe of "Egypt is dae, pexily to the fact that the 
Sues Canal is situated in Egyptian territozy, and partly, to the heavy indebtedness 
of the Egyptian goYomment to English and French capitalists. In order to secure 
these from ices, the financial management of Egsrptian afE^Urs has been assumed 
by agents of the British government. 

2. Ttom the remotest times in the history of IBgypt, the lot of the fellahin 
has been a hard one, and it has been the common custom for the ruler of Egypt 
to collect them in gangs and compel them to labor on the public works. For this 
work, not only do they receive no pay, but they are also required to provide their 
own food, in the meantime. The conscription of fellahin to-day differs in no wise 
from that practiced under the task-masters 4,000 srears ago. In order to escape 
this conscription, villages and towns are often entirely abandoned, the people flee- 
ing In all directions, on the approach of the overseers. 

8. ThB Oopts are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians. 

4. ThB BgyptiBn Soudan was recently annexed by Ismail Pacha (UmdV paikf ), 
who was, at that time, Khedive of Egypt. The annexation was resisted by the 
native tribes of the Soudan, and especially by the slavedealers. For a long time, 
Egyptian rule was upheld by British bayonets. Finally, Mohammed Achmet, a 
man renowned for learning and religious zeal, proclaimed himself Al Mahdi, or 
the Prophet. The fellahin quickly gathered to his standard, and every arzry sent 
to subdue him was annihilated. Becognizing the impoasibility of holding the 
Soudan, the British government sent General Gordon to rescue the BngUfh ^ab- 
Jects who were then in that region. Gordon and these people were finally sar- 
rounded at Khartoom and massacred, it is said, by order of the Mahdl. 
* bey (b&), governor of a town, or district, in the Turkish dominions. 

tk^ (Am', king, viceroy, or governor of Egypt /nmAo, a governor, or comn>ander. 



79. Abyssinia L&blssln'i a) is a high and rugged plateau, 
containing a number of fertile valleys. The climate, 
owing to the high altitude of the surface, is mild and 
healthful. The people, though of a dark, or swarthy, com- 
plexion, belong to the Caucasian race, and consist, chiefly, 
of Copts and Berbers, who are ignorant and degraded. 

80. Abyssinia is a kingdom under the protection of 

81. Oon'dar is the capital. Massu'ah, or Massowah, 
now occupied by Italians, is the only sea-port 

82. South Africa comprises several prosperous colonies. 
Some of these belong to Great Britain; others are inde- 
pendent states founded by Dutch settlers: while others, 
still, are the homes of native tribes. 

83. Cape Colony and Natal (natar) are British colo- 
nies. The surface of the land is high, undulating, and 
well adapted to grazing. 

84. The leading occupations are the raising of cattle 
and sheep, and the rearing of ostriches. Wool and ostrich 
feathers are among the most valuable exports. 

85. Cape Town, the capital of Cape Colony, is the chief 
sea-port of South Africa. 

d6. Jfeter77Wlr^te6^^gr (pfl ter mar' its burg) is the capi- 
tal of Natal. 

87. West Griqualand (gre^kvsra), also a possession of 
Great Britain, contains the most productive diamond 
mines in the world. 

88. Kimherly, its capital, is situated in the diamond 
fields, and is the chief market for rough diamonds.' 

89. Caf fra'ri a and Zu'lu land are inhabited by natives 
who are noted for their intelligence, fine physical appear- 
ance, and great bravery.* Both countries are governed by 
native chiefs, although subject to Great Britain. 

90. The Orange Free State and the South African 
Republic (formerly Trans vaal'), are inhabited by Dutch 
farmers, called Bo'ers. The Boers are noted for their 
bravery and love of independence."^ 

91. Bloemfontein (blc5t>m f6n' tin) is the capital of the 
Orange Free State, and Pre to' ri a, of the South African 
Republic. Wool, cattle, grain, and feathers are the exports. 

92. Central Africa includes the regions comprised in 
Sahara, or the Great Desert, Soudan, the Congo Free 
State, and the territory southward to the Boer republica® 

93. Sahara contains about twenty oases, inhabited by 

6. floiigh diamondB are those which have not been cut and polished. They 
are irrecrolar in shape, and unattractive in al>pearance. The cutting and poliBhing 
of the stone, upon which its beauty and much of its value depend, is done, chiefly, 
at Amsterdam and Antwerp. 

6. The finest speoimene of the Negro raoe are the Caffres QoSffftn), 

7. The Boem were the first settlers of Cape Colony. After the colony had 
been annexed to Great Britain, the Boers moved to Natal ; and, on the annexation 
of Natal to Transvaal (^nlMvolO, an attempt to annex the latter led to a war 
between the Boers and Great Britain. The Boers were successful, and gained 
their independence, agreeing, however, to make no treaties with foreign nations 
without the oonsent of Great Britain. 

8. In 1890, by treaty, England gained control of this territory and Galla 

wandering tribes, who live, chiefly, by plundering the 

94. Soudan is inhabited by semi-barbarous tribes, each 
of which is governed by a chief, whose will is law. 

95. Their occupation is herding cattle, but they are 
constantly at war with one another. 

96. Tim hud too, Sack a too' and Kouka (koo'ka), are 
centers of a large caravan trade.* 

97. The Congo Free State embraces the basin of 
the Congo River. It is subject to the King of Belgium. 

98. Zan'zibar is a strip of coast nearly 1,000 miles 
long, including a number of small islands. It is governed 
by a sultan, and is under British and German influence. 

99. Zanzibar, on an island of the same name, is the 
capital It is the center of a large trade in ivory, gum 
co'pal, and spicea Trade is almost exclusively in the 
hands of Hindoo and Arab merchants. 

100. Mozambique (mozam bsk') includes a number of 
Portuguese colonies, extending from Zululand to Zanzibar. 
The city of Mozambique, the chief center of trade, is the 
residence of the Governor-General. 

101. The West Coast is covered with forests of valu- 
able timber. The highlands contain gold and silver. 

102. Senegambia (sdneg&m'bl A) includes most of the 
basins of the Senegal (sfineg^i') and Gambia rivera 
English and French traders have settled along the coast. 

103. Sierra Leone (sier'ra leo'ne) is a prosperous 
English colony. It is inhabited by Negroes, many of whom 
were rescued from slave-ships. Freetown is the capitaL^^ 

104. Liberia is a small republic, originally established 
as a colony for freed slaves from the United States. 
Mon rd via S& the capital. 

105. Dahomey and A shan'tee are absolute despotisms." 

106. Madagascar,^ a kingdom, contains a civilized popu- 
lation, whose principal industries are agriculture and herding. 

107. St. Helena belongs to Great Britain; the Canary 
Islands, to Spain; the Madeira (m&de^r^), the Azores 
(azOrzOi and the Cape Verd Islands, to Portugal. 


Each pvpU may write a letter about Africa, as directed 
on page 39. 


Each pupil may prepare a written exercise on Africa, 
as shown on page 32, 

Land on the east coast ; Germany, of part of Zanzibar, territory from Cape Colony 
to Portuguese possessions on the west coast, and a section inland from the Bight 
of Biafra. 

9. The principal routes by which caravans cross the Oreat Desert are from 
Morocco, Pez, Tunis, and Tripoli, to Timbuotoo, Sackatoo, Kouka, and Mourzouk. 

10. Sierra Iieone was founded through the efforts of English philanthropists, 
as a colony for Negroes who had been recaptured from slave-traders. 

11. The natiTes are superstitious, warlike, and ferocious. In Dahomey 
((MA^ma), wholesale murders, or human sacrifices, form part of certain oelebra- 
tions. Here, the king has an army of women whose weapons are muskets, swords, 
and clubs. Ashantee, also, is ruled by a native king, who is independent. 

12. Madagascar is oontroUed by France. 







15. Climate.— Except where modified by elevation, the 
climate is hot In the lowlands fringing the coasts of the 
large islands, it is exceedingly hot and unhealthy. In the 
region of the China Sea, destructive storms, called typhoons, 
are of frequent occurrence. 

16. The temperature of the coral^ islands is xmiform 
throughout the year. The only seasons are the rainy and 
the dry. 

17. Vegetation.— The vegetation is tropical; that of 
the large islands includes rice, sugar-cane, coflfee, cotton, 
hemp, and spices. Thick jungles of ferns, vines, rattan, 
and bamboo abound. U' pas-trees* are found in the foresta 

18. The vegetation of the coral islands consists, chiefly, 
of coffee, sugar-cane, banana and camphor trees, date, 
bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, and other palms. 

19. Animals. — The animals are similar to those of 
Southern Asia. They include the elephant, tiger, leopard, 
rhinoceros, tapir, deer, and buffalo. The kangaroo is found 
in Australia, only. 

20. Enormous serpents and crocodiles are numeroua 
The orang-outang, ape, and other species of the monkey 
are common. 

21. Many of the birds are celebrated for their beau- 
tiful plumage. Among these, are the bird-of-paradise and 
the lyre-bird. Here is found the emu (s'ma), or AustraUan 

22. Minerals. — Coal, iron, and copper are found in many 
of the larger islands ; quicksilver, in Borneo ; tin, of the 
finest quality, in the Island of Banca; and diamonds, in 
Celebes Island. 

28. People. — ^The inhabitants of this grand division are, 
principally, of the Malay race. Those of Malaysia are 
mostly Mohammedans. 

24. Many of the natives of the Polynesian Islands are 
uncivilized. Some of the tribes are savage and warlike, but 
most of them are peaceable and susceptible to civilization. 

25. Th^ natives of Melanesia, which includes New 
Guinea and the islands east of it, are a low type of the 
human race. 

26. Malaysia. — The Islands of Malaysia are situated in 
the Torrid Zone. They are remarkable for their fertile 
soil, hot climate, destructive earthquakes, and volcanic 

1. The ooral polyp, which, in the first part of its life, is quite active, finally 
attaches itself to the bottom of the sea, in shallow water, and is thenceforth inca- 
pable of locomotion. It Ti-ithdraws the carbonate of lime from the sea-water to make 
its skeleton, and grows in much the same manner as a tree, sending upward its main 
stalk, or trunk, from which grow many branches. The mouths of the coral almost 
entirely cover its outer surface, and resemble the petals of flowers, not only in 
shape, but also in the delicate shades of color. This polyp, of which there are many 
varieties, multiplies, chiefly, by this process of budding, or branching ; also, by eggs, 
which are light enough to float. The eggs and young polyp are thus carried by 
marine currents to other shores. It cannot exist in water more than 120 feet deep. 

2. Aooording to Javanese recordfl, Sumatra, Java, and Bali formerly consti- 
tuted a single island. They were severed from one another by earthquakes and 
volcanic outbursts. In 1883, there was a terrific explosion in Krakatu, or Kraka- 
toa (krdkdtd'S), an island in the Strait of Sunda. A part of Java was involved 
in that convulsion, and more than 100,000 people perished. 

eruptiona* They contain more than half the population 
of Oceania. 

27. The Philippine Islands belong to Spain. They 
contain a population of eight milUon inhabitants. 

28. The eocports are tobacco, rice, hemp, and coffee. 

29. Manila, the capital, is, next to Melbourne, the 
largest city in Oceania. Its manufactures, which are ex- 
tensive, include cordage, cloth, and cigars. 

30. The Dutch East Indies comprise Java, Celebes, 
the Spice Islands, and parts of Borneo and Sumatra. 
Among the most valuable natural products are ebony, 
sandal-wood, gutta-percha, and bamboo. 

81. Borneo, which is about the size of Texas, is one 
of the largest islands in the worlds after Australia 

82. Sumatra is noted for its forests of camphor-trees 
and mangrove bushea 

88. Java is the most densely populated region in the 
world. It excels in the production of coffee and sugar. 

84. Batavia, the principal sesrport and commercial 
center of the Dutch i)ossessions, is the residence of the 

86. The leading exports are coffee, sugar, rice, cotton, 
gutta-percha, and spices.' 

86. Australasia.— Australasia* includes Australia, Tas- 
mania (t&zma^nla). New Zealand, and the Islands of 

8 7. The surface of Australia consists of a nearly level 
plain, bordered by low, mountain ranges on its eastern and 
western margins. Most of the interior is an inland basin, 
consisting of vast stretches of desert, with, here and 
there, a lake, or a salt marsh. 

Z%, It is watered by periodical rains, which, in the 
wet season, convert the lowlands into an immense marsh. 
In the dry season, the scorching heat of summer quickly 
drives away every trace of moisture. 

89. The Murray and the Darling are the largest 
rivers. Like other streams of Australia, they disappear 
during the hot season, leaving a succession of shallow 
pools to mark their course. 

40. The vegetation of Australia is unlike that of any 
other part of the world." 

3. The spioeB for which Malaysia is celebrated, are better in qtiality than 
those of other parts of the world. Oinnamon is the dried, inner bark of a ti«e. 
Much of the cinnamon of commerce comes, not from the cinnamon-tree, but 
from the oaasia-tree. Gloves, the buds of an evergreen, are picked before the 
flower blooms, and dried, by smoking over a slow fire. Pepper is the dried berry 
of a vine. The province of Bantam, in Java, is the principal center of the pepper 
trade. Nutmegs are the fruit of the nutmeg-tree. The maoe of commerce is a 
portion of the husk, or sheU, that incloses the nutmeg. 

4. Auatralaoia signifies Southern Asia; Afutralia, southern land; Mksroneaai 
smaU islands ; Melanesia, black i<^lands (so named on account of the compleiion of 
the natives) ; Polynesia, many islands. 

5. It is estimated that Australia contains nearly seven thousand species of 
plants not found elsewhere. 

* iQxi9-trM, a tree which contains poisonous secretions. It has been fabolooaly 
reported that the atmosphere surrounding it is destructive to Ufe. 



41. Treenfe'f'ns and palms are abundant in the north. 
The pine, oak, and eucalyptus (Qkaiip'tas) trees^ in the 
south furnish an abundance of timber. 

42. The vjild animals are unlike those of other parts 
of the world. 

48. Many are marsupials (marsu'pials), or pouched 
animala These include many varieties of the kangaroo. 
The ornithorhynchus (or ni the rio^'us) and emu are pecu- 
liar to Australia.' 

44. Most of the people of Australia are of British 
descent. The natives are gradually disappearing. 

45. Australia is divided into five colonies. The gov- 
ernment of each is vested in a Governor, appointed by the 
Sovereign of Great Britain, and a legislative body chosen 
by the people. 

46. The leading occupations are agriculture and the 
raising of cattle and sheep. 

47. In Victoria, gold-mining is important. 

48. Melbourne^ the capital, is the largest city in Oceania. 
Oeelong (geiong'), Ballarat (bailaraf), and Sand' hurst 
are commercial centers. 

49. From New South Wales, the principal exports are 
wool, hides, grain, and gold. 

50. Sydney is the capital and metropolis. 

51. In Queensland, which is situated partly in the 
Torrid Zone, cotton and sugar-cane are cultivated. 

52. Brisbane is the capital 

53. South Australia is settled in the southern part, 
only. Its chief products and exports are grain and wool. 

54. Ad'e laide is the capital and sea-port. 

55. Western Australia and North Australia have a few 
small settlements along the coast. Their leading exports 
are wool, copper, and sandal-wood. 

56. Perth, the capital of Western Australia, is the only 
important town on the western coast. 

57. Tasmania.— Tasmania, formerly called Van Die- 
men's Land, is a thriving British colony. The surface is 
mountainous and covered with forests. 

58. The principal products are grain, wool, hides, and 
lumber. Coal is abundant. 

59. Hohart Town is the capital 

60. New Zealand.— New Zealand, a British colony, 
comprises two large and a number of small islands. The 

surface is moimtainous and volcanic; the climate, mild 
and uniform. 

61. The principal products are wool and grain. 

62. Wellington is the capital. 

63. Auckland is a sea-port and coaling station for 
steam-ships plying between San Francisco and Sydney. 

64. Papua, or New Guinea, belongs partly to the Dutch, 
Germans, and British. New Pomerania (New Britain) and 
New Mecklenburg (New Ireland) belong to Gtermany. 

65. The Feejee Islands, more than two hundred in 
number, belong to Great Britain. The exports are cocoa- 
nuts, cotton, palm-oil, and mother-of-pearl sheila 

66. Levuka is the capital. 

67. The Hawaiian (ha wi'an) or Sandwich Islands 
consist of a group of fifteen islands. 

68. Hawaii (hawri), the largest island, contains a 
number of volcanoes, — one of which, Kilauea (ke low a' a), 
in the Mauna Loa (mo\v'na lo'a) Mountains, is nearly 
always active. 

69. The natives have made rapid progress in civiliza- 
tion. They have excellent public schools and higher 
institutions of learning. Newspapers are published in the 
native language." 

70. The government is a republic. 

71. The leading industries are the cultivation of the 
sugar-cane and the manufacture of sugar. 

72. Honolu'lu, the capital, is the chief searport. It 
is one of the stations for the steamers trading between 
San Francisco, China, and Japan. It contains fine build- 
ings, and a large American and English population. 

73. The Caroline Islands comprise about sixty groups, 
containing about five hundred islands. They are nomi- 
nally under Spanish protection. 

74. The Society Islands are claimed by the French. 

75. The Samoan (sa mo'an) Islands have, besides the 
natives, a small European and American population. 


Ea^h pupil may write a letter about one or more of 
these islands, as directed on page 32, 


Each pupil may prepare a Written Exercise on these 
islands, as shown on pa^e 32. 

6. The eooalyptUB, or cnun-tree, Ib an evergreen. The young tree has leaves 
which are nearly circular. Each leaf is pieroed by a square stem. Subsequently, 
the stem becomes round, and the leaf long and narrow, hanging with its point 
downward, and its edge turned to the sun. The blue gum-tree attains a height of 
from 200 to 300 feet. The foliage has a spicy aroma. The eucalyptus is now cul- 
tivated extensively on the Pacific Coast, in the Valley of the Nile, and elsewhere. 

7. ThB younip of xnarBupials, or pouohed animala, are carried in the iwuch 
of the mother until they are able to feed and take care of themselves. Even 
after they are partly grown, if frisrhtened, or assailed, by enemies, they take 
refuge in the mother*s pouch. The kangaroo, of which there are many species. 

has short fore legs. By means of the hind legs, which are veiy long, it can leap 
fifteen or twenty feet. Its flesh is used for food, and its skin is valuable for 
leather. The omithorhynohus, platypus {plat p put), or dook-biU, has a bill like 
that of a duck, and a body like that of an otter. It lives equally well on land or 
in water. Its fore feet are armed with claws, and its hinder ones are webbed like 
those of water-fowl. The emu, or Anatralian ostrioh, is smaller than that of 
Africa, or of South America. Some of the animals of Tasmania, of which the 
dog-headed wolf is the largest, are similar to those of Australia. 

8. The Sandwich Islanders have made rapid progress in civilization, but they 
are rapidly decreasing in number. 

P A B S T 



BANK.— 1, liondon; 2, Paris; 3, Pekin; 4, Canton; 5» New York; 6, Berlin; 7, Tokio ; 8, Vienna. 


Area, 8«350,000 bo. m. 
Pop., 88,000,000. 


Area, 3,770,000 aq. m. 
Pop., 6,000,000. 

Hontreal 216,650 

Toronto 181,220 

Quebeo 63,080 

HAmilton 48,980 

Halifax 38,656 

Ottawa* 44,154 


Area, 3,608.000 i 
Pop., 63,000,0 


New York 1,500,000 

Chicago 1,100,000 

Philadelphia 1,000,000 

Brooklyn 806,000 

St liOuiB. 460,000 

Boston 448,000 

Baltimore 434,000 

San Francisco .... 298,000 

Cincinnati 296,000 

Cleveland 262,000 

Buffalo 266,000 

New Orleans 242,000 

Washington* 228,000 


Area, 180,000 so. m. 
Pop., 3,000,000. 

Guatemala* 70,000 

Leon 26,000 

San Salvador* .... 16,000 

Teeruclgalpa* 12,000 

San Jo8e<V 12,000 

Managua* 12,000 


Area, 751,600 sq. m. 
Pop., 11,400,000. 

Mexico* 320,600 

Leon 120,000 

Quadalaxara 80,000 

Puebla 78,000 

San Luis Potosi.. 62,000 

Guanajuato 62,000 

Merida 32,000 


Havana* 198,000 

Matanzas 88,000 

Santiago de Cuba 71,000 

Port au Prince*.. 60,000 

Kingston* 40,000 

Santo Domingo* . 16,000 


Area, 6,888,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 33,600,000. 


Area, 464,600 sq. m. 
Pop., 3,321,000. 

Bogota* 96,000 

MMlelLin 37,000 

Panama 25,000 


Area, 403,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 2,230,000. 

Caracas* 66,000 

Valencia 36,000 

Maracaybo 32,000 

Barquisimeto .... 29,000 


Area, 160,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 373,000. 

Georgetown* 37,000 

Paramaribo* 23,000 

Cayenne* 10,000 


Area, 3,228,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 14,600,000. 

Bio Janeiro* 500,000 

Becife 190,000 

Bahia 80,000 

Para. 66,000 

Maranhao 38,000 

San Paulo 36,000 


Area, 116,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 1J206,0(H). 

Quito* 80,000 

Guayaquil 40,000 

Cuenca 30,000 


Area, 439,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 2,980,000. 

Lima* 101,000 

Callao 33,000 

Arequipa 29,000 


Area, 616,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 1,436,000. 

La Paz* 40,000 

Sucre 19,000 

Cochabamba. 16,000 

Potofli 12,000 


Area, 300,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 3,106,000. 

Santiago* 189,000 

Valparaiso 105,000 

Concepcion 24,000 

Talca 23,000 


Area, 1,077,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 3,204,000. 

Buenos Ayres* . . . 661,000 

Cordova 66,000 

Bosario 65,000 

Tucuman 40,000 


Area, 98,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 330,000. 

Asuncion* 24,000 

Villa Bica 12,000 

Concepcion 1 1,000 


Area, 69,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 712,000. 

Montevideo* 175,000 


Area, 3,943,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 361,000,000. 


Area, 58,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 29,000,000. 

London* 4,.352,000 

Liverpool 606,000 

Birmingham 455,000 

Manchester 379,000 

Leeds.. 357,000 

Sheffield 327,000 





Area, 80,460 sq.. ml. 
Pop., 4,033,000. 

Glasgow 528,000 

Edinburgh* 267,000 

Ihmdee 140,000 

Aberdeen 105,000 


Area, 32,500 sq. m. 

Pop., 4,706,000. 

Dublin* 363,000 

Belfast 208,000 

Cork 80,000 

Limerick. 39,000 

Londonderry 29,000 

Waterford 82,000 


Area, 207,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 38,219,000. 

Paris* 2,345,000 

Lyons 402,000 

Id&j^illes 370,000 

Bordeaux 241,000 

LiUe 188,000 

Toulouse 148,000 

Nantes 127,000 

St. Etienne 119,000 

Havre 112,000 

Bouen 107,000 


Area, 16,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 2,934,000. 

Basel 70,000 

Geneva. 52,000 

Bern* 46,000 

Lausanne 33,000 

Zurich 28,000 


Area, 110,680 sq. m. 

Pop., 30,165,000. 

Naples 617,000 

M3an 420.000 

Borne* 415,000 

Turin 312,000 

Palermo 267,000 

Genoa 210,000 

Florence 185,000 

Venice 152,000 

Bologna 138,000 


Area, 210,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 49,420,000. 

Berlin* 1,316,000 

Hamburg 306,000 

Breslau 300,000 

Leipeic 287,000 

Munich 262,000 

Dresden 246,000 

Cologne 237,000 

Magdeberg 157,000 

Frankfort 164,000 

Konigsberg 151,000 

Hanover 140,000 

Stuttgart 126,000 


Area, 12,740 sq. m. 

Pop., 4,558,000. 

Amsterdam 406,000 

Botterdam 203,000 

The Hague* 166,000 

Utrecht 85,000 

Groningen 55,000 


Area, 14,780 sq. m. 

Pop., 2,172,000. 

Copenhagen*.. .. 312,000 

Aarhuus 33,000 

Odense 30,000 


Area, 126,600 sq. m. 
Pop., 1,200,(WO. 

Christiania* 130,000 

Bergen 47,000 


Area, 261,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 42^,630,000. 

Vienna* 1,104,000 

Buda^Peeth 360,000 

Prague 162,000 

Lemberg 110,000 

Trieste 74,000 


Area, 2,198,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 98,840,000. 

St. Petersburg*.. 1,003,000 

Moscow 753,000 

Warsaw 454,000 

Odessa 240,000 

Biga 176,000 

Kharkov 171,000 

Area, 192,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 17,247T000. 

Madrid* 472,000 

Barcelona. 272,000 

Valencia 171,000 

Seville 143,000 

Malaga 134,000 

Murola 98,000 


Area, 11,375 sq. m. 

Pop., 6,094,000. 

Antwerp 221,000 

Bruflsels* 182,000 

Ghent 152,000 

Liege 146,000 

Bruges 47,000 


Area, 68,000 sq. m. 

Pop., 6,760,000. 

Constantinople*.. 874,000 

Salonica, 162,000 

Adrianople 71 ,000 



Area, 37,300 sq. m. 

Pop., 3,100,000. 

Philippopolis 33,000 

Sophia* 30,000 

Boustchouk 27,000 

Varna 26,000 


Area, 18,500 sq. m. 

Pop., 2,157,000. 

Belgrade* 35,000 


Area, 50,500 sq. m. 
Pop., 5,000,000. 

Bucharest* 222,000 

Jassy 00,000 


Area, 25,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 2,217,000. 

Athens* 107,000 

Patras 33,000 


Area, 34,600 sq. m. 
Pop., 4,306,000. 

Lisbon* 242,000 

Oporto 106,000 

Braga 20,000 


Area, 174,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 4,774,000. 

Stockholm* 243,000 

Gottenburg 102,000 

Malmo 47,000 


Area, 17,000,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 823,150,000. 


Area, 240,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 4,600,000. 

Cabul* 66,000 

Herat 50,000 

Candahar 60,000 


Muscat 60,000 

Aden 60,000 

Mecca 60,000 

Medina. 20,000 

Sana 20,000 


Area, 148,000 sq. m. 
Pop., 40,072,(W)0. 

Tokio* 1,313,000 

Osaka 443,000 

Kioto 276,000 

Yokohama 120,000 

Nagasaki 44,000 


Area, 4,292.000. 

Pop., 361,500,000. 

Pekin* 1,650,000 

Canton 1,600,000 

Tientsin 950,000 

Hang Chow 895,000 

Foo Chow 635,000 

Shanghai 375,000 


Area, 84,400 sq. m. 

Pop., 10,519^00. 

Seoul* 250,000 


Area, 1,760,000. 
Pop., 292,300,000. 

Bombay 773,000 

Calcutta* 433,000 

Madras 406,000 

Hyderabad 355,000 

Lucknow 261,000 

Benares 200,000 

Delhi 173,000 


Bangkok* 600,000 

Saigon 120,000 

Mandalay 100,000 

Singapore 60,000 

Hue* 30,000 


Area, 6,466^)00 sq. m. 
Pop., 14,834,000. 

Tashkend 121,000 

Irkootsk. 39,000 

Samarcand 33,000 


Area, 635^000 sq. m. 
Pop., 7,600,000. 

Teheran* 210,000 

Tabris 180,000 

Ispahan 90^000 

Meshed 70,000 


Area, 709.360 sq. m. 
Pop.. 16,479,000. 

Smyrna 186,000 

Damascus 160,000 

Aleppo 110,000 

Bagdad 100,000 

Beyrout 85,000 

Trebizond 46,000 

Jerusalem 43,000 


Area, 11,615.000 sq. m. 
Pop., 168,500,000. 


Area, 361,000 sq. m.t 
Pop., 6,818,000. 

Cairo* 876,000 

Alexandria 227,000 

Damietta 34,000 

Tantah 34,000 


Tunis* 135,000 

Algiers 76,000 

Oran 68,000 

Constantine 46,000 


Coomassie 50,000 

Abomey 50,000 

La^ 35,000 

StiPauldeLoanda 20,000 

Monrovia 15,000 

St. Louis 12,000 


Tananarive* 150,000 

Zanzibar 100,000 

Port Louis. 70,000 

Gondar 20,000 

QuUoa. 16,000 

Mozambique 16,000 


Cape Town* 60,000 

Durban 17,000 



Sydney* 367,000 

Melbourne* 283,000 

Adelaide* 119,000 

Brisbane* 84,000 

Dunedin 43,000 

Ballarat 41,000 

Sandhurst 38,000 

Auckland 31,000 


Manila* 150,000 

Batavia* 100,000 

Suraba^ 100,000 

Samarang, 60,000 



Fwt. I Feci. 

Mt. Everest 29.002 Mt. Ararat 17,210 

Several peaks of the Himalaya Mts. . . .26,000 to 28,300 

Kenia 20,000 

Gtambaragara (esti- 
mated) 18,500 

Kilima Njaro 18,500 


Aconcagua 23,900 

Sahama 22,350 

Gualateiri 22,000 

Abba Jared 15,000 

Cameroons (highest 

peak) 13,000 

Peakof Teneriffe... 12,182 


Chimborazo 21,424 

Sorata 21,286 

lUimani 21,149 

NORTH AfAERlC A.—Pa^^ mghlands. 

St. EUas Alps 19,500 

Popocatepetl 17,809 

Brown 15,900 

Whitney 14,895 

Blanca Peak 14,464 

Shasta 14,440 

Bainier 14,440 

Pike's Peak 14,147 

Hood 11,226 

NORTH AMERlCA.-AtlanUe BlgAUindt. 

Mitchell 6,707 

Clingman*s Peak. . . 6,600 
Washington 6,293 

Grandfather 5,897 

Katahdin 5,385 

Marcy 6,344 


Elboons 17,800 

Blanc 15,810 

Bosa 16,208 

Cervin 14,771 

Pelvoux 14,108 

Finster Aarhom. . . 14,026 

Simplon 11,550 

Cenfa 11,460 

()phir. . .. 
SSni Balu. 


13,900 I MaunaLoa 13,300 

13,700 I Semero 13,000 



Length In miles. 

Amazon 4,000 

LaPlata, inc. Parana 2,250 

Length In milei. 

Madeira 1,800 

Paraguay 1,600 


Length In mile*. 

Nile 4,000 

Niger 2,700 

Congo 2,000 

25ambeze 1,900 

Senegal 1,000 

Orange 750 



Mackenzie . 


3,160 1 Yukon 2,240 

3,100 Arkansas 2,170 

2,420 I Bio Grande 3 .800 


Yang-tse-Kiang 2,500 

Lena 2,400 

Yenesei 2,300 

Amoor 2,200 

Indus 2,100 

Obi 2,000 

Hoang Ho 2,000 

Ganges 1,000 


Volga 2,000 

Danube 1,725 

Ural 1,446 

Dnieper 1,230 

Don 980 

Petchora 9::0 

Bhine 800 

Bhone 550 


according to popu- 

1. United States. 

2. France. 

3. Brazil. 

4. Mexico. 

6. Colombia. 

6. Ajigentine Rep. 

7. Chili. 

8. Peru. 

9. Switzerland. 

10. Venezuela. 

11. Quateinala. 

12. Bolivia. 

13. Hayti 

14. Ecuadar. 

15. Lilieria. 

16. Uruguay. 

17. South Afr. Rup. 

18. Salvador. 

19. Santo Domingo. 

20. Honduras. 

21. Paraguay. 

22. Nicaragua. 
2:^. Costa Rica. 

24. Orange Free 


25. Andorra. 

26. San Marino. 

27. Hawaii. 














1. GtBritAIre'd. 

2. Italy. 

3. Prussia. 

4. Spain. 

5. Corea. 

6. Siam. 

7. Belgium. 

8. Bavaria. 

9. Roumania. 

10. Sweden. 

11. Netherlands. 

12. Portugal. 

13. Madagascar. 

14. Ashantee. 

15. Saxony. 

16. Denmark. 

17. Greece. 

18. Wurtembcrg. 

19. Servla. 

20. Norway. 

21. Dahomey. 

COLONIES, flto. 

1. British India. 

2. Congo Free St., 
Br., Gtr., Dut., 

and Port. 

3. Java, Dvt. 

4. Fr'eh Tonquin. 

' 17. 

5. Egypt, Br. and 15. 


6. Anam, Fr. 

7. Canada, Br. 

8. Algeria, Fr. 

9. Australia, Br. 

10. Ceylon, Br. 

11. Coch.aiina, Fr. 

12. Cuba, Sp. 

13. Tunis, Fr. 

14. Sumatra, Dut 

Cape CoTy, Br. 
Cambodia, Fr. 
Borneo, S. and 

E. DuL 
Porto Rico, Sr- 
N. Zealand, Br. 
Str. Settle's, Br 
Papna, Dtit., 

Br., Grr. 
NaUl, Br. 
Celebes, Dut. 

24. Guiana, Br., 

Dutek, Fr. 

25. Senera'bia, Fr. 

26. Newfdrd, Br. 

27. Borneo, N.,B-. 

28. HongKong,Br. 
20. Tasmania, Br. 

I 'Mi. Ireland, /Vn. 
31. Sier. Leone. Br 
82. BaliM, Br. 
33. Greenriid,DM». 


• ladlcatM the CaplUL 

t Limited to YaUcj of the Kile. 


UIOTED STATES— Area, inelading Alaska and Ameriean portion of Gt Lakes, B^MS^Ul sq. mi. ; Population, inelading Alaska, 62,982,844. 


Mobile 31,076 

Birmixi^ham 26,178 

Montgomery 21,888 

Anniflton 9,876 

ATiAflKA. LAlas.1 
Arm, 577,590 9q. mL ; Bop., 

Jonean 1,253 

Sitka 1,190 

Arta, llS^OtOtq. mL; Fop^ 

Taoson 6,160 

A-a-gAwaAft [Ark.] 
Ana, 6S^U0 §q. mL; Pop., 

litUeBock 25,874 

Fort Smith 11,311 

PineBlafl. 9,952 

HotSpilDgB 8,086 


Area, l£8je09g.mL; Bop,, 

San FrandBOO 298,997 

liOB AngelflB 50,806 

Oakisoid 48,682 

Sacramento 26,886 

San Jose 18,060 

San Diego 16,159 

Stockton 14,424 

Area^ lOS^ K^tnL; Bop., 

DenTer. 106,713 

Pueblo 24.558 

Colorado Springe. 11,140 
lieadville 10,384 

00 JN H JKfi'lO U T. [Oonn.] 
Ana^u^jjr^; BJP. 

yiew Haven 81,208 

Hartford 53,230 

Bridgeport 48,866 

Waterbnry '28,646 

Heriden "91,652 

New Britain ^,007 

Norwalk 17,747 

Danburr 16,552 

Korwich 16,156 

Stamford. 15,700 

New liondon 13,757 

Area, fJXO $q. mL; Bop., 

Wilmington 61,431 

NewcasQe 4,010 

Dover 8,061 


BIA. [D. O.] 
Area, 70 eg. mL; Bop^ 990,/89». 
Waehlngton 230,392 

Area, 68^880 eg. mL ; Bop., 

KeyWeBt 18,080 

Jackaonyille 17,201 


QBORaiA. [Oa.] 

Atlanta 65,533 

Savannah 43,189 

Aiurusta 33,300 

Haoon 22,746 

Colnmbiu 17,308 


IDAHO. [Ida.] 
Area, 8UA00 eg. mL ; Bop., 

BoisdOity 2,311 

rLuvois. [m.] 

Area, Se^BSO eg. mL : Bop., 

Chicago 1,099,850 

Peoria 41,024 

Qoincy 31,494 

^[xrinAfleld 24,964 

Boddford 23,584 

JoUet 28,264 

Bloomington 20,484 

Anrora. 19,688 

Elgin. 17,823 

Decatur 16,841 

BeUville 15,361 

GNhleaburg 15,264 

nTDIAH. pbid. Ter.] 
Area, slMXj^o^.; Bop., 

htdiaha. pbid.] 

Indianapolis 105,436 

BvansvlDe 50,756 

Fort Wayne 35,393 

Terre Haute 30,217 

South Bend 21,819 

NewAlbany 21,059 

Bichmond 16,608 

Lafayette 16,243 

liOgfuiaport 13,328 

IOWA, da.] 

Arm, UfiUeq. mL; Bop., 

Des Moines 50,098 

Sioux aty 87,806 

Dubuque 80,311 

Davenport 26,872 

Burlington 22,565 

Oounol Bluib .... 21,474 

OedarBapids 16,020 

XAK8AS. [San.] 
Area, 88^090 eg. mL : Bop., 


Kansas City 38,316 

Topeka 31,007 

wSiita. 23,853 

Deavenworth 19,768 

Atchison 13,963 

Fort Scott 11,946 

KKNTUuJkx. [Ky.] 

Area, AO^ eg. mL ; Bop., 

Louisville 161,129 

Covington 37,371 

Newport 24,918 

Le:dngton 21,567 

Paducah 13,076 

L0T7ISIANA. [Ia.] 

Area, iSyTtO eg. mL ; Bop., 


New Orleans 242,039 

Shreveport 11,979 

Baton Booge 10,478 

XAINB. [Me.] 
Area, SS,MO 'JM'*^ / Bop., 

Portland 36,426 

Lewiston 21,701 

Bangor 19,103 

Blddefoid 14,448 


Area, 18^10 eg. mL ; Bop., 

Baltimore 434,439 

Cumberland. 12,729 

Hagerstown 10,118 


Area, 8fiUjq. mi. ; Bop., 

Boston 448,477 

Worcester 84,655 

LoweU 77,696 

FaU Biver. 74,398 

Cambridge 70,028 

Lynn 55,727 

Lawrence 44,654 

SpriDgileld 44,179 

NewBedford. 40,733 

Somervllle 40,152 

Holyoke 85,637 

Salem 30,801 

Chelsea 27,909 

HaverhilL 27,412 

Brockton 27,294 

Taunton 25,448 

Gloucester. 24,651 

Newton 24,879 

Maiden 23,031 

Fltchburg. 22,037 

Waltham 18,707 

MIOHiaAH. [Xioh.] 

Area, 68^18 eg. mi. ; Bop., 

Detroit 205,876 

Grand Bapids 60,278 

Saginaw 46,322 

Bay City 27,839 

Muskegon 22,702 

Jackson 20,798 

Kalamaaoo 17,858 

Port Huron 13,543 


Area, 88fl66 eg. mi. / Bop., 

Minneapolis 164,738 

St. Paul 133,156 

Duluth. 33,115 

Winona 18,208 

Area, U^IO eg. mi. ; Btp., 

Vicksburg 13,373 

Meridian 10,624 

Natchez 10,101 

Greenville 6,658 


Area, e9M8 eg. mL ; Bop., 

St. Louis 451,770 

Kansas City. 132,710 

St. Joseph. 52,824 

Sprin«^eld 21,860 

MONTANA. [Mont.] 
Areatlk8fi80e^mi.; Bop., 

Helena 18,834 

Butte Oitx 10,728 


Area, 77^10 eg. mL ; Bop., 

Omaha 140,452 

Lincoln 55,154 

Beatrice 13,836 

NEVADA. [Nev.] 
Area, 110,700 eg. mi. ; Bop., 


Virginia City 

Carson City 





Area, 9^ eg. mi. ; Bop., 


Manchester 44,126 

Nashua 19,311 

Concord 17,004 

Dover 12,790 

Portsmouth 9,827 

Keene 7,446 


Newark 181,880 

Jersey Citgr 163,003 

Paterson. 78,847 

Camden 58,313 

Trenton 57,458 

Hoboken 43,648 

Elizabeth 37,764 

Bayonne 19,033 

Orange 18,844 

NewBronswlok. . . 18,603 


[N. Mex.] 
Area, 188,680 eg. mL ; Bop., 

Santa F4 6,185 

Albuquerque 5,518 

NEW TOBX. [N. T.] 

Area, k8470 eg. mL ; Bop., 


New York. 1,515,301 

Brooklyn 806,348 

Buifalo 256,664 

Bochester 133,896 

Allwny 94,023 

Syracuse 88,143 

Tcor 60,956 

Utica 44,007 

Binghamton 35,005 

Yoxukers 32,033 

Elmira 30,893 

Long Island City.. 30,506 

Auburn 25,858 

Newburgh. 23,087 

Cohoes 22,509 

Pcughkeepeie 22,206 

Oswego 21,842 

Kingston 21,261 

Schenectady 19,902 

Amsterdam. 17,336 

New Brighton 16,423 

Jamestown 16,038 

Lookport 16,038 

Bome 14,991 


[N. O.] 

Area, 6i^U0 eg. mL ; Bop., 


Wilmington 20,056 

Balelgh 12,678 

Charlotte 11,657 

[N. Dak.] 

Area, 70,795 eg. mL ; Bop., 

Fargo 5,613 

Grand Forks 4,963 

Bismarck. 2^60 

OHIO. [O.] 

Area, klfi60 eg. riA. ; Bop., 


Cincinnati 296,908 

Cleveland 261,853 

Columbus 88,150 

Toledo 81,434 

Dayton 61,220 

Yoimgstown. 33,220 

Springfield 31,895 

Akron 27,601 

Canton 26,189 

Zanesville 21,009 

Findlay 18,558 

Sanduaky 18,471 

Hamilton 17,565 

Lima. 15,981 

Newark. 14,270 

Area, 89,090 eg. mi. ; Bop., 

Oklahoma 4,151 

Guthrie 2,788 

East Guthrie 2,141 

OBBOON. rOx«g.] 

Area, 96,090 eg. mL ; Bop., 


Portland 46,385 

East Portland. .... 10,532 

Astoria 7,071 

Albina 5,104 



Area, liS^lS eg. mL: Bop., 


Philadelphia. 1,046,964 

Pittsburgh 238,617 

Allegheny 105,287 

Scranton 75,215 

Beading 58,661 

Erie 40,684 

HaiTisburg 89,385 

Wilkesbarre 37,718 

Lancaster 32,011 

Altoona 30,887 

Williamsport. 27,132 

Allentown 25,228 

Johnstown 21,805 

York 20,793 

McKeesport 20,741 

Chester 20,226 

Norrlstown 19,791 


Area, ljt50 «ff^mi- / Bop., 

Providence 182,146 

Pawtucket 27,633 

Woonsocket 20,830 

Lincoln 20,355 

Newport 10,457 


[S. 0.] 

Area, 50,570 eg. mL; Bop., 

Charleston 54,955 

Columbia 15,353 

Greenville 8,607 


[S. Dak.] 

Area,77,660eg.mi.; Pop., 

Sioux Falls 10.177 

Yankton 8,670 


Area, k8fi60 eg. mL; Bop., 

Nashville 76,168 

Memphis 64,495 

Chattanooga 29,100 

Knoxvllle 28,686 

TEXAS. [Tas.] 

-*'«»««/»^«^; -»»».. 

Dallas 88,067 

San Antonio 87,673 

Galveston 29,084 

Houston 27,557 

Fort Worth 28,076 

UTAH. [Ut.] 
Area, 8U,970 KjniL; Bop., 

Salt Lake Citgr.... 44,848 
Ogden 14,880 





/ Bop., 


VIBaiNIA. [Va.] 
Area, lajiBO og^^$ Bi9>'% 

Bichmond 81,888 

Norfolk 84,871 

Petersbuzg. 82,680 

Lynchburg 19,709 

Boanoke 16,159 

Alexandria 14,889 

Portsmouth 13,268 


Area, 89,190 ea^; Bop., 

Seattle 42,837 

Tacoma 86,006 

Spokane 19,922 


[W. Va.] 
Area, 14,780 eg. mi.; Bop., 








Area, 66,0iO eg. mL; Bop., 

Milwaukee 204,468 

La Croase 25,090 

Oshkoah 22,886 

Bacine 21,014 

Eau Claire 17,416 

Sheboygan 16,369 

Madison 13,426 

Fond du Lac 12,024 

Superior 11,988 

Appleton 11,869 

MaHnette 11,628 

WYOMINa. [Wyo.] 
Area, 97^890 •jTvi"^; ^^« 

Cheyenne 11,690 

Laramie ««a- 




TOTAL, 62,361,000 8Q. MILES. 



68,817,000 TONS. 

CORN CROP, 1880. 

U. 8., 1,766,000,000 BU. 

WHEAT CROP, 1880. 
O. &, 460,000,000 BU. 



U. 8., 472,000,000 LBS. 


U. S.. $6,792,000,000. 



What is the general direction of the Gulf Stream? (See chart on preceding poQe.) 
To the shores of what countries do its waters drift ? What corresponding current 
in the Pacific Ocean? What eifect hare these cnrrents on the climate of the 
coaatB against which they drift? 

At what port do steamers touch in a voyage from New Yoric to liverpool ? In 
what direction do veesels sail in going from Kew York to Melbourne? At what 
port do they touch, on fhe way? What direction do vessels take in a voyage from 
San Francisco to Japan? At what ports do steamers touch in going from San 
Vnmcisoo to Sydney? What route would you take in a voyage by Bteamer, from 

Kew York to Point de Gkdle (gdl)^ Ceylon f— from Point de Gtalle to San FranciscoH 
from San Francisco to New York. Mention the ports at which you would toocL 
What route do steamers take in going from New York to San Francisco? At vhat 
ports on the Atlantic Ocean would they touch f-ot what ports on the Padflc? In 
how many days could you make that voyage ? What route do Bailing vesBek take, 
in Tnft.iring it? In how many days, by way of the Isthmus of Panamar 

QuestionB on Diagraom.— Which grand division has fhe greatest anaf- 
the greatest population? What four countries iiroduce the most iron? What four 
states produce the most com?— wheat?— cotton?— tobacco? Which excel in manu- 
factures? What is the principal occupation of the people of the United States? 
How many are engaged in agrioultore? Mention the other leading occupatioDa. 


IPoT each Ckxntinent, an oblong diagram is constructed, whose four sides shall contain its four principal capes — the most 

northern, eastern, southern, and western, 

This diagram is divided into squares, each side of which represents the distance of 
400 miles— the length of Kansas. The number of these squares indicate the extent of 
the continent, thus reducing, to a minimum, the requirements for remembering 

DnUD0TIOKS.-To draw a map of South America, use as a scale, that shown 
on page 87, and construct a diagram eight by twelve measures, divided by light pencil 
lines, into numbered squares, as shown in the model ; and on its sides, locate the four 
principal capes— (Jallinas, St. Boque, Horn, and Blanco. Between these capes, draw 
the outline of ^e continent, through the squares, and part of squares, on your dia- 
gram, corresponding to those in the model. 

Draw the mountains and rivers, and locate the capes, islands, 
bays, and principal cities, marking their names. 

A profile, showing elevations of the surface, may be added 
under the drawing. (See page 8S.) . 

When the map is completed in ink, the small squares, or con- 
struction lines, may be removed with India rubber. 

Maps of the other OontineiitB may be drawn 



1.— Mt. Chimborazo. 
2.— Vol. Antisani. 
8.— Vol. Cotopazi. 
4.— Quito. 
6.— lima. 
6.— Atacama. 


7.— Mt. Sahama. 

8.— Lake Titicaca. 

9.-La Paz. 
10.— Paraguay River. 
11.— Parana River. 
12.— Rio Janeiro. 


1.— The Coast 
2.— Darling River. 
8.— Blue Mountains. 
4.— Sydney. 


1.— The Coast. 
2.— Rhone River. 
8.— Mt. Blanc. 
4.— Adriatic Sea. 
5.— Carpathian Mountains. 
G.— Black Sea. 
7.— Crimea. 
8.— Mt. Elboorz. 
9.— Mt. Kasbek. 
10.— Caspian Sea. 


1.— Pacific Ocean. 

2.— Coast Range. 

a— Sierra Nevada. 

4.— Great Salt L. 

5.— Black Hills. 

6. -Missouri River. 

7.-St. Paul. 

&— Lake Michigan 

9.— Lake Huron. 
10.— Ottowa. 
11.— Montreal. 
12.— Halifax. 


1.— Syrian Desert 
2.— Persian Gulf. 
8.— Persian Plateau. 
4.— Indus River. 
5. — Mt. Bverest. 
6.— Tang-tse-Kiang. 
7.— Yellow Sea. 
a— Liu Kiu Islands. 


1.— Cape Verd. 

2.— Senegal River. 

8, 4.-Niger River. 

5.— Lake Tchad. 


7. — Mairah Mountains. 

8.— Gondar. 

9.— Ras Daschan. 
10.— Abba Tared. 
11.— Ankobar. 
12.-Str. of Bab^l-Mandeb. 
18.— Peak of Tenerlfte. 
14.— Mt. Miltsin. 
16.— Cameroons Mountalos 
16.— Mt Gambaragara. 
17.— Mt Kenia. 




1. ItB Biae. — Diameter, p. 7,— circumference, p. 7, — area, p. 11. 

2. Motions. — ^Their number and effects, p. 8. 

3. Oiroles.— Their kinds,— location of each to what due, p. 8. 

4. Zones.— Their number and extent,— position on the globe, p. 10. 

5. Land Sixrflaoe.— Its extent, p. 11, — uses,— divisions. 

6. Water Surfaoe.— Its extent, p. 11,— uses,— divisions, p. 13,— 
ocean currents, p. 14. 

7. Atmosphere.— Its extent, p. 18,— weight,— movements. 

8. OUmate. — Describe it, p. 19, — ^how modified, — what affected by 
it, — the seasons. 

0. Latitude and Longitude.— Describe their difference, p. 9. 

10. The Qrand Divisions. —uiccordtngr to area in sq. miles :-' 
Asia, 17,000,000 sq. miles; Africa, 11,500,000; North America. 
9.300,000; South America, 6,900,000; Europe, 3,900,000; Australia, 
3,600,000. According to population :—ABi&, 823,150,000; Europe, 
361.000,000 ; Africa. 168,500,000 ; North America. 88,000,000 ; South 
America. 33.500,000 ; AustraUa, 3,600.000. 

11. Total population of the world, about 1.500,000.000. 

12. The Ooeajis.— According to areo .—Pacific, 70,000,000 sq. 
miles ; Atlantic, 35,000,000 ; Indian, 28,000,000 ; Antarctic. 8,000,000 ; 
Arctic, 2.000,000. 

13. Baoes of Mankind. — Characteristics and abode, p. 21. — Mon- 
goUan, 650,000,000; Caucasian, 640.000,000; Negro, 160,000.000; 
Malay, 35,000.000 ; American Indian (N. and S. America). 15.000.000. 

14. Beligions. — ^Their differences. — ^numbers, p. 21. note 14. 

15. The largest Nations.— According to area .—British Empire 
(including British Isles and foreign possessions). 11,000,000 sq. miles ; 
Russian Empire, 8,663,000; Chinese Empire, 4,300,000; Brazil, 
3,228,000; United States, 3,668,000; Turkish, or Ottoman, Empire, 
1,575,000. According to population .--Chmese Empire. 362,000.000; 
British Empire, 384.000,000; Russian Empire. 113.000,000; France 
(including. foreign possessions), 83,500,CXX); United States (estimated). 
63,000,000 ; German Empire, 49,420,000. 

16. The six largest Cities in the World. -Their situation 
and population, p. 134. 

17. The highest mountain-peak on each continent, with its ele- 
vation, p. 134. 

18. The largest river on each continent, with its length, p. 134. 

19. The principal Metals. —Where obtained, — their us^s, p. 20. 

20. Trees and plants which furnish food for man,— medicines ;— 
those which furnish materials used in the manufacture of furniture,— of 
clothing, — in the building of houses, ships, boats, c6UTiages, bridges, etc. 

21. Animals which are useful for food. — clothing, — labor. — 
Mention other uses of animals, either Wild or domestic 

Its position on the globe,— climates, 
trees, plants, fruits, wild animab. 
people, occupations, manufact- 
ures, minerals. 

22. Eaoh Qrand Division. 

North America 

South America 





23. The United States, not including Alaska,— its most northern 
latitude, 49' — where? p. 80, — most southern lat., 24° 30'— where? 
p. 52,— most eastern longitude, 67^ (nearly) west from Grsenwich- 
where? p. 39,— most western long., 124" 45'— where? p. 80, — merid- 
ian of 96'' passing through center (nearly) — what cities near that 
meridian? — p. 35. 

24. The United States, including Alaska, extends to Attou 
Island (Aleutian Islands), seven degrees west of the meridian of 180\ 
or to ITS'* east long., showing that the United States extends over 
120 degrees of long., or one third the distance around the globe, p. 
132. The meridian which is midway between the meridian passing 
through the eastern point of Maine, and th&t pcusing through Attou 
Island, is in 125" west long., which is a little west of the City of 
San Francisco. 

25. Near the center of the United States, not including Alaska, 
is the City of Topeka ; including Alaska, is the dity of San Fraocisco. 
Pages 34 and 132. 

26. The center of population of the United States is a little 
south-west of Cincinnati. {For its progress westward, see p. S5.) 

27. Mention, or write, about your own state, — its most northern 
latitude, in degrees, — southern lat.,^«astem longitude, — western long.. 
—distance in miles, from the Atlantic Ocean,~from the Pacific Ocean. 
—from the (Julf of Mexico,— from Canada,— from the City of Washing- 
ton,— from the City of New York. Mention, or write, the names of 
the mountckins in your state, — six of its largo rivers, — six lakes, or 
ponds, — six large cities, — the county you live in and the counties which 
surround it. Mention, or write, the name of its largest city,— its capi- 
tal,— six other important cities,— its Governor,— its State Superintendent. 

28. Mention, or write, the names of countries and islands which 
produce grain, six names, p. 132,— cotton, nine names,— coffee, eight 
names,— tea, three names,— sugar, ten names,— lumber, four names.- 
tobacco, five names,— silk and silk manufactures, eight names,— pepper, 
two names, — spices, one name, — India rubber, three names,— ivory, six 
names, — tallow, two names, — dates, three names, — seal skins and other 
furs, six names, — gold, six names,^opper, two names, — Peruvian bark. 
two names, — opium, two names, — ^guano, one name,— oil, two names. 

29. Draw a profile, or section, of each Grand Division, and of 
your own state, as shown under maps and diagrams. 


[^., French; iX., Italian; Oer., German; Mn., Mexican; Sp.^ Spanish; Port., Portagaeee; Dan., Danish; Atf., 

Acadia, ^., Acadie. 
Alaaoe-Iicrraine, Fr. ; Oer., Elsass-Loth- 

ringen (SI tat Idi' r^ en), 
Ai2Btria» Oer., Oesterrelch. 
AnatrianwHnngarlan Monazohy, Otr., 

Oesterreiohiach'UngariHcho Monar- 

Bavazia, Oer., BaHem {by* em). 
Brittany, Fr., Bretagne {hre tdH). 
BnuBola, F^., BruzeUeB (M«//0. 
BroBSwick, Ger., Brannachwelg {brtntn' 

Borgondy, Fr., Boiusogne (jboorgOV). 
OumpeoiOhj, Mex., Campeche (kampi^cM). 
Oape Finistezre, Sp., Finistierra (fitOe 

Oarlabad, Oer., Karlsbad (kdHe'bdi). 
OMtOe, Sp., Castille (Uf tS'vS). 
Ofttalonia, Sp., Gatalona (fta id lobi^ya). 

Cologne, Qer., K5in (UUn). 
Copenhagen, Dan., KJobenhavn {kyd ben 

hbwn) ; Otr. Kopenhagen ; Fr., Copen- 

Craoow, Bui., Krakow {kr^kdqf). 
Donro^ 8p., Doero (cEd&d'r^. 
Bovxefield, Nor., Daaviefjeld {ddvrefe 
I>wina» Bute., Dvina {dtVnO). [Sid'). 

(Geneva, Fr., Oeneve {zhs ndvO. 
Qenoa, R., Geneva. 
Genneoazeth. Iiake, now Tabariyeh {fdb 

a rr a), called in Scripture, the Sea of 

(Galilee, or of Tiberias. 
Iiake Conatanoe, Oer., Boden See. 
Ijake Geneva, /v., Iiake Leman. 
Leghorn, It., Idyomo. 
Iisipsio, Oer., Iielpzig. 
Lisbon, B>rt., Lisboa. 
ICajozoa, ^., Mallorca (mdlfOr'kS). 

Xaatua, R., Mantova (mtf»'ft»ed). 

ManeillM, F^., Marseille. 

MentB, or Malni, FY., Mayence (mA dne^. 

Mont Cenrsn, Oer., Matterhom. 

Munich, Oer., Munchen {mdn'kSn). 

Naples, n., NapoU M'pdOf). 

New Leon* Sp., Nnero Leon (nwd'vd U\ 

Nioe, n., Nlzza. [Ai). 

Nuremberg, Oer., Nnmberg. 

Padua, n., Padova ipd'ddtit). 

Fomenmia, Otr., Pommem. 

Pondiohezry, Fr., Pondichery. 

Porto Bioo, 8p., Puerto Bica 

Pngne, Oer., Prag (pr^). 

Batlsbon, Oer., Begensbuzg. 

Bhine, Oer., Bhein. 

Bhise FicoTinoe, or Rhitnlsh Praaiia, 

Boma, R., Boma. 

Oopfilgkt. mtt, tgr Jaj 

Polish; Nor., Norwegian.] .^, ^ 

Saint Patersburg, Rum., Fetlrtmig (^i* 
SaiagOBsa, 8p., Zaragoza {mri^m- 
Bardinia, R., Sardegna (taritiiffS). 
SaToy, Fr., La Savoie (fa m mpbO. 
Saxony, Oeit., Sachsen {edtml 
Scheldt, IhtUh, Schelde {tkSem- 
Seville, 8p., Sevilla {fcL vH'ySi. 
Silesia, Oer., Schlesien. 
Sistova, Buigarian, Shtab. 
Sleswick, Oer., Schleswig. 
Smyrna, Tur., Izmeer. 
Syraouse, R., Siracusa. 
Terra, 8p., Tlerra. 
Tiber, R., ToTsre (ftPvArfl). 
Venice, R., Venezia (Mslcril^i 
Vesuvius, R., Vesavio. 
Vienna, Oer., Wlen {u^Y 
Vistula, MM, Wisla. 
Qsaland, IhUeK, Zceland. 



KxT TO PBOHQiroiATiON.'S, §, 1, 5, ft, % long; 8, «, I, tt, il, j^, thart ; Or, l&st, ^!|11, ofir«) tSrmi idbd^ fdbt, fUrl} t oi in fbri ci a$ in oil| ow a$ in oow| 
9 Of •! 'eh oi k| ch m t/i ohinj t ^ *» S^^S tr a« J ; 9 a« tn linger, link i that in thin ) di a« m IhiBe} 9 m aj I a« e ; canesled Utter$ 0^ 0t6.) MZenl ; | « s. 

Aar, At 
Aiy er dMn 

&b O ma' 

a boo keer' 

Ac cO mftck' 
Acheen, at chfin' 
Acoma, a ko' ma 
A c6n ca' Qua 
Ac qui' 
A' era 

A da' 11 a 
A da'na 


A' den 


Ad i rdn'dack 

Ad ri an O' pie 

Ad rl at'Ic 


Agen, a zhan' 


a zhan k<5b]/ 
A'gua Nueva 
A guK has, yahs 

Aix la Cha p«ii^' 


Al a ba^ma 

A' la mOs 
A las'ka 
Al ba'ni a 
Al'bans, St 
Ar ba nf 
Ar be marla 
Al bi'nO 
Ar bi an 

Ar der nef 

a Idn sOn' 
A ISp' pO 



ai jarz^ 

ai je za'raa 

Al la ha bad' 
Al le gha'ny, 

ail ga'ni 
Al ma dan' 
Alsa9e, ai'sas 

Altai, aitr 

Al ta ma h^' 
Alton, ^'ton 
Al UJ^'na 


Al va ra' do 

Am' a zdn 

Amboy, am boi' 


am' erst 

a' ml an 
Amite, a mat' 
A mc5br' 
A mQs' kd ag 
Amoy, a moi' 
Am' ster dam 

an a dar' 

an a ^vs^ak' 

Anam, a nam/ 
An cO' na 


An da man' 
Andes, an'ddz 


an' do ver 


ao ga ra' 

Angers, On zha' 

Ao' gi^ say 

An go' la 

On g<5b lam' 
An' halt 

Anjou, On'zhdb' 
An tl «0s' tl 
An t\s'tam 

an ta'ga 

an tll'iaz 
Ant' 'werp 

a pa' cha 

Ap'en nln^ 

appa lach'a 

Appa la'chlan 
AppO mat' ox 

a p(5b ra mak' 

A rap' a hO^ 
Arcole, arkO'ia 


a ra ka' pa 

ar zh6n tull' 
Ar'gan tln^ 

Arica, ara'ka 

Armagh, ar ma' 
Ar ma'nia 
Arn' helm 
A r<5bs' tdbk 
Artois, ar t'wa' 
Ash' ley 


As' pin w^ll 
Assam, as sam' 
As' sen 
As sln'I boine 
As tra khan' 
a soon the On' 



ach afa ll'a 
Ath a bas'ca 
Ath lone' 


ow^ er bak 
Au'gCistean, St. 
Au rO'ra 
Au Sa'ble 
Au' ster lltz 

Autueil, O t-weel' 
Autun, O ttin' 

O varn' 
AuxCayes, oka' 

a va rOn' 

a van yOn' 
A' von 
Ayr, air, ar 
A zOres' 

Baalbec, bai'bdk 

Ba ca rat' 

Bad a JOS' 
Bag dad' 
Ba ha' mas 
Bahia, ba a'a 
Bahr ai Gha zal 
Baikal, bl'kai 

Bai a kia' va 

Bai e ar'Ic 
Balize, ba laz' 
Bai kan' 
Bai 11 na slO^' 
Ballston Spa, 
b^l'ston spa 

Bai mor'al 


bao kOk' 

bao'ger (Eng.), 

bao'gdr (U. s.) 

Bar ba'doe§ 

Bar ne gat' 
Barn' stable 

Basque, bask 
Basel, or Bale, 

ba'zel, bai 

Bas sa' no 

Bath' urst 
Baton Rouge 

bat'CLn rc5bzh 

Bayou, bT'c5b 

bO'fort, N. Car. 

bQ'fUrt, S. Car. 
Bed'ou in 
Bel' fast 

Bai gradv 

Ban^' fOn XAXn"^ 
Bai <5b chls tan' 




be nlsh'4 a 
Benin, ban en' 
Barg'en, U. S. 
BSr'gen, N*way 
Bar'lln, U. S. 
Bar lin', Pr., lan 

ber ma'dftz 

Bey root, ba'rdbt 
Bll ba'O 
Biloxi, belox'e 
Blog'l^am ton 

bar' mlog CLm 

BO den See' 
BO go ta' 
BO ha' ml a 

bo' mer wait 
Bo llv'I a 



bo nefa'cho 

Borgia, bor'ja 

BOr nc5b', 

or Bor nou' 
Bosnia, bOz'nia 
BOs' pO rds, 

or Bosphorus 

bc5b lOn' 


Brah ma pdb'tra 
Bras d'Or, 

bra dor' 
Brash' ear 

brown' fels 
Bram' en 

bras' lo-w 

Bra' ton 

bran' da sa 

Bruges, brO'jaz 


b<5b'dd past 
BQVna Vls'ta 
Buenos Ayres, 

bO'nOs a'rfz 


ba zan'shl tlm 

Cabul, ka bdbl' 


Cadiz, ka'dlz 
Caen, kOn 
Caer mar' then 
Caer nar'von 

karn gdrm' 

kar'o, U. S., 

kl'rO, Egypt. 


kai a', French. 

kai'ls, U. S. 




cai la'o 

cam' bridge 

kam pan'ya 

kam' el 

kam pa' cha 
cam'po san'to 


kan a jo har're 

ka na' rdz 
Ca na ve rAl 
CAn da har' 
Cannes, kan 

kan'ter berl 

kan' ton, U. S. 

kan ton', China. 
Cape Girardeau, 

ja rar dO' 
Cape Haitien, 

Capri, ka'prS 

ca ra'<^s 


ka ra vad'jo 


kar' da nas 
car lb ba' an 
Car' lb bees 
Carlisle, kar 111' 







carta ga'na 
cash mar^' 
Cas sa' no 

ka saka a' ra 


Castile, kastai' 
cas tine', tan 
cat a 10' nl a 


Cat te gat' 

k^' ka stls 
C^u ca'sian 
C©wn pdbr' 
cay anne' 
Cay mans', ki 


Celebes, sai'ebiz 




Ceylon, sa lOn' 


Cha leur' 

sha mdb na' 

shOn pan' 

sham pan' 

sham plan' 

Shan de l<5br' 

shOn tai ye' 



Cha ryb'dis, ka 
Chat ta ndb'ga 
Chat' li^am 

sho mOn' 

sha tQ'kwa 

she mOog' 

shar' bOrg 
Che sdn'edbk 


shI an' 

she k^'go 
Chick a m^u'Qa 

cha wa'-wa 



Chi II coth'e 

Chillon, sha'yOn 

Chiloe, cha 10 a' 


chim bOra'zO 
Chin' cha 
Chip' pe wa 

cha ra ka' 



chOc tf^ hach'a 

ch0 1c5b'ia 
Christian ia, 

kris te a' ne a 



Chris tian shftab' 




sSSn fwa'gos 

ser k&sh'l a 
Cobija, kobS'ha 
C0 9habam'ba 
CO'phIn Chrna 
Cognac, kon yftk' 
Co h6^§' 
cor chaster 

coir ma 

Cologne, or 

Koln, ko lOn' 
CO lOm' bl a 



kOnk' urd 
COn ga pS' 
Con nS^t'l cm 
COn tre'ras 
CO pen ha' gen 

car' pas Chris' tl 
Cdr' si -ea 
COs'ta Rr«a 
Cote d'Or, 

kOt dor' 
CO to pax'l 





kwSn' ka 

ca ma na' 

Ca ra 9OV 

Cuz'«0, kOOz 




dai hc5b'ze 
Dalles, daiz 

Darda ndl\^' 
Dart' m^ath 
Dec' can 

DSrW, Hind. 
DSl'hl, U. S. 
DSm er a' ra 
Des Chutes, 

da shc5bt' 
De ser et' 
Des Moines, 

de moin' 
De troit' 

Dl^a ^A^Qil a W rl 
Dl 6pW 
Dijon, da zhOn' 
Dnieper, nS'per 
Dniester, nSs'ter 
DOm 1 nl'-ea 
DOn e g^' 
DOr' Chester 
Dor dO^n^' 
Douro, d<5b'rO 
DrO'^he da 
Du bQq^^', dc5b 
Dan d©\k' 
Dan Sd'ln 
Dan' kirk 
Du quesne, kan 

Kau Claire, 

Ec ua dOr' 
Ed' in burgh, 

bar ro 
Ed' Is to 
Eg' re 

Eider, I'der 

El Do ra'dO 
El' gin 
El pa' SO dSl 


log' land 

Sf ' e sOs 
E pi' ras 
Erz Gebirge, 

Srts' ge bfir ge 

es'ke mO 

es' ke mOz 
Etienne, St 

a ta an' 


Eu phra'ta§ 

Eux' ine 

Faaborg, fO'borg 


Fayal, fl ^r 
Far'l bault, bO 
FS^'ga^ or FI'jl 
FSr nan drna 
FSz zan' 
Fin Is tarr^' 

Poggia, fOd'ja 
FOnd'da I-ae' 
Fon ta\n oy' 
FOr man te'ra, ta 
F6r mO's© 
Frro, frS'O 
Fron tl^ nac' 
Fun 9hai', fc5bn 

Gai a pa'gos 

Gall9'ia, llsh 

can la^ 

Gai\^ Point de 
Gal ll'nas 
Gai 11 po lis' 
Gar ves ton 
G©1' way 
Ga ronn^' 
Gas -co nad^' 
6an e sa^' 
G^y serg 
Gl brgtl'tap 
Gila, ha'ia 
Gil bO'a, 
zhe rond' 


GOn za' las 


Gothard, go tar' 



grfin'lj, Eng. 

gran' wlch, 




GHa da lape' 


Guar da ful' 


g wi a kar 

Guay'ra, La, gwT 
Guelph, g-wSlf 


GHy an dOtt>^' 


H^l nau' 
Ha van' a 
Ha'ver VU, U. S. 
Havre, ha'ver 
Hav're de Grace 

Ha w>iri 

H^rd^l bSrg 

Han flo land 

Hen 10' pan 
Her at' 

HSr -eu la' ne am 
Har^'fOrd, fOrt 
Hia wa'tha 


Him a' la ya 
Hin doo stan' 

Hoaog HO' 

Hohenzol larn, 
hO en tsOr lern 


HOm' burg, 

HOn da' ras 


H^a sa tOn'lc 


Hue', hOb 



Hy der a bad' 

I'da hO 

I lia ma'ni, eel ya 
II 11 nois'y noi 

II lyr'l a 

In ter la-eh'en 

I O' nl a 



Ir kObtsk' 

Ir o quois', k-woi' 

Ir ra wad'dy 


Isar, a'zar 

is'chi a 
Is mar 11 a 
Is pa han' 
I tar ian, yan 
Itasca, 1 tas'ka 


Jalapa, ha la'pa 
Jan Mayen 

yan ml' en 

ha pOO'ra 
Joaquin, San, 

ho a kSn' 

hO rc501'yO 
Jose, San, hO sa' 
Juan, San, 

Juan Fernandez, 

hc5^ an' fSr- 



yc5bog' ftx)'w 



Kai a ma z(5b' 
Kam chat' ka 
Ka n^'wl^a 

kaog ka ka' 
Ka taVdin 
Kehl, kai 
Kel at' 

kan e bak' 
Kl^ar tO^m' 


Kl^O kan' 
Kliyber Pass 
Kick a pd^' 

Kll kan'is^y 

Kll laKnay 



Ko'nlgs bdrg 



kot'se ba 
K6r do fan' 
Kuen Lun, 

kwan lOOn' 
Kar ra cha' 

Lab ra dOr' 
La<!'ea dlv^ 
La chine' 
Lack a ^A^^n' na 
La drOn^' 
Lafay ettV 
La Fourche, 

la fc50rsh 
Lago Maggiore, 

la'go madjo'ra 
Lagu'na, gc5b 

La hOr^' 
LaoC as ter 
Lan' g^e doe 

La Pia'ta 

I^a Paz, la path 
La POrt^' 
La re' do 
La SaiW 
Lassa, hias'sa 
Las Vegas 


10 zann' 
Lau'ter brun nen 
Lax' en burg 

Leigh, la 

La' On 

Le Puy, la p^va' 




Lill^, or Lisle, lai 
Lr ma, U. S. 

la' ma, Peru. 

la mOzh' 
Ll§' bon 
Liu Kiu 
LlanoSy lya'nos 
LOeh LO'mond 
Loire, Iwar 
LOm' bar dy 
Los Angeles, 

aog'ai as 

LOH^h N^^lj 

Lou 1 §1 a' na 


Lourdes, lOOrd 




loo kl'oce 
Lu cerne' 
Lux' am bOrg 

Ma ca'o 

Ma cas' sar 
Map e do' nl a 

mak'l n^ 
Ma«on', Fr. 

ma'kun, U. S. 
Ma dras' 
Ma'dra de Dros 
Mad rid', Sp. 

mad' rid, U. S. 
Ma^r Strom 


Mag'de barg 
Ma dorian 

Ma ^an' ta 


Ma jOr'-ea 
Mai a bar' 
Ma lae'ca 



Maiay'sia, shI a 

mal oor' 
Man' ches ter 
Man chOb' rl a 
Man' da lay 
Ma nil' a 
Man 1 to ba' 
Man 1 to -woes' 

man tha nSl' yO 

ma ra zhO' 

Ma rSn go 
Ma rl et'ta 
Mar' mo ra 

Mar quette', kSi 

Mar sai^ix^' 

Mar tl nlq^V 
Mat a gdr'da 
Mat a mO'ras 
Ma tan'zas 

Ma ta pan' 

Mft^cli ChGnk' 
Mauna Loa, 

mow'na I6'a 

m^ rlsh'l tis 
Mayence, mintz 

Ma zat lan' 

Me drna 
Me hfir'rln 


Mam' phis 
Man do 9rnO 

man dO'tha 
Man tO'ne, 
Mar ped' 
Mar'l den 
Mar'thyr TJdMl 
Mar* rl ma€ 


Ml am'I 

Mrian, U.S. 

Mir an, Italy. 
Mll\^ Lfies 
Mil w§^'k€^ 
Ml na tit lan' 
Mln'cio, ch6 
Min da nfi'o 
Min ne dp'O lis 
Min ne hfl'hfi 
Ml qa^ Ion' . 
Mir a ml phf 
MO bll^' 
MOg a dOrt^' 
MOl'dau, dow 
MO llnV 
MO nOn 9a h6'l§ 
MOn ta'na 
MOn t^HJ^ 
Mont Blanc, 

moN bl6N' 
MOnt €a\m' 
Mont Cenis, 

mon sene' 
MOn t6 ne'ffrO 
MOn te rey' 



M6nt mO rfin'cy 
M6ni pS'lIer 
M6nt re ^r 
MO §dlW 
mc5t>' trl 
MO zam bXq^^' 
Mas €&t' 
Mas -ca ttn^' 


Mas kS'Qon 

Na ga s&' VI 
Nan kin' 
Nan tacV'et 


Nash' a a 

Nas' sqH 
Na tar 

Natch' ez 

nak e tash' 
Nau'ga tuck 
Nau sh6n' 
Na'vajO, hO 

Na varrno 

Na var'ra 
Nav asO'ta 

N^u 9ha tsr 


Ne va'da 

Nev/ Braun'fSlg, 

New' fo^nd land 
Ne>Ar Or' leans 
Nez Perces, 

na p6rsa' 

Ni[«a ra'Qua 


Nic o bar' 

NY e' mes 



NT C> bra'ra 

Nlpi^ 6n' 


N6r'wlch, U.S. 

n6p'tj, Eng. 

shl a 
NO'va Zfim'bla 
Nueces, nwa'ses 

Ny as'sa 

Oahu, oa'hcJt) 
Oajaca, or Oax, 

wa ha'ka 

O t>€\d' 
& she a' nl a 

0€j margs^ 

O -cO' ne^ 
O^ "Cra «Ok^ 

Odds' sa 
O ke f 1 nO' kee 
O kl^Otsk' 
O'ma h© 
On on dgi'ga 
On to nag' on 
Op e II' ka 
Op e lou' sas, 1<5^' 
O rl nO'-eO 


Ost 5nd' 
Os AvS'gO 


Ot'ta -w^a 
Ott um'^A^ 

wOsh'l ta 
Ou ray' 
Ouse, <5^z 


O zark' 
O zau'kee 

pa che'eO 

pa daog' 

Pa du'-eah 

Pa lat'ka 

Pa ISr' mo 


Pa'lO Al'tO 

pan a ma' 

Pa O'lX 

Papua, pap'<5^a 


Paraguay, 9 wr 

para mar'l bO 

pa ra na' 

pari' ma 
pass a ma- 

Pat chOflHV 
Payta, pT'ta 
Pe chd 13^' 

PS' kin 

Pelew, pe IQ' 
PSm'bi na 

Pe naag' 

P6n zance', zanz' 


PS' pin 

P6r nam bu'-eo, 

P«t chO'ra 

ni'Ip In 
Phoenix, fS'nIks 
Plctou, pik t<5C)' 

Pierre, St., 
san pear' 
PI nai' 


Pia teau'. to 
POiynS'sIa, shI 

pOm pa' yS 
POn'dlchfir ry 
POnt char tra\n' 
PO p>|y an' 

Popo'eat e peti 

Por'tl ce, che 
POr'tO RI'cO 
Port Said, sa Sd' 
ports' mis^ath 
Po to' si, U. S. 
PO to si', S. A. 
Pow ha tan' 

pOtsc50 0'lS 
PraVr\e da 

Puerto Principe 

pAvSr' to pr6n'- 

pa' get 
pan jab' 

Pu y de DOmV 
Pyr'e nee§ 

kwe bfik' 

Q^e re'ta ro 

Quin e b©ug' 

Ra 9ln^' 
Rglij' w^ay 

Raa 9<50n' 

Rap Id an' 
Rapl^a han')!^o<^V 
Rar' It an 
Rat' i§ bOn 
Ra v6n' na 


Reggio, rad'jo 
R^r«l;jen baclij 
R6ns' sS l>|er 

Re sa'ca de 

la pai'ma 

RSs tl gouphV 




Rial' to 

RI 9he lieu', lc50 

Rideau, re dO' 


Ge birg' e 
Rl mac' 
RI'O Chl'-eo 
RI'o Gran'de 

RI'O JaneVrO 
Ri'o Ne'grO 
Rip' on 
RI'vo 11 
RO a nOkV 
Ro 9h€l\e' 
ROch' es ter 
ROs «0m' mon 
Rouen, rc50 On' 
Rou md' II a 
RO V© re' do 


Sa bInV 



sac ra m6n' to 

sa gi^a iin' 
sag' I ng^ 

sa wach' 
sag t^e nay' 
Sa\nt Heie'na 

sai a maa'^ea 



sa lO nl'-ea 

salts' bdbrg 
Sam ar -eand' 
san AntO'nIO 
St. An'tl^ony 
san BuenavSn- 

ta'ra, bwa 
san Die' go 
san das' kS 
san Feii'pe 

san FSrnan'dO 
san Ga bri Si' 
Sao'ga mOn 
san Joaquin, 

ho a ken' 
san Jose, hOsa' 
san Juan, 

san LO r^n'zo, 


san Lais' 

O bIs'pO 

san Ma te'o 
san MI g^sr 
san Ra m fir 

San Sai va dOr' 
San'ta Fe' 

san'ta Marl' a 

san tfiV 

san tl a' go 



Sar'a na-e 


sas katch' e w^n 

SgH ga tucV' 


Sault St. Ma'rl^ 

sa van' nal^ 

sax^ CO' barg 

sdk' so ne 


Scan dina' via 

Sear' b^roH^l^ 
Scheldt, skdlt 
Seli^e nfie' ta dy 
Selj^S dam' 
SeljO har'I^ 
Scliny ler 
S9hwe rin' 




Sedan, sa dOn' 
S6n e g©l' 
Sfivas tO'pOl 
Sevres, savr 

sa shfil' 

She boy'gan 
Sho shO' ne§ 
SI am' 

SISr'ra LaO'ne 
SlSr'ra Ma'dre 
SIfir'ra Ne va'da 


Sim' plOn 
Slo'ga pOr^ 
Sin O' pa 
Sioux, sOO 
Skag'^er RacV 

sir go 






Spezzia, spat'sa a 

Spitz bSrg' en 

Spree, spra 

Sta no vOi' 

St. BSr'nard 

St. Louis, lOO'Is 

Stdt tin' 







Su ma' tra, sOO 
sam bft'wa 
san' da 
sa rl nam' 
sas que han' na 
sa w§' nS^ 
SJr' a cas^ 

Ta br6z' 



Tai \a has' see 

Tai\a hatch' e^ 

Tai \a pOO'sa 

Tama uli pas, 

ta mow^ Id' pas 
Tam pi' CO 

Tan g^.er' 

Ta pa' jos, zhOs 
Tat^n' ton 
Te ha' ma 

te hran' 
TS li^uan te pfic' 
TSrr^ BOni^^' 
TSr're Haute, 

Te ton' 

tas kc50' ko 
Thames, U. S., 

tamz, Eng. 

Ther mOp'J V^e 
Thfiss'a ly 

Ticino, techfi'nO 
Tl en'-TsIn 
Tim bac'tOb 
Tit I ca'ca 
To bOlsk' 
To JS'dO 
TOm big'be^ 

T6r ta'gas, tOO' 

Ti^a iJs?a§^' 

Tours, tc50r 
Trans v&^y 
TrSb'I zOnd 
Tre mOnt' 
Trl fistV 
Trip' oil 
Tu' blog en 
Tucson, ta sOn' 

Ta la're 

Ty rOn^' 


Ujiji, c50ja'j6 
Ulm, dblm 

cJbn terwai'den 
Up' sal 

Ural, yOO'rai 
Ur ban'a 

u ra guay, gwi' 


va ISn' shI a 

va lOn se 6nn' 


vai ya do lad' 

vai ya'hO 

vai pa rtii'so 

van cou'ver 

V6n e zuS' la 
Ve'ra Cruz 


VSr gSnn^s' 
Ver sa\l\^§' 

vS chSn' za 
VI Sn' na 
Villa Real, 

vsi' ya ra ai' 

Vln 9dnn^§' 
Vosges, vOzh 

W^ cha' sett 
WAl la'cW a 
Wftr'wick, U.S. 

wOr'Ik, Eng. 
Wq ter si^' 
Wq ter lc50' 
W§^ kS'gan 
We'ger, zer 
west In'dl^g 
wast pha' II a 

W\Ss ba'den 
Wilkes' bar ra 
WIl \a' mfitt^ 
Win ne ba'go 
WIn'nl peg 
Wi n n i piseogee, 

win e pe s^' ke 
WI no'na 


wc50s' ter 
Wy O'mlog 

Xenia, zS' nl a 
Xingu, sh6n gc50' 

Ya kOOtsk' 

Yaag-tse-Ki aog' 

Yo sSm'I ts 

yO ho ga' nl 

Yre'ka, wl 

Zaca te'cas 
zam be'ze 

Zurich, tsu'rik 
Zuyder Zee, 
zoi'der za 



U 1-t [-^y- T- 1^ I N 'L 

[Area, 33,040 stfuare mih$^ Total popufatfon, 66f,08$s] 

Situation and Extent — Maine, one of the New-England States, and 
the most easterly state in the Union> is situated between 42^ 57' and 
47° 32' north latitude, and between 66"^ 52' and 71^ 6' west longitude. 

Its greatest length (from north to south) is 303 miles ; its greatest 
width, 2!2 miles. Its area is greater than that of the five other New- 
England States together. 

As estabHshed by the treaty of 1 S42, th^ boundary on the east is the St Croix 
River and a Ime running due north from a monument at its source to St. John 
River; oa Uie north, the line follows the St. John and St, Francis rivers lo a 
monument on Lake Pohenagamook ; on the north-west the line extends from this 
lake in a south-westerly direction to a point on a branch of St. John River, 
which it follows to a monument point* whence it extends along the crest of 
the ttiountain-range to the north-east corner of New Hampshire- 
Coast. — The bold and rocky coast is deeply indented by numerous 
bays and inlets, and fringed with many islands. From Kittery Point 
to Qaoddy Head the coast extends 21S miles in a right line; but follow- 
ing its exact contour, and incUiding the islands, the shoreline is about 
2,500 miles in length. Many of the bays and inlets afford excellent 

Off the coast are numerous islands, the largest of which, Mount 
Desert {icnd square miles), is famous for its striking and picturesque 

Copyright^ 188 1, by Jviion^ Biakanan, Taylor, and Company. 



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General Character. — A broken chain of detached mountain- 
groups, belonging to the Appalachian system (and connected 
more or less directly with the White Mountains of New Hamp- 
shire), crosses the state from south-west to north-east, terminat- 
ing in Mars Hill, on the borders of New Brunswick. The 
greater slope is southward to the coast ; the lesser slope, north- 
eastward to St. John River. 

Details. — The northern section is somewhat rugged, and is covered 
with primeval forest. 

The central mountain-chain (which consists of scattered groups with 
no appearance of regular ranges) presents various lofty summits, 
among which maybe named Mount Katahdin(5,2oofeet), the highest 
elevation, Mount Abraham, Mount Blue, Sugarloaf, and Mounts 
Saddleback, Bigelow, Bald, Kineo, North and South Russell, Hay- 
stack, etc. 

In the coast region the surface is comparatively level. 

Scenery. — Among the objects of interest to tourists in 
Maine are its bold and rocky seacoast, with its thousand bays 
and its picturesque islands, its myriad beautiful lakes and 
waterfalls, its majestic mountains, and the solemn grandeur 
of its primeval forests. 

'* What is most striking in the Maine wilderness is the continuousness 
of the forest, with fewer open intervals or glades than you had 
imagined. Except the few burnt lands, the narrow intervals on the 
rivers, the bare tops of the high mountains, and the lakes and 
streams, the forest is uninterrupted. The aspect of the country, 
indeed, is universally stem and savage, excepting the distant views 
of the forest from hills, and the lake prospects, which are mild and 
civilizing in a degree. The lakes are something which you are un- 
prepared for: they lie up so high, exposed to the light, and the 
forest is diminished to a fine fringe on their edges, with here and 
there a blue mountain, like amethyst jewels set around some jewel 
of the first water. Who shall describe the inexpressible tenderness 
and immortal life of the grim forest, where Nature, though it be 
mid-winter, is ever in her spring, where the moss-grown and decay- 
ing trees are not old, but seem to enjoy a perpetual youth, and 
blissful, innocent Nature, like a serene infant, is too happy to make 
a noise, except by a few tinkling, lisping birds, and trickling rills ? " 
— Thoreau : Maine Woods, 


Rivers. — The small northern slope is drained by the tribu- 
taries of St. John River, of which the most important are 
Walloostook and Aroostook rivers. 

The southerly slope is drained by numerous streams, of 
which the most important are St. Croix, Penobscot, Kennebec, 
Androscoggin, and Saco rivers. 

St. Croix River (called also the Passamaquoddy or Schoodic) forms 
for its whole course a boundary between the United States and 

Tke Penobscot, the largest river of the state, flows from its source in 
Somerset County, near the frontier of Canada, into Penobscot Bay, 
a course of 300 miles. With its tributaries and connecting lakes it 
drains the central region of the state. The tide ascends (about 55 
miles) to Bangor, to which point the Penobscot is navigable for the 
largest vessels. 

The Kennebec, which rises in Moosehead Lake, and has a course of 
about 200 miles, is navigable for ships to Bath (12 miles), for steam- 
ers to Augusta (50 miles), and for small craft to Waterville. The 
navigation is closed by ice for three or four months in the year. 

The Androscoggin (formed by the junction of Magalloway River and 
the outlet of Umbagog Lake) has a course of about 160 miles, and 
enters the Kennebec about Ave miles above Bath. The total fall 
of the Androscoggin proper is about 1,250 feet 

Saco River, which rises in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
has a course of about 95 miles, and enters the Atlantic six miles 
below Biddeford. It has a fall of 72 feet near the southern extremity 
of Oxford County. 

Water-power. — In the extent of its water-power Maine is 
unrivaled. The water-power of the principal streams is con- 
stant, and is extensively employed by manufacturers, though as 
yet only a small part of it is utilized. 

In this state water-power is used to an extent seven times as great as 

Lakes. — The fresh waters of Maine cover one tenth of her 
area, the surface of the state being dotted with hundreds of 
lakes, great and small. The largest are in the central and 
northern sections, and form the feeders of the great rivers. 

Moosehead, the largest lake, is 35 miles long and from four to twelve 
miles wide. Among others are Chesuncook, Chamberlain, Heron, 
Long, Pamedumcook, Millinoket, Grand, Schoodic, Sebago, Umba- 
gog, and the Rangeley lakes. 


General Character. — The climate of Maine is marked by 
great extremes, — short, warm summers, and long, cold winters. 

Details. — In the year the temperature varies from 20*^ or 30° below 
zero (and in the extreme northern part 5*^ to \o9 lower) to 100° above 
zero. The snow lies on the ground for four or five months. 

A leading authority says, " The great drawback to agriculture in Maine 
is the shortness of its summers; but the deep snows prevent the 
ground from freezing deeply, and in the spring vegetation advances 
with exceedingly rapid steps." 


Lumbering. — The forests of Maine cover about one half 
the entire area of the state. The most useful timber trees are 
the noble white-pine, spruce, hemlock, cedar, beech, birch, hard- 
maple, and black and white ash. The felling of trees, and their 
floating and rafting to the points of manufacture, employ large 
numbers of lumbermen. 

At the mills the logs are cut and sawed into planks, deals, boards, 
scantlings, palings, laths, clapboards, shingles, shooks, headings, 
ship-timber, etc. 

The forest products include potash, charcoal, firewood, tanners' bark, 
and maple-sugar. 

Fisheries and Other Maritime Pursuits. — The waters off 
the coast abound with fish ; and this fact, in connection with the 
fine harbor facilities, makes fishing an important industry. 

Immense quantities of cod, herring, mackerel, etc., are put up for ex- 
port ; salmon, trout, pickerel, are found in great abundance in the 
lakes and rivers; and various oil-producing fishes (especially the 
menhaden) are taken, and used in the manufacture of oil and guano. 
The lobster catch is very important, and canned lobster is exten- 
sively prepared for the general market 

Ship-building, though not so flourishing as it was before the 
war, is still a leading pursuit in the coast towns. Maine owns 
many schooners and other vessels engaged in the carrying- 
trade of other states. 

Manufactures. — Manufacturing is the leading industry of 
the state. In addition to the important manufactures of lumber, 
ship-building, etc., the leading articles of production are cotton 
and woolen goods, boots and shoes, grist-mill products, leather, 
machinery, wood pulp, and paper. 


Agriculture. — Agriculture, owing to the climate and nature 
of the soil, is a secondary industry m this state. The leading 
farm products are oats, corn, barley, hay, and potatoes, and of 
the last two there is a large surplus for export. 

The breeding of horses and cattle for the Massachusetts 
market is important ; the wool clip is large ; and the dairy 
products are of great value. 

Other Pursuits. — The quarrying of roofing-slate, granite, and lime- 
stone, is extensively carried on; large quantities of lime of excellent 
quality are burned ; and a fine iron ore is mined and smelted near 
Mount Katahdin. It is known that the mineral wealth of the state 
is very considerable ; but as yet it is not largely developed. 

Ice is gathered on a very large scale, and its collection, storage, and 
export form an important industry-. 

Commerce. — Maine has a large and growing commerce, 
domestic, interstate, and foreign. The chief articles of export 
are cotton goods, lumber and its varied manufactures, canned 
fruit, fish, and vegetables, granite, slate, and lime, and hay, 
butter, potatoes, wool, and ice. 

Transportation. — The extensive sea-board and numerous 
harbors gave Maine unrivaled facilities for water transporta- 
tion. The state has also an extensive system of railroads, 
which connect with the trunk lines of other states, and of the 
Dominion of Canada. 

In 1841 Maine had only 11 miles of railroad: she has now about 1,500 


The government of Maine is founded on the Constitution of 

The executive officers of the state are a governor, with a 
" council of seven," secretary of state, treasurer, attorney- 
general, adjutant-general, and superintendent of schools. 

The governor is elected biennially by the people; the superintendent of 
schools is appointed by the governor and council ; the other execu- 
tive officers are chosen by the Legislature. 

The legislature is composed of a Senate of 31 members, 
and a House of Representatives of 151 members, all elected 
biennially by the people. 

The general election is held on the second Monday in September, and 
the Legislature meets in Augusta on the first Wednesday in January 

The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court (of eight judges 
appointed for seven years), the Superior Court of Cumberland 
of Kennebec and of Aroostook counties, a probate and an in- 
solvency court in each county, municipal and police courts, and 

National Representation. — Maine is represented in Con- 
gress by two senators and four representatives, and has there- 
fore six votes in the electoral college. 


Public. — The state has a superior system of public schools, 
the supervision of which is intrusted to the state superintend- 
ent and local superintendents and committees. The cities and 
large villages have graded schools, and most of the large towns 
have high schools. 

There are three State Normal Schools, — the "Northern" 
at Farmington, the " Eastern " at Castine, and the " Western " 
at Gorham. There is also a training school at Madawaska. 

The public schools are supported by the income of a permanent 
school fund, by state appropriations, and by general, special, and 
local taxation, assisted, in many cases, by voluntary contributions of 

Colleges and Academies. — For higher instruction there 
are several institutions of superior rank, among which may be 
named Bowdoin College (opened in 1802) at Brunswick, Colby 
University (organized in 1820) at Waterville, Bates College at 
Lewiston, the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 
at Orono, the Maine Wesleyan Seminary and Female College 
at Kent's Hill, the Westbrook Seminary at Deering, etc. 

There are also many academies, and denominational schools 
and seminaries of excellent reputation. 


Maine formed a part of the grant made by James I. to the 
Plymouth Company ; and a permanent settlement was made by 
the English in 1622, near the mouth of Piscataqua River. In 
163s the Plymouth Company, having resolved to give up its 
charter to the government, divided the territory among its 
members. Sir Ferdinando Gorges taking the whole region 
between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, of which he subse- 
quently (1639) received a formal charter from Charles I., under 
the title of "the Province of Maine." After Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges died (1647), Maine became (165 1) a part of Massachu- 
setts ; and the jurisdiction of that colony was confirmed by the 
provincial charter of 1691, and again by the treaty of 1783. 
Maine, under the name of the " District of Maine," thus be- 
came a part of Massachusetts, and so continued till 1820, when 
it was admitted into the Union as an independent state. Ever 
since the treaty of 1783, a dispute had existed between the 
government of the United States and Great Britain as to 
the boundary between Maine and the British Possessions. 
The controversy was finally settled in 1842 by the Webster- 
Ashburton treaty. 


Counties. — The state is divided into sixteen counties ; 
namely, Androscoggin, Aroostook, Cumberland, Franklin, Han- 
cock, Kennebec, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, Penobscot, Piscataquis, 
Sagadahoc, Somerset, Waldo, Washington, and York. 

Subdivisions. — ^These counties include twenty cities and 
numerous towns. The cities are Portland, Lewiston, Bangor, 
Biddeford, Auburn, Augusta, Bath, Rockland, Calais, Water- 
ville, Westbrook, Saco, Gardiner, Deering, Old Town, Belfast, 
Eastport, Ellsworth, Brewer and Hallowell 

Augusta, in Kennebec County, on Kennebec River, at the 
head of navigation from the sea, is the capital. Abundant 
water-power is obtained by a dam (1,000 feet long) in the 
river just above the city, and is utilized in the manufacture 
of cotton goods, lumber, etc. The facilities for water and rail 
transportation make Augusta an important center of trade. It 
is the seat of an asylum for the insane and of a United States 
arsenal. The state-house is a handsome edifice of granite. 

Portland (population, 36,425), a port of entry, and county seat 
of Cumberland County, is the metropolis of the state. It is 
finely situated on a peninsula extending into an arm of Casco 
Bay, of which the elevated situation of the city affords beauti- 
ful views. The harbor is deep, capacious, and well sheltered. 



The city is for the most part regularly laid out, and hand- 
somely builL Among the public buildings are a splendid city 
hall of colored sandstone, a spacious granite custom-house, a 
post-office of marble, the Maine General Hospital, and a granite 
Mechanics' Hall. 

The manufactures of Portland are varied and extensive. 

The principal articles of manufacture are boots and shoes, rolling-mill 
and foundry products, machinery, locomotives, paper, wire window- 
screens, kerosene, matches, drain-pipes, paints, soap, leather, var- 
nish, canned goods, carriages, sleighs, refined sugar, etc. 

The city has an extensive foreign and domestic commerce. 
There are excellent facilities for the transfer of freight, such as 
the marginal railroad, and large warehouses and grain elevators. 
Lines of steamers ply regularly between Portland and the 
various cities of the United States and Canada ; and the exten- 
sive trade of the St. Lawrence Valley finds here its winter 
outlet by steamship lines to Liverpool and Glasgow. 

The culture of the people is manifested in the various literary 
and scientific institutions, among which are the Society of 
Natural History, the Athenaeum, the Institute, and Pubh'c 
Library, etc. The educational facilities are ample. 

Portland, the Indian name of which was Machigonne, was settled by 
an English colony in 1632. During the French and Indian wars 
and the Revolution, the town was three times entirely destroyed. 
The city charter was granted in 1832. In 1866 about one-third of 
the city was destroyed by fire ; but it was soon rebuilt by its energetic 

Lewiston, in Androscoggin County, at the falls of Androscoggin River, is 
the second city in population, and an important railroad center. The river 
is here crossed by two iron railroad bridges, and two other bridges. The 
falls (about 60 feet) afford abundant water-power ; and a system of dams has 
been constructed, the water being conveyed to the mills by a canal. 

The most important manufactures are those of cotton and woolen goods, 
of which more than forty million yards are produced here annually. Among 
the other articles made are boots and shoes, brushes, files, looms, trunks, 
brooms, machinery for cotton-mills, ticking, seersucker, duck, burlaps, 
checks, jute bags, and grain bags. Lewiston is the seat of Bates College 
and other institutions of learning. 

Bangor, a city and port of entry of Penobscot County, is pleasantly 
situated on the right bank of Penobscot River, about 60 miles from the 
ocean, and at the head of navigation. A bridge (about 1,300 feet long) 
crossing the Penobscot connects Bangor with Brewer. A dam across the 
river just above the city supplies great motive-power ; and Kenduskeag River, 
which here joins the Penobscot, also affords abundant water-power. 

The Penobscot and its tributaries traverse the great northern forests, 
and are used in the flotation of immense quantities of lumber, which passes 
into the milb of Bangor. After Chicago, Bangor is one of the greatest lumber 
ports in the world, the average quantity annually exported being about one 
hundred and fifty million feet. It also carries on a variety of manufactures, 
and is engaged in the coast-trade, foreign commerce, and ship-building. 
Its facilities for transport^Ction make it the business center of a large agricul- 
tural and lumbering region. The city has a good school system, and is the 
seat of the Bangor Theological Seminary. 

Biddeford, a city of York County, on the right bank of the Saco River, 
which separates it from the city of Saco, and is six miles from the ocean. 
The falls of the Saco (about 40 feet) afford abundant water-power. The 
prosperity of the city is derived chiefly from trade, and manufactures of 
white cotton goods, machinery, and lumber. The quarrying of granite is 
largely carried on in the vicinity. 

Auburn, county seat of Androscoggin County, is situated on the west 
bank of the Androscoggin. This river, which here falls 60 feet, separates 
the city from Lewiston. Auburn ranks as the first city of the state in the 
manufacture of boots and shoes. Among its other manufactures are cotton 
goods, castings, agricultural implements, and wooden boxes. 

Bath, a city and port of entry in Sagadahoc County, is situated on the 
right bank of the Kennebec, twelve miles from the ocean. The city enjoys 
superior advantages for navigation, as. the river here is seldom frozen in 
winter. The chief business is ship-building. The manufactures are chiefly 

such as relate to the construction of ships, as cordage, ship-blocks, etc. 
The schools are among the best in the state. 

Rockland, county seat of Knox County, is situated on the west shore of 
Penobscot Bay, about ten miles from the ocean. The harbor is broad and 
deep. On islands near Rockland are large quarries of excellent granite, 
which have supplied material for the custom-house of St Louis, the post- 
offices of New York and Cincinnati, and other public edifices. The manu- 
facture of lime is a leading industry ; and ship-building and the manufacture 
of shoes, castings, carriages, etc., are largely carried on. 

Calais, in Washington County, is situated at the head of navigation on St. 
Croix River, about twelve miles from Passamaquoddy Bay. It has excellent 
water-power, and the sawing of lumber is the leading industry. Its situ- 
ation makes it the business center of the surrounding country. 

Waterville, in the northern part of Kennebec County, is well situated at 
a fine water-power on Kennebec River, and is the center of a fertile farming 
region. Among its principal manufactures are cotton goods. It is the 
seat of Colby University. 

Westbrook, at a fine water-power on Saccarappa River, is in Cumberland 
County, six miles west of Portland. Adopted a city charter in 189 1. It has 
a fine public librar>' and excellent schools. Among the principal manufac- 
tures are paper, cotton goods, and silk. 

Saco, a port of entry in York County, is situated on the left bank of Saco 
River, opposite Biddeford, with which city it is connected by bridges. The 
falls (about 40 feet) afford excellent water-power, which is largely utilized in 
the numerous cotton factories, machine shops, shoe factories, saw-mills, 
etc. Ice harvesting is an important industry in winter. The coasting 
trade is of considerable importance. 

Gardiner, in Kennebec County, on the west bank of the Kennebec, at the 
mouth of Cobbossecontee River, is six miles below Augusta. Large vessels 
can ascend to this place, which has a bridge across the Kennebec, and is 
liberally supplied with water-power. It has manufactures of paper, lumber, 
spring axles, axes, machinery, etc. Lumber and ice are the chief articles 
of export. 

Deering, in Cumberland County, adjacent to Portland, with which 
electric railroad connection. Fine educational facilities. Stoneware, drain 
tiling, ship-building and tanning leather, chief industries. 

Old Town, in Penobscot County, on the Penobscot River, twelve miles 
above Bangor. The marketing and manufacture of lumber is the principal 
industry. Woolen cloth and pulp are also manufactured. 

Belfast, a port of entry, and county seat of Waldo County, is sit- 
uated on the west side of Penobscot Bay, about thirty miles from the 
ocean. The harbor is deep and capacious. The leading industries 
are manufacturing (sawed lumber, sashes, blinds, etc.), the fisheries, 
and ship-building. Hay, granite, and potatoes are the chief articles 
of export. 

Eastport, a port of entry in Washington County, is situated on Moose 
Island, in Passamaquoddy Bay. On eastern frontier cf United States. 
Fine, open harbor. Industries,— fisheries, lumber business, coast trade. 

Ellsworth, a port of entry, and county seat of Hancock County, b sit- 
uated at the head of navigation on Union River, a few miles from the 
ocean. Its leading interests are lumber manufactures, the fisheries, and 

Qrewer, in Penobscot County, opposite Bangor, is a flourishing place. 
Being at the head of tide-water on Penobscot River, it has an important 
commerce. It is largely engaged in the manufacture of lumber, brick, and 
pulp. There are many ship yards. Ice harvesting is important. 

Hallowell, in Kennebec County, is situated on the west bank of Kenne- 
bec River, two miles below Augusta. Granite and ice are largely exported, 
and the city carries on varied manufactures. 

Brunswick — a village of Cumberland County, 
on right bank of Androscoggin River, at 
head of navigation, and six miles north of 
Casco Bay. The falls, or rapids, of the 
river aflford abundant water-power. Man- 
uiacturing and ship-building. Seat of Bow- 
doin College. 

Camden — in Knox County. Beautifully situ- 
ated on Penobscot Bay. Favorite summer 
resort. Chief industries: ship-building, lime 
burning, and manu&cture of felt and woolen 

Cape Elisabeth — a town in Cumberland Coun- 
ty, adjoining Portland, of which it b one of 
the suburbs. Manufacturing, maHcet-gar- 
dening, fisheries, navigation, etc. 

Caribou — in Aroostook County, in fertile valley 
of Aroostook River. Large local trade. 

Parmington — county seat of Franklin County, 
on Sandy River. Agriculture, ttade, and 
manufactures. Popular summer resort 
Educational center. Seat of Western State 
Normal School. 

Houlton— county seat of Aroostook County, 
on New Brunswick and Canada Railroad. 
Varied manufactures. Center of hat farm- 
ing country, and trading depot for the 
lumbering region. 

Sanford — in York County, on Mousam River. 
In fine farming region. Has one of the 
largest manufactories of plush goods in the 

Skowhegan — in Somerset County, on Kennebec 
River. Fine water-power. Varied nuno- 
factures — paper, axes, lumber, nuuWeixed 
slate, etc. Center of trade for a TertDe 
Arming country. 



Academy, Exeter ; Kimball Union Academy, Meriden ; Literary 
and Biblical Institute, N^w Hampton; Colby Academy, New 
London ; New Hampshire Conference Seminary, Tilton ; Rob- 
inson Female Seminary, Exeter ; Appleton Academy, New Ips- 
wich; Adams Female Academy, East Derry; Colebrook 
Academy; Pembroke Academy; Stevens High School, at 
Claremonty etc. 


In 1622 Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Capt. John Mason 
obtained from the council for New England a grant of a 
tract of land " bounded by the Merrimac, the Kennebec, the 
ocean, and the 'river of Canada.'" The following year, a 
small party in the service of the proprietors made little settle- 
ments on the Piscataqua. Among these were Portsmouth 
and Dover. These were very feeble for a long time. In 1629 
Gorges and Mason dissolved partnership. Mason then obtained 
a new grant for the territory between the Merrimac and the 
Piscataqua. He named his province New Hampshire. 

During the next few years the region was divided up among 
many proprietors. This fact led to numerous disputes, and 
these troubles led the people (in 1641) to put themselves under 
the protection of Massachusetts. New Hampshire continued a 
part of Massachusetts for thirty-nine years ; that is, till 1680. 

In 1680 the King of England made New Hampshire a sepa- 
rate royal province. During Andros's two years* despotic rule 
over New England (1686-1688), New Hampshire, like her 
sister colonies, lost her independence. But, when Andros was 
overthrown, the people took the government into their own 
hands, and in 1690 placed themselves again under the protec- 
tion of Massachusetts. From this time till 1741 New Hamp- 
shire was sometimes separate from, and at other times united 
with, Massachusetts. In 1741 it was finally separated, and 
remained a distinct royal colony. 

Though circumstances were not favorable to the rapid growth 
of New Hampshire, owing to Indian wars and the conflicting 
claims to the lands, the colony nurtured a hardy, courageous, 
and liberty-loving people. Both in the Revolutionary struggle 
and in the war for the Union, New Hampshire won a dis- 
tinguished reputation. 


Counties. — The state is divided into ten counties; namely, 
Belknap, Carroll, Cheshire, Coos, Grafton, Hillsboro, Merrimac, 
Rockingham, Strafford, and Sullivan. 

Subdivisions. — ^These counties include nine cities, and nu- 
merous towns. 

Concord (population, 17,004), the capital of New Hampshire 
and of Merrimac County, is pleasantly situated on the Merri- 
mac River, in the south-central part of the state. It is the 
third city in population. It has valuable granite quarries, 
abundant water-power, and extensive manufactures of carriages, 
machinery, leather belting and harnesses, furniture, pianos, etc. 
It has excellent educational facilities. 

Manchester (population, 44,126) is the metropolis of the state. 
It is one of the most important manufacturing centers in New 
England, The river, which here falls 54 feet (Amoskeag Falls), 
supplies extensive water-power, utilized in vast mills which 

manufacture sheeting, drillings, delaines, ginghams, seamless 
bags, etc In the value of its cotton and woolen fabrics Man- 
chester ranks as the fourth city in the Union. It is also largely 
engaged in the manufacture of steam-engines, locomotives, linen 
goods, hosiery, paper, edge-tools, carriages, leather, shoes, soap, 
etc. It is the seat of various benevolent institutions, and has 
fine schools, a large public library, and various literary societies. 

Nashua, a dty of Hillsboro County, is situated on Nashua River, near 
its union with the Merrimac. Manufacturing is the principal industrial 
interest, and includes the production of cotton goods, steam-engines, edge- 
tools, locks, boots and shoes, toys, furniture, paper, etc. A canal three 
miles long, sixty feet wide, and eight feet deep, cut from Nashua River to 
the Merrimac, supplies motive-power for the numerous mills and factories. 
Various lines of railroad afford large railroad facilities. 

Dover, a beautiful city, is advantageously situated for manufacturing, 
being abundantly supplied with water-power from the Cocheco, which has 
here a direct fall of thirty-two feet It has several extensive cotton-mills 
and print-works, and also manufactures woolen goods, boots and shoes, 
carriages, etc. It is the oldest town in the state, having been settled in 1623. 

Portsmouth, a city of Rockingham County, situated on the right bank of 
Piscataqua River, about three miles from the ocean, is the commercial 
metropolis and only seaport of the state. The harbor (between the city and 
the mouth of the river) is deep and capacious, and, owing to the rapid tides, 
is never obstructed with ice. It is much frequented by vessels in stormy 
weather, and it is estimated that two thousand ships could easily find 
anchorage here. Portsmouth Navy Yard is opposite the city. 

Manufacturing is carried on to a considerable extent, the leading products 
being cotton cloth, hosiery, iron-castings, malt liquors, shoes, etc. Ports- 
mouth has a large amount of capital invested in railroads, navigation, manu- 
factures, etc., in other places ; and the city ranks as the second in wealth in 
the state. The commerce, both foreign and coastwise, is extensive. 

Keene is situated on Ashuelot River, at the junction of several railroads. 
It is a beautiful city, with wide, shaded streets. It has varied manufactures 
(furniture, leather, pottery, chairs, woolen goods, bricks, carriages, etc.), and 
is the business-center of a fertile ag^cultural region. 

Rochester, a city of Strafford County, on Cocheco River. Railroad facil- 
ities and water-power. Contains villages of Rochester, East Rochester, and 
Gonic. Extensive manufacture of flannels, blankets, shoes, etc. 

Somersworth, a city of Strafford County, on Salmon Falls River. Varied 
manufactures. Principal village : Great Falls, with large manufactories of 
cotton and woolen goods, and shoes. 

Laconia, county seat of Belknap County, on Winnepesaukee River. 
Center of extensive local trade. Manufactures of hosiery, yarn, woolen 
goods, sashes and blinds, railroad cars, etc. 

Berlin — in Coos County, on the Androscoggin 
River. Largely engaged in the sawing of 
lumber and the manufacture of pulp and 

ClaremoQt — a beautiful town of Sullivan 
County, on Sugar River, and bounded on 
the west by Connecticut. Extensive water- 
power. Varied manufactures,— cotton and 
woolen goods, paper, etc. Contains post- 
village of Claremont, seat of the Stevens 
High School. 

Exeter — town of Rockingham County, en 
Squamscot River. Rich agricultural re- 
sources. Manufactures of shoes, cotton 
goods, etc Seat of Phillips Academy and 
Robinson Female Seminary. 

Parmingham — in Strufibrd County, is largely 
engaged in agriculture, lumbering and the 
manufacture of shoes. 

Prmnktin — a town of Merrimac County. Man- 
ufactures of paper, pulp, hosiery and dress 
goods. Seat of the State Orphans' Home. 
Birthplace of Daniel Webster. 

QUford — town of Belknap County. Manufac- 
tures of hosiery and knitting machinery. 
Fine scenery. Favorite summer resort. 

Lancaster — in Coos County. Beautifully lo- 
cated, with good water-power. Chief in- 

dustries: lumbering and (arming. Manu- 
fisctures of furniture and medicines. 

Lebanon— town of Grafton County, on Mas- 
coma River. Supci ior water-poiver. Man- 
u&ctures of machinery, farm implements, 
furniture, edge-tools, musical instruments, 
etc. Seat of Tilden Female Seminary. 

Littleton — a town of Grafton County, on 
Connecticut River. Water-power afibrded 
by the Ammonoosuc River. Manufactures 
of gloves. Contains post-vilbge of Lit- 

Pembroke — in Merrimac County, is chiefly en- 
gaged in agriculture and lumbering, with 
some manufactures of textiles and several 
print works. 

Wolfeboro — in Carroll County, on banks of 
Lake Winnepesaukee, in midst of beauti- 
fill scenery. Farming and some manufac- 
tures. Seat of Brewster Free Academy. 
Favorite summer reson. 

White Mountain Resorts : among the towns 
and vilUges of the White Mountain region 
most nofeed as summer resorts are Alton 
Bay, Bethlehem, Campton, Center Harbor, 
Gilford, Gorham, Jefferson, Lancaster. 
Littleton, North Conway, Plymouth, Sand- 
wich, Wolfeboro, etc. 





[Area, 9^65 square milee. Total population, 332,422.] 

Situation. — Vermont, the only inland state of 
New England, is situated between 42® 44' and 45® 
43' north latitude, and between 71** 33' and 73** 25' 
west longitude. 

Extent — Us length from north to south is 158 miles ; its breadth 
on the northern boundary 90 miles, and on the southern 41 miles* 

The eastern boundary is the west bank of the Connecticut River* The western 
boundary is tormed by New York, the cleepest channel of Lake Champlain, 
and the center of Poulmey River, In Lake Channplain there are within tl:e 
linnJts of the state the islands of North and Soiilh Hero, Isle La Motte, Hof, 
Wood, Butler's, Poller's, Providence, Straw, Gull, and other islands, the 
most important of which, wiih a petj insula esttending into the lake from Can- 
ada^ constitute the county of Grand Isle. 

According lo calculations by the ijeographer of the U. S. Census the iamd ^rcsL 
of Vermont is 9,135 square miles, 


General Character, — The surface is greatly diversified by hills and 
valleys, gentle acclivities, elevated plateaus, and nnountains of consider- 
able height. 

The Green Mountains, which form the most striking surface feature, 
are a range of the Appalachian system, — the most continuous range 
of that system in New England, They traverse the state from south 
to north, mainly in two ridges, of which the eastern (called the *' East 
Range") is the more continoouSjand the western (the " West Range ") 
is the more elevated and precipitous. 

The branching of the Green Mountains into the West Range and the East 
Range occurs at about latitude 44" (somewhat south-west of the center of 
the slate). The former^ continuing in a northerly direction, sinks gradually, 
till it terminates near the northern boundary : the latter extends north-cast, 
and, passing^ into Canada, is lost on the shores of the St. LawTcnce. 

The loftiest sun^mits of the Green Mountains are Mount Mansfield the highest 
(4,430 feet), Killington Peak, Camel's Hump, Lincoln, and Jay Peak, all OTcr 
4,000 feet high. 


Rivers. — The Connecticut River, marking the entire boundary between 
Vermont and New Hampshire, belongs wholly to the latter state. 

The eastern section of the state is drained by the tributaries of the 
Connecticut, and the western section chiefly by affluents of Lake Cham- 
plain ; the Green Mountains (the main ridge and the East Range) form- 
ing the watershed between them. 



Into the Connecticut flow, in this state, Nulhegan, Passumpsic, Wells, 
Wait's, White, Quechee, Black, Williams, Saxton's, West, Green, 
North, and Deerfield rivers. The chief affluents of Lake Champlain 
are Otter Creek (navigable eight miles, to Vergennes) and Poultney, 
Pawlet, Winooski, Lamoille (the two latter breaking through the 
Green Mountains) and Missisquoi rivers. 

Lakes. — Lake Champlain, nearly tv^ro-thirds of which is 
situated within the state, is 120 miles in length, with an ex- 
treme width of over 12 miles, and an average width of about 
4i miles. It affords important steam navigation, and is much 
visited for its beauty and historic associations. There is a good 
harbor at Burlington. 

Of Lake Memphremagog (33 miles long), the southern third 
is in the state: it is drained into the St. Lawrence. 

There are numerous smaller lakes, the principal of which are 
lakes Willoughby, Maidstone, Seymour, Dunmore, Austin, and 

Scenery. — Among the objects interesting to the tourist may 
be mentioned the rounded summits of the Green Mountains, 
clothed with evergreen forests or rich grass, the aspect of which 
led the early French explorers to call them monis verts (green 
mountains, whence the name " Vermont ") ; the many striking 
cataracts, as Bellows Falls on the Connecticut, the Great Falls 
of the Lamoille, the Falls of the Missisquoi at Troy, Winooski 
Falls, Passumpsic Falls, etc.; and the picturesque scenery of 
lakes Champlain, Memphremagog, Willoughby, etc. 


General Character. — The winters are long and the summers 
are exceedingly pleasant. The weather is free from sudden 
changes, and the state is remarkably healthful. 

Details. — The average annual temperature at Burlington b about 44°; 
at Lunenburg, about 42^. 


Agriculture. — Vermont is, in the main, an agricultural and 
a grazing state. The intervales and a considerable portion of 
the uplands have a rich, fertile soil, producing abundantly hay, 
potatoes, hops, oats, rye, wheat, Indian-corn, grass and clover 
seed, apples, and all the ordinary farm staples. But, as a large 
proportion of the land is better adapted to grazing than to til- 
lage, much attention has been given to the raising of live-stock ; 
and the horses, cattle, sheep, swine, butter and cheese, and 
wool, are noted for their excellent quality. The state ranks 
first in the production of maple-sugar. 

Manufactures. — Though not so extensively or exclusively 
engaged in manufacturing as the other New-England States, 
Vermont has a large interest in this industry. 

Among the principal items of manufacture are sawed and 
planed lumber, woolen goods, flour and grist-mill products, 
scales and balances, leather, and marble and stone-work. 

Special items of manufacture will be noted under the description of 

Quarrying and Mining. — The mineral wealth of Vermont 
is important. Marble of many hues (pure white, black, pale 
red, mottled, etc,), limestone, soapstone, granite, slate, iron. 

copper, manganese, kaolin, etc., are found in abundance, and 
are largely quarried and mined. The state has also numerous 
mineral springs. 

Lumbering. — Forests are quite extensive, the principal trees 
being the spruce, hemlock, pine, cedar, and fir, among conif- 
erous timber-trees, and beech, oak, rock-maple, birch, basswood, 
etc, among deciduous trees. 

Large quantities of lumber, fire-wood, tanners' bark, maple- 
sugar, and charcoal are produced from the forests. 

Commerce. — A considerable foreign commerce is carried 
on with Canada. Much of the trade of Lake Champlain passes 
by the Champlain and Hudson Canal and Hudson River to 
New York. The shipments by railroad between the West and 
the ports of Boston and Portland are also very large. 

Transportation. — In addition to its fine water facilities, the 
state is well equipped with railroads, of which there are about 
1,000 miles. 


Executive. — The principal executive officers are the gov- 
ernor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, and 
auditor, who are elected by the people for two years. 

The legislative department, called the " General-Assembly," 
consists of a Senate of thirty members chosen from the coun- 
ties, and a House of Representatives numbering two hundred 
and forty-three members,— one from each city or town. The 
members are chosen biennially. 

The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court (chosen by the 
General Assembly), and county, probate, and justice courts, the 
judges of which are elected by the people. 

National Representation. — The state is represented in 
Congress by two senators and two representatives, and hence 
has four electoral votes. 


Public— The common schools of the State are under the 
general supervision of the state superintendent of education, 
chosen by the General Assembly. The state superintendent 
of education holds his office for a term of two years. Each- 
town sustains its own schools, their immediate direction being 
in the hands of a town superintendent, chosen by the people 
or by the School Committee. It is required by law that all 
children between eight and fourteen years of age shall attend 
school twenty weeks each year. 

In the large towns graded and high schools are sustained ; 
and the state assists three normal schools, — at Randolph, 
Castleton, and Johnson. 

Higher Instruction. — Among the more important institu- 
tions for the higher instruction are the University of Vermont 
and State Agricultural College in Burlington (founded in 1791), 
Middlebury College at Middlebury (opened in 1800), Norwich 
University at Northfield (opened in 1834), St. Johnsbury 
Academy at St. Johnsbury, Methodist Seminary and Female 
College at Montpelier, Goddard Seminary at Barre, Troy Con- 
ference Academy at Poultney, Vermont Academy at Saxton's 
River, Burr and Burton Seminary at Manchester, Vermont 
Episcopal Institute at Burlington, and Green Mountain Semi- 
nary at Waterbury. 




Early History. — The first white settlement in what is now 
Vermont was made in 1724 at Fort Dummer, near the present 
site of Brattleboro, though more than a century previously 
(1609) the region had been visited by Champlain, a French 
officer whose name was given to the lake. 

The fertile lands along the upper Connecticut, Winooski, and 
Otter Creek, began to attract attention about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and in 1768 one hundred and thirty-eight 
townships had been granted by the British governor, Went- 
worth of New Hampshire, who claimed the soil. At this time 
the region west of Connecticut River (that is, Vermont) was 
known as the " New Hampshire Grants." 

In 1763 a claim to the territory was set up by the royal 
governor of New York, and the king decided in favor of New 
York. Acts of hostility toward the New York authorities 
followed, in consequence of their attempting to eject the set- 
tlers from their lands; and in 1777 the people of Vermont 
declared themselves independent, drew up a state constitution, 
elected a governor and state officers, and applied for admission 
into the confederacy, but were refused. 

Though not recognized as an independent commonwealth 
during the war of the Revolution, Vermont maintained an 
independent government, and took an earnest part in the 
struggle for freedom. In the actions at Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, and at Bennington, Stillwater, and Hubbardton, 
the •' Green-Mountain Boys " won an illustrious name. 

The troubles with New York were settled in 1 790, and on 
March 4, 1791, after maintaining an independent government 
for thirteen years, Vermont was admitted into the Union. 

State History. — Vermont was the first state received into 
the Union in addition to the original thirteen. She at once 
began a career of prosperity beyond that of the other states. 

In the war of 18 12 the "Vermont Volunteers " took an active 
part in the battle of Plattsburg and the naval conflict on Lake 
Champlain. In the war of secession, 1861-65, the state also 
took a prominent part, sending to the field many thousands 
of admirable troops. 

The state constitution was amended in 1828, 1836, 1850, 
1870 and 1883. 


Counties. — Vermont contains fourteen counties, namely : 
Addison, Bennington, Caledonia, Chittenden, Essex, Franklin, 
Grand Isle, Lamoille, Orange, Orleans, Rutland, Washington, 
Windham, and Windsor. 

Subdivisions. — ^These counties comprise three cities (Bttr- 
lington, Rutland, and Vergennes) and 242 towns. 

Montpelier, the capital of the state and the county seat of 
Washington County, is situated on Winooski or Onion River. 
It is surrounded by a fertile and highly cultivated country, and 

has excellent railroad facilities and good water-power. The 
State-house is a handsome granite edifice, with a dome which is 
1 24 feet high. Montpelier carries on varied manufactures, and 
is the seat of the Vermont Methodist Seminary, and has an 
excellent system of public schools. 

Burlington is finely situated at the head of Burlington Bay in Lake 
Champlain and on the Central Vermont Railroad. It has an admirable 
location, commanding magnificent views of lake and mountain scenery. It 
has a good harbor, protected by a breakwater. 

Burlington is one of the chief lumber markets in the United States, has 
numerous manufacturing establishments, and is the seat of the University of 
Vermont and the State Agricultural College. 

Rutland, county seat of Rutland«County, is situated on Otter Creek, at 
the junction of several railroads. It is the most populous city in the state. 
It has several foundries and machine shops, and extensive scale works; 
but its chief material interest is its numerous and inexhaustible quarries of 
fine white marble. The educational facilities are excellent. The town of 
Proctor, formerly a part of Rutland, is the seat of extensive marble quarries. 

St. Albans, county seat of Franklin County, is situated on Lake Cham- 
plain, and is an important point for trade with Canada. It contains exten- 
sive car-shops of the Central Vermont Railroad, and is the depot of a large 
trade in butter and cheese. 

Brattleboro, in Windham County, is situated on the Connecticut River, 
which is here bridged. It has a large manufactory of parlor organs and 
manufactures of carriages, furniture and machinery. It is one of the oldest 
towns in the state, having been settled in 1724. It is the seat of the state 
Insane Asylum. 

St. Johnsbury, county seat of Caledonia County, is situated on the Pas- 
sumpsic River and is an important railroad center. Here is located an 
extensive establishment for the manufacture of scales. It contains a fine 
town library, and is the seat of the St. Johnsbury Academy. 

Barre is the seat of some of the finest granite quarries in the United 
States. The town is growing and prosperous. 

Bennington, in Bennington County, is an important manufacturing 
town, containing, among other establishments, iron foundries, knitting-mills, 
and manufactures of cast-ware, machinery, lumber, and chairs. It was the 
scene of the famous battle of E^nnington, in 1777. 

Colchester, on Lake Champlain, in Chittenden County, lies in an exceUent 
dairying region. Winooski is the principal village. It has ample water- 
power and varied manufi^tures, including woolen, cotton, wood and iron. 

VergenneSf oh Otter Creek, near Lake Champlain, has been a city for 
over one hundred years. It has fine location, good water-power and con- 
siderable manufactures. 

Brandon — in Rutland County, on the Rutland 
and Burlington Railroad. Extensive 
quarries of statuary maiUe, and large 
manufacture of mineral paint 

Castleton— in Rutland County. Railroad 
facilities. Slate quarries, and large 
manufacture of slate pencils. Seat of 
one of the state normal schools. 

Derby — in Orieans County on Lake Memphre- 
magog. Fine fanning and dairying region. 
Abundant water-power from Clyde River. 

Pair Haven — in Rutland County. Extensive 
slate and marble quarries. Manufacture of 
carriages also important 

Hartford — In Windsor County on Connecticttt 
River. A beautiful dairy and stock farming 
region. White River junction principal 
railroad center. 

Middlebury — in Addison County, on Rut- 
land and Burlington Railroad. Abundant 
water-power. Fine marble quarries. Seat 
of Middlebury College. 

Northfield — in Washington County, on Cen. 
tral Vermont Railroad. Extensive slate 
quarries. Seat of Norwich University. 

Pottltney — in Rutland County. Manufactures, 
lumber, agricultural implemenu, cheese, 
etc. Center of the Vennoat slate buaacss. 

Randolph — In Orange County. Varied man- 
ufactures. Seat of stale normal wdutoL 

Rockingham — in Windham County, on Con- 
necticut River. Bellows Falls, the principal 
viDage, has ample water-power and large 
manufactories of paper, farm implemesis, 

aprinirfi«l<l — in Windsor County, on the Bbd 
River. Varied manufactures — cotton and 
woolen goods, machinery, toys, plows. 
chums, etc 

Stowc, DanviUc, Newport, and ManchesUr. 
are popular summer resorts. 

Swanton — in Franklin County, on Misstsquoi 
River. Raihioad fadlities. Marble qtor- 
ries and marble manufactures, tanneries, 
saw-mills, etc 

West Rutland - in Rudand County, on Castk- 
tree River, is noted for its quarries of marble 
and slate. 

Woodstock — in Wmdsor County. Frac scen- 
ery. Educational center. 




[Mreat 8,3 1 5 square m/lBB. 


Situation. — Massachusetts is situated between 41"^ lo'and 
42° 53' north latitude, and between 6g° 50' and 73° 30' west 

Extent. — Its extreme length (from north-east to south- 
west) is 160 miles ; its breadth, from 47 to 90 miles. The 
eastern section is rendered irregular by the two projecting 
arms of Cape Ann and Cape Cod. The main body of the 
state, comprising two-thirds of its surface, Is in its general 
form a parallelogram about 100 miles long and 50 broad. 

Jn area Massachusetts ranks as the fourth of the New- 
England States. 

Coast-line, — ^The coast -line is very irregular. In addition 
to the great peninsulas of Cape Ann and Cape Cod are many 
lesser projections ; and these with the islands inclose nu- 
merous bays and sounds, among which are Massachusetts 
Bay {which once gave its name to the province) ^ Cape Cod 
Bay» Buzzards Bay, Vineyard Sound, Nantucket Sound, and 
many minor inbreak ings of the ocean. The state has many 
excellent harbors, the best of which are at Boston and New 

Islands. ^ — The largest islands are Martha's Vineyard (31 miles 
long) and Nantucket (r 5 miles long). The Elizabeth Islands art- 
a group of six between Buzzards Bav and Vineyard J^ound. Bos- 
ton harbor is studded with islands. Plum Island is notable as 
the northernmost of those s<ind-spit3 that characterize the Atlan- 
tic coast south of New York, 


Divisions. — The surface of the state is greatly diversi- 
fied. It is naturally divided into four physical regions, — 
the Berkshire Hills, the Connecticut Valley, the Central 
Divide, and the Atlantic Slope. 

Berkshire Hills. — The Berkshire Hills, or western high- 
lands, are the most rugged and elevated part of the state, and 
consist of the Taconic and the Hoosac mountains. They are 
separated by the Housatonic River, and are ranges of the 
Green Mountains, continuing into Connecticut. 

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Situation and Extents — What states border on Massac 
natumi boundary on the east? Between what parallels 
what meridians ? Measure by the scale of miles the extreine 
of the ^tate. 

Coast, — What are the two principal peninsulas ? Ni 
sulas. What bay on the east ? What two on the south-* 
sounds ? What two large islands belong to the state ? Na 
Name the chief capes. 

Surface, — What mountain-ranges in the western po! 
Name tsvo peaks in the Taconic Range. What rwo peai; 
cut Rlvtr? What peak in the north-central part ot the stal 

Rivers. — What is the principal river? Name fotir t( 
Connecticut. W^hat two rivers betiveen the Hoosac an^ 
tains? What river drains the north-eastern part? Wlial 
Boston Harbor? Into Narragansett Bay? Itito Long U^ 

Counties. — Which is the most western county? The 
The most easterly r Which counties are miersected by Co 
Name ihc island counties. Wliich counties border on Rl« 
Connecticut ? Which county borders on New York? 

Cities and Towns. — Name and locate the most northeHl 
Name four cities on the Merrimac Name three cities i 
viciniiyof Boston, Wliat city on an arm of Buizard'S Bay! 
Taunton River ? What city near the center of the stale ? ! 
or large towns in Worcester County ? What two cities oa! 
What other large town in Hampden County? Najnc lhc« 
Berkshire Hills. What is the shire-town o£ the counly in i 


utaries of the 
Taconic moun- 
vers flow into 
I Sound? 
ast northerly? 
ccUcut River? 
! IsUnd ? On 

ty in the state. 
lHc immediate 
rVhat cities on 
lat other cities 
Connecticut ? 
f towns in the 
cJi you live ? 



The delightfully variegated scenery of the Berkshire Hills has long 
been celebrated. The loftiest elevation in the state is Greylock 
(3,505 feet), a peak of Saddle Mountain. Berkshire County has at 
least six other peaks each exceeding 2,000 feet in height. 

Connecticut Valley. — The valley of the Connecticut is a 
beautiful, fertile region, delightfully varied in hill and dale. In 
this part of the state are various elevations (outcroppings of 
the White Mountain system), among which the most important 
are Mount Tom (about 1,300 feet) and Mount Holyoke (about 
1,200 feet). These, with other mountains in this region, have 
steep and precipitous sides. 

Central Divide. — The Central Divide is a highland region, 
forming the watershed between the streams flowing into the 
Connecticut and those flowing into arms of the Atlantic Ocean. 

A broken line from north to south through the central part of Worces- 
ter County indicates approximately the eastern boundary of this 
region. The mountains are a prolongation of the White Mountain 
system ; and the loftiest summit is Mount Wachusett (about 2,000 
feet high). 

Atlantic Slope. — The Atlantic Slope, extending from the 
Central Divide to the coast, has a varied surface of hill and 
plain ; the eastern and north-eastern parts being hilly and 
irregular, and the south-eastern section being generally low 
and broken. 


Character. — Every 'part of the state is well watered; but 
in general the streams are more useful for their water-power 
than as channels of communication. 

The Connecticut, the largest river, is not navigable in this 
state owing to its rapid descent; but it has been dammed at 
Turner's Falls and Holyoke, and furnishes immense water- 

The Merrimac, entering the state from New Hampshire, 
has a course of forty miles in Massachusetts, and is naviga- 
ble to Haverhill, eighteen miles from its mouth. It supplies 
extensive water-power to Lowell, Lawrence, and other manu- 
facturing centers. 

Other Rivers. — The Housatonic, Hoosac, Deerfield, Mill, 
Westfield, Miller's, Chicopee, Ware, Swift, Nashua, Concord, 
Blackstone, Assabet, Shawsheen, Spicket, Powow, Nemasket, 
and Taunton rivers, with many smaller streams, afford water- 
power, which is very extensively utilized. 

Lakes. — The state contains numerous small but picturesque 
lakes and ponds, from which large quantities of ice are ob- 


General Character. — The climatic changes are liable to be 
sudden and extreme. The summers are warm, with periods of 
very high temperature : the winters, especially in the moun- 
tainous districts, are long and severe. 

Details. — The mean annual temperature is about 48°; of spring, 
43° ; of summer, 71® ; of fall, 51° ; of winter, 21°. 


Manufacturing. — Manufacturing, in which Massachusetts 
holds the first rank, is the leading industry. Both water and 
steam are used as motors to a vast extent. 

In the manufacture of boots and shoes, paper, cordage and 

twine, cotton goods, cutlery, chairs, lasts, straw goods, woolen 
goods, as well as textiles in general, and in bleaching and dye- 
ing, Massachusetts ranks above all other states. 

The leading specialties of manufacture are boots and shoes, and 
cotton and woolen goods; and Massachusetts is the great center 
of these industries in the United States. 

The amount of capital employed in manufactures, and the value of the 
annual products, are greater in New York and Pennsylvania ; but, in 
proportion to the population, the industries of Massachusetts are 
more extensive than those of either of the states named 

Agriculture. — Nature has not favored Massachusetts with a 
fertile soil; and so compact is its population, and so great 
the proportion engaged in manufacturing, that the state does 
not raise food sufficient to supply home consumption. Still 
agriculture is pursued with great scientific skill ; and many 
of its farms, cultivated with the care of gardens, are very 

A leading authority says, ''The beautiful and easily cultivated Con- 
necticut Valley is hardly excelled in fertility by any region in the 
world; and even its outlying, elevated, sandy plains (Westlield, 
Chicopee, Granby, etc.) are admirably easy of culture, and give re- 
munerative crops. In Berkshire much of the soil is generous, and 
well adapted to dairying and general agriculture. Western Franklin 
County makes a specialty of live-stock and butter; the Connecti- 
cut Valley, of tobacco, broom-corn, and the cereals ; north-western 
Worcester County, of cheese and butter; Essex and Norfolk, of 
market-garden products ; Middlesex, of garden products and milL 
Hay and forage crops are everywhere important productions." 

Fisheries. — The fisheries of Massachusetts have long been 
among its leading industries, and more than half of the fishing- 
vessels of the United States are owned in this state. 

Gloucester, Yarmouth, and Provincetown are the principal fishing-ports; 
but Newburyport, Marblehead, Salem, Beverly, Boston, Plymouth, 
and the minor ports, do considerable deep-sea fishing, bringing In 
fares of cod, halibut, mackerel, herring, sea-trout, fish-oil, etc, from 
the banks and coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland, from the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and the bays of Fundy and Chaleur. The coast- 
fisheries are extensive, taking mainly cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 
mackerel, blue-fish, bass, etc., besides menhaden and other fish for 
oil and fish-guano. The river fisheries are lucrative, great attention 
having lately been given to the stocking of the fresh waters of the 
state with food fishes. 

New Bedford is the leading market in the state for the products of the 

Quarrying and Mining. — Granite is extensively quarried in 
the eastern part of the state (as at Rockport, Graniteville, 
Gloucester, Quincy, Fall River, etc.), and is an important 
article of export. Beds of excellent iron ore and valuable 
glass-sand are found in the Housatonic Valley ; the Connecticut 
Valley affords a handsome brown sandstone ; and the marbles 
and limestones of Berkshire are extensively worked for build- 
ing-stone and for lime-burners' use. 

The state is not rich in minerals, though in addition to those already 
mentioned may be named ores of silver found at Newburyport and 
mined to some extent, and lead ores found at various points in Essex 

The coal of Massachusetts is of the anthracite class, and is of a kind 
that can not be profitably mined, except for certain special uses. 

Ice-Trade. — The ice-trade and the harvesting and storage 
of ice for commercial purposes form an important industry in 
the eastern part of the state. 

Ship-building. — In ship-building Massachusetts holds the 



first rank. The principal seats of this industry are Boston 
and Newburyport 

Commerce. — The commerce of Massachusetts — domestic 
and foreign — is very large; and in foreign commerce the 
state is second only to New York. 

The chief exports are the varied manufactures of the state and of New 

England, the breadstuffs and meats of the Central States, together 

with fish, dairy products, ice, and granite. 
The ports of entry are Boston, Barnstable, Edgartown, Fall River, 

Gloucester, Marblehead, Nantucket, New Bedford, Newburyport, 

Plymouth, and Salem. 

Transportation. — In proportion to its surface, no other 
state is so thoroughly supplied with railroads and other means 
of communication as Massachusetts. The total length of rail- 
roads is (exclusive of double tracks, etc.) about two thousand 
miles, crossing the state in every direction, and connecting 
with the trunk lines of the country. 

Massachusetts was one of the first states to enter largely into railroad 
construction, and has always assisted its railroads liberally. 

The celebrated Hoosac Tunnel, cut by the state in order to form easy 
communication with the Great West, is a noted instance of its enter- 
prise and lavish expenditure in opening direct lines of travel. 


The executive officers are the governor, with eight coun- 
cillors, the lieutenant-governor, who is the ninth member of the 
council, secretary of the commonwealth, treasurer and receiver- 
general, auditor, and attorney-general. All are elected annu- 
ally by the people. 

The legislature, called the " General Court," consists of a 
Senate of forty members and a House of Representatives of 
two hundred and forty members, elected annually. 

The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court (consisting of a 
chief justice and six associate justices), a Superior Court (with 
a chief and ten associates), courts of probate and insolvency, 
together with municipal and minor courts. 

National Representation. — On the basis of the 1890 census 
the State is entitled to two senators and thirteen representa- 
tives in Congress, and to fifteen electoral votes. 


History. — The free public-school system of Massachusetts 
is almost as old as the history of the state, and enjoys a well- 
deserved fame. 

The compulsory establishment of public schools in Massachusetts dates 
from 1647. The law was as follows : " It is ordered that every town- 
ship of fifty householders shall appoint one to teach all children to read 
and write, and that, when any town shall increase to the number of one 
hundred families or householders, they shall set up 2i grammar-school, 
the master thereof being able to instruct youth so far as they may 
be fitted for the university."— Palfrey, History of New England. 

State Supervision. — The State Board of Education (consist- 
ing of the governor, lieutenant-governor, and eight appointed 
members) has a general supervision of the public schools ; and 
the secretary of the board acts as state superintendent of 
public instruction ; but the direct control of school affairs is 
intrusted by the people to local committees and superintendents. 

The state board has the supervision of the five state normal 
schools, — at Framingham, Salem, Worcester, Bridge water, and 
Westfield, — and of the State Normal Art School at Boston. 

Town Schools. — All the towns of any considerable size 
have graded schools, including primary, intermediate, gram- 
mar, and high schools, supported and controlled by the people. 
It is required by law that all children between eight and four- 
teen years of age must attend school at least thirty weeks in 
each year. 

Private Institutions. — ^The higher institutions of learning 
not under the patronage of the state include universities, col- 
leges, and professional schools and academies. 

Among the institutions for the higher instruction of men are 
Harvard University at Cambridge (founded in 1636), Williams 
College at Williamstown (1785), Amherst College at Amherst 
(1821), College of the Holy Cross at Worcester (1843), Tufts 
College at Medford (1850), Boston College (1863), Boston 
University (1869), for both sexes, and Clark University at 
Worcester (1887). 

Among the institutions for the higher instruction of women 

are Wellesley College at Wellesley (1870), Smith College at 

Northampton (1871), and Mt. Holyoke College and Seminary 

at South Hadley. 

Mention of other private and professional schools, academies and 
seminaries will be found in the description of cities and towns. 


Settlement. — The first settlement in Massachusetts was 
made on the Elizabeth Islands by Bartholomew Gosnold and 
thirty English colonists; but it was soon abandoned. In 1614 
the famous Capt John Smith visited the coast of Massachusetts 
and that to the northward, and made an interesting map of 
the region, which he named New England. 

The first permanent settlement in Massachusetts was made 
by a small band of persecuted English Puritans known as 
**the Pilgrim Fathers." They sailed from England in the 
''Mayflower," and landed at Plymouth, Dec. 21, 1620. During 
the first few years they suffered many hardships. 

In 1628 a small colony under John Endicott reached Naumkeag to 
reinforce a settlement made two years before under the auspices of 
some Dorchester adventurers. The name of the place was changed 
to Salem, which became the foundation of the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. In 1629 a number of wealthy English Puritans 
formed the ** Company of Massachusetts Bay," and having obtained 
a charter from Charles I., began to send out Puritan emigrants. 

In 1630 the charter and powers of government were transferred to New 
England, — an act which gave the Massachusetts Bay colony self- 
government, and determined many wealthy and influential English 
Puritans to emigrate to America. In 1630 a fleet of thirteen vessels, 
carrying nearly fifteen hundred settlers, with John Winthrop as 
governor, came to Massachusetts Bay colony, where they founded 
Boston, Dorchester, Cambridge, and other places. 

Colonial History. — Among the more important events in 
the colonial history of Massachusetts were the Pequod war, 
which involved all the New England settlements, and closed 
with the severe defeat of the savages in 1637; King.PhilipV. 
war, which broke out in 1675, and ended with the death of that 
Indian chief the following year ; and the abolition of the Mas- 
sachusetts charter and liberties by King James IL in 1686, 
when the despotic Andros was made governor. 

In 1692 the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay 
were united under the name of MASSACHUSETTS, and a charter 
was granted by King William. At this time Massachusetts, 



including the " District of Maine," contained a population of 
about 40,000, and, under the charter granted by King William, 
continued to be a charter colony till the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. During the hundred years before independence, the 
people of Massachusetts were engaged in the various " French 
and Indians wars; " and in these contests the colonists suffered 

Of the events preceding the Declaration of Independence, 
the Boston Massacre in 1770, the destruction of the tea in 
1773, and the port-bill in 1774, are notable incidents. In the 
war of independence, Massachusetts, at Lexington and Con- 

•• Fired the shot heard round the world ; " 

and the first great battle was fought at Bunker Hill in June, 


State History. — The Federal Constitution was adopted by a 
state convention in January, 1788. Previously to this (in 1780) 
a state constitution had been adopted by the people. Numer- 
ous amendments have since been made. The patriotic part 
taken by Massachusetts in the war of secession is recorded in 


Counties. — Massachusetts is divided into fourteen coun- 
ties ; namely, Barnstable, Berkshire, Bristol, Dukes, Essex, 
Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Middlesex, Nantucket, Nor- 
folk, Plymouth, Suffolk, and Worcester. 

Subdivisions. — ^These counties comprise thirty-one cities 
and numerous towns. 

Boston (population, 448,477) is the capital and metropolis 
of Massachusetts, and the leading city of New England. 

The city includes in one corporation what were formerly Boston, 
Roxbury, West Roxbury, Dorchester, Brighton, and Charlestown. 
Including the inhabitants of the suburban towns not yet annexed, 
Boston comprises a population of about a million. 

The city is the terminus of many railroads ; and in the out- 
skirts runs the Grand Junction Railway, which connects with 
most of the other railroad lines, and facilitates the transfer 
of freight. Sixteen bridges, including the railroad-bridges, 
connect the suburbs with the main city; while East Boston 
and Chelsea are reached by steam-ferries. The harbor is excel- 
lent, and the wharves, warehouses, and other shipping facilities 
are not surpassed. 

Boston is the chief emporium of New-England manufactures ; 
is the leading market in the world for hides, and boots and 
shoes ; and is the center of trade in wool and American dry- 
goods. In the value of its imports, Boston is surpassed only 
by New York ; and in the value of exports and imports it ranks 
as the third city in the Union. 

The city has long been famous for the interest taken by its 
citizens in literature, science, and art. There are about two 
hundrecf and fifty literary, educational, scientific, charitable, 
musical, and art associations, many of them incorporated and 
endowed. The public-school system — the model for educa- 
tional organization in most of the larger cities of the country 
— is unsurpassed in efficiency, and includes institutions of 
every grade, from the primary to the high, normal, and Latin 

The original town stood upon a peninsula called Shawmut, and after- 
wards Tremont, or Tri-mountain, from its three conspicuous hills, 
of which only one (Beacon Hill) now remains. The name Tri- 
mountain was in 1630 changed to Boston, in honor of Boston in 
Lincolnshire, £ng., several leading men among the founders of the 
town having been natives of Lincolnshire. 
Boston was incorporated as a city in 1822. 

Worcester, pleasantly located at the head of the Blackstone River, is one 
of the county seats of Worcester County. Its situation at the junction of 
numerous important railway lines, and in the central part of the state, gives 
it great commercial and political importance, and its familiar title of the 
'* Heart of the Commonwealth." The manufactures are varied and exten- 
sive, the chief articles being boots and shoes (about thirty factories^ iron 
goods (most extensive wire-mills in the worldX and woolen goods (fourteen 
establishments). Other important items are cotton goods, machinery, car- 
pets, hardware, and furniture. 

Worcester has a well-deserved reputation for the excellence of its educa- 
tional institutions. These include, in addition to the fine system of graded 
public schools, a state normal school, the Worcester County Free Institute 
of Industrial Science, Clark University, the Worcester Academy, the High- 
land Military Academy, and the Jesuit College of the Holy Cross. 

The Union Depot is a handsome granite structure; and among the other 
numerous fine buildings, those of the high-school, the court-house, and 
several of the church edifices, are deserving of notice. 

Worcester was first settled in 1675, and was incorporated as a city in 

Lowell, the third city in the state, is finely situated on the Merrimac 
River, at its confluence with the Concord. It is one of the shire-towns of 
Middlesex County, and is the most westerly of the four cities which owe 
their importance to the Merrimac River. This river falls more than thirty 
feet at Lowell, affording very great water-power, which is utilized by means 
of locks and canals. Steam-power is also very extensively employed. 

Lowell is widely celebrated as one of the greatest manufacturing cities of 
America, the cotton and woolen mills alone approaching one hundred in 
number, with over half a million spindles. Among other important items 
of manufacture may be mentioned machinery, hardware, chemicals, paper, 
carriages, and furniture. There are also extensive bleaching and dye works. 
In the factories of this city sixteen thousand operatives find employment. 

Lowell is an important railroad center, being the terminus of no less than 
seven lines of road. 

It was incorporated as a city in 1836. 

Pall River, a city and seaport of Bristol County, is situated on Mount 
Hope Bay (an arm of Narragansett Bay), at the mouth of Taunton River. 
The city derives its name from the outlet of Watuppa Pond (an extensive 
sheet of water to the east), which here falls 135 feet in the course of half a 
mile. The extensive water-power thus afforded, and its excellent harbor, 
accessible to the largest vessels, have contributed to the industrial activity 
of Fall River. This city takes a leading rank in the manu£icture of cotton 
£3Lbrics, having about forty mills, containing over a million spindles. There 
is, also, extensive manufacture of nails, machinery, and iron goods. The 
fishing interest is considerable. 

Fall River is on one of the main lines of travel between Boston and New 
York. Steamboats connect this place daily with the latter city and with 
Newport and Providence. Fall River was incorporated in 1854. 

Cambridge, a city of Middlesex County, occupies a beautiful situation in 
the vicinity of Boston, being separated from the metropolis by the Charles 
River. It is celebrated as the seat of Harvard University, the oldest and 
best endowed collegiate institution in the United States. Cambridge is, 
next to Boston, the wealthiest city in the state, and its beautiful streets are 
lined with fine residences. Its business, though considerable, is relatively 
small. The printing interest was early established here, and the manu- 
facture of books is to-day one of the chief industries. Iron, glass, soap, 
steam-engines, and lumber are important items of manufacture. 

Cambridge is one of the oldest places in New England, having been set- 
tled in 1630. The city now comprises East Cambridge, Cambridgeport, 
and North Cambridge, as well as " Old Cambridge," the part first settled. 
It was incorporated in 1846. 

Lynn, a city of Essex County, is located on Massachusetts Bay, near the 
foot of Nahant Peninsula, about ten miles north-east of Boston. Its chief 



commercial consequence is due to its great manufacture of ladies' shoes, in 
which industry it is the leading city in the Union. Lynn is surrounded by a 
picturesque country, and the city contains many handsome villas of mer- 
chants of Boston. Nahant, at the extremity of the point of land of that 
name, is a £imous summer resort. Incorporated in 1849. 

Lawrence, in Essex County, is situated on both banks of the Merrimac 
River. At this point the river falls about thirty feet, and its water-power is 
made available by a splendid granite dam nearly a thousand feet long, and 
by canals, one on each side of the river. Its great natural advantages have 
g^ven Lawrence its industrial importance. There are numerous cotton and 
woolen mills, besides establishments for the manufacture of machinery, 
boilers, etc. , boots and shoes, paper, and clothing. The high-school build- 
ding is a costly and imposing edifice. Lawrence was incorporated in 1853. 

Springfield, a city of Hampden County, is beautifully situated on the 
Connecticut River, near the southern boundary of the state. It has widely 
diversified and flourishing industries, comprising the manufacture of cotton 
and woolen goods, machinery, paper, cars and engines, furniture, and jewelry. 

The United States Armory and Arsenal at this place are the most exten- 
sive in the country, and were established in 1795. An iron railroad bridge 
and three other bridges here cross the Connecticut. 

Springfield was settled in 1635, and was incorporated as a city in 1852. 

New Bedford (incorporated in 1847), in Bristol County, on Acushnet 
River, is the most southerly city in the state. Its commodious harbor was 
once the seat of extraordinary activity in the business of the whale-fisheries. 
For a period of a hundred years it was the leading whaling-port of the world ; 
but with the growth of the petroleum trade the fisheries have greatly fallen 
off. Here are mills for the manufacture of cotton, cordage, flour, shoes, 
glass, soap, and machinery. The high-school building and the public library 
are among the principal public buildings. 

Somerville, a city of Middlesex County, has a beautiful and elevated 
situation about three miles west of Boston. It is chiefly a city of residences 
for people transacting business in the metropolis, but has considerable 
manufactures of glass, earthenware, etc. Pork-packing is an important 
industry. Somerville has historic interest as the scene of many stirring 
events in colonial and Revolutionary times. 

Holyoke has a handsome situation on the Connecticut, in Hampden 
County. This city has extensive cotton' and woolen mills, and other facto- 
ries, but is best known from its great product of paper and paper goods. 
There are several thousand operatives in the cotton factories, and about 
one thousand in the paper-mills. It was incorporated in 1873. 

Salem is a seaport city of Essex County, pleasantly situated on a fine 
harbor of Massachusetts Bay. It is one of the oldest towns in New England, 
having been settled in 1626, and had formerly an extensive foreign com- 
merce. The shipping interest is now mainly confined to the coasting-trade, 
in which ice and coal are the prominent items; Salem has manufactures of 
cotton goods, lead pipe, cars, cordage;, leather, and boots and shoes. A State 
Normal School for Girls, the Peabody Academy of Sciences, the Salem 
Athenaeum, and the Essex Institute, are located at this place. Salem con- 
tains many fine old mansions dating from the period of its greatest mercan- 
tile supremacy. Salem was incorporated in 1836. 

Chelsea (incorporated in 1857), a city of Suffolk County, is a residential 
suburb of Boston, from which it is separated by Mystic River. There are 
considerable manufactures, mainly of furniture, stoves, machinery, and rub- 
ber goods. A United States Naval Hospital, a Marine Hospital and a Sol- 
diers* Home are located here. 

Haverhill (incorporated in 1869), is a city of Essex County, on the Merri- 
mac, about 20 miles from its mouth. The boot and shoe industry, in which 
this city is second only to Lynn, is the first in importance, employing 6,000 
operatives. Hats, caps, bricks, and flannel are other items of manufacture. 

Brockton (incorporated in 1881), an enterprising and thriving city of 
Plymouth County. The manufacture of shoes is the chief industrial pur- 
suit. Among the other manufactures are rubber goods, elastic goring for 
shoes, nails, shoes, machinery, etc. The schools are excellent. 

Taunton (incorporated in 1864), a manufacturing city, county seat of 
Bristol County, is a railroad center at the head of navigation on Taunton 
River. Two streams tributary to that river traverse the place ; and within 
the city limits are several flourishing village centers. The manufactures are 
active and widely diversified ; the leading items being cotton goods, bricks, a 
great variety of hardware, copper ware, and locomotives. Taunton is the 
seat of a state lunatic asylum, and has a fine public library. 

There are many beautiful private mansions in highly ornamented grounds. 

Qloucester (incorporated in 1874), a seaport city of Essex County, on Cape 
Ann, is a well-known place of summer resort. Its deep harbor is the seat of 
extensive cod and mackerel fisheries, in which it takes the leading position, 
employing over 5,000 men and 500 vessels. The activity of this place in the 
domestic fisheries dates back more than a hundred years. There is a large 
importation of foreign salt for use in the fisheries. Ship-building is exten- 
sively carried on, as well as trade in the fine g^nite quarried in the vicinity. 

Newton (incorporated in 1873) is a suburban city of Middlesex County, 
situated on the Charles River, eight miles fi-om Boston. Numerous thriving 
villages are contained within the limits of Newton; and, though chiefly 
known as a residential place, it has manufactures of cotton, paper, silk, cord- 
age, glue, and other articles. There are several excellent private seminaries. 

Maiden (incorporated in 1881), a city of Middlesex County, four miles 
north of Boston. A favorite residence of Boston merchants. Among the 
many manufactures are rubber shoes^ carpets and Turkey red, wall-paper, 
shoe-lasts, paints, etc. 

Adams — in Berkshire County, on Hooiac River. 
Beautiful situation. ManufiKtures of cotton 
goods, paper, woolen goods and lime. 

Ameabury — in Essex County, on the Merri- 
mac, opposite Newbur3rport. Manu&ctures 
of carriages, woolen and cotton goods, shoes, 
and carriage lamps and mountings. Good 

Beverly — in Essex County, on an inlet of the 
Atlantic Connected by bridge with Salem. 
Good harbor. Considerable fishing interest 
Manufactures of shoes, morocco, carriages, 
potter's-ware, bricks, machinery, and paper 
boxes. Summer resort 

Brookline— in Norfolk County, on Charka 
River, four miles south-west of Boston. 
Wealthiest suburb of Boston. Elegant 
villas with highly ornamented grounds. 
Manu&ctory of philosophical instruments. 

Chicopee — in Hampden County, on the Con- 
necticut, at die mouth of the Chicopee 
River. Fine water-power, extensive ootton- 
nuUs; manufactories of bronze cannon, 
statuary, cudery, locks, fire-arms, etc. 

Clinton — in Worcester County, on Nashua 
River. Extensive manufartiires of ginghams 
and plaids, carpets, combs, wire-cloth, nuu 
chinery, etc 

Everett — in Middlesex County, on Mystic 
River opposite Boston. The home of many 
employed in the dty. Excellent educational 

^itchburg — a dty in Worcester County, and 
one of its county seats. Fine water-power of 
Nashua River. Manufiictures of machinery, 
fuper, cotton and woolen goods, etc Ex- 
cellent schools. 

Fruningham — in Middlesex County between 
Boston and Worcester. An unpoctant in- 
dustrial center, mannfarturing rubber shoes 
and clothing, boots and shoes, straw goods, 
carriage wheels, chairs, harness, etc Site 
of State Normal School 

Greenfield — a beautiful village, county seat of 
Franklin County, near the confluence of the 
Connecticut and Deerfield rivers. Fine 
water-powers. Manufiictures of cutlery, 
edge tools, etc 

Hyde Park — a flourishing town in Norfolk 
County, on Neponset River. Proximity 
to Boston. Water-power. Manufiictures 
of cotton and woolen goods, paper, curled 
hair, and machinery. 

Marlboro— in Bliddlesex County. Bfanufac- 
tures great quantities of boots and shoes, 
also machinery and dgars. 

Medford — in Middlesex County, on Mystic 
River. Seat of Tufb' College. Manu- 
fiictures of bricks ; Medford rum. 

Milford — in Worcester County. Township con- 
tains the village of SoudiMilford. Manufiic- 
tures of boots and shoes. 

Natick — in Muidlesex County, at the southern 
extremity of Cochituate Lake. Extensive 
manufactures of boots and shoes, hats, and 
base-balls. Township contains villages of 
Felchville and Soudi Natick. 

Newburyport — in Essex County, at the mouth 
of Merrimac River. With fine harbor. 
Manufactures of shoes, silverware, shq>s, and 
combs. Fine public and sciendfic schools. 

North Adams — in Berkshire County, on Hoo- 
sac River, at western extremity of Hoosac 
Tunnel Beautiful scenery. Five miles 
from Greylock, the highest mountain in 
the state. Extensive cotton, woolen, and 
paper miUs, and extensive boot and shoe 

Northampton— a dty and the county seat of 
Hampshire County, near Connecticut River. 
Beautiful situation in fertile valley. Manu- 
fiictures of sewing-silk, cotton and woolen 
goods, cudery, paper, sewing-machines, etc 
State lunatic asylum and Clarke Institurion 
for Deaf-Mutes. Fine public library. Seat 
of Smith College for young ladies, a flourish- 
ing educational institution. 

Peabody — (named firom George Peabody, who 
was bora here) a village of Essex County. 
Manufisctures of carriages, leather (very 
extensive), glue, etc Seat of Peabody 

Pittafield— county seat of Berkshire County, 
on Housatonic and Pontoosuc rivers. Lofty 
situation. Handsome public and private 
buildings. Manufitttures of cotton and 
woolen goods, flour, lumber, paper, and 
machinery. Seat of Maplewood Institute 
for young ladies. 

Qttincy — a handsome dty in Norfolk County, 
near the sea. Cdefanted granite quarries. 
Seat of Adams Academy. 

Spencer — in Worcester County, west of Worces- 
ter. Largdy engaged in manufiicture of 
heavy boots and shoes, fancy cassimeres 
and wire. 

Waltham — beautifid dty in Mkldlesex Coun- 
ty, on Charies River, ten miks west of 
Boston. Cotton factories (longestablished), 
and manufiictory of fine watches (largest in 
the Union). Seat of New CHiurch Institute 
of Education. 

Westfield — beautiful town in Hampden Coun- 
ty, on Westfield River. Manufrctures of 
dgars, p^per, whips, baskets, machinery, 
etc Seat of a State Normal School 

Weymouth — in Norfolk County, near Massa- 
chusetts Bay. Township contains villages 
of North, South, and East Weymouth. 
Large manufacture of boots and shoes, 
nails, etc Coal and lumber trade. 

Woburn — a dty in Middlesex County. Pianos, 
shoes, leather, glue, and chemicals. Seat 
of Warren Academy. 



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Situation and Extent. — Bound Connecticut. Between what paral- 
lels does it extend ? Between what meridians ? Measure by scale of 
miles the width of the state. Measure the extent of the coast. 

Surface. — The highlands of the western part of the state are a 
continuation of what mountains? Those of the eastern part of the 
state ? What is the general slope of the surface of the state ? 

Rivers. — By what three rivers is the greater part of the state 
drained.^ Into what do they flow .^ Name and describe the largest. 
In what direction do most of the rivers of this state flow.^ What is 
the principal branch of the Connecticut in this state? What two 
rivers unite to form the Thames? What is the chief branch of the 

HoQsatonic ? What river flows into New Haven Harbor? Are there any rivers 
thai flow directly into the Sound ? Name the principal ones. What river forms a 
part of the boundary between Connecticut and Rhode Island? 

Islands, Bays, etc, ^ What large island near the month of the Thames ? Locate 
Plum Island^ Mason's Island, Falkner*s Island^ Bradford *s Island, The Thimbles, 
Nor walk Islands. Locate Little Narragansett Bay, Niantic Bay, Napatree Point, 
Cos hen Point, Sachem Head, Stratford Point, Cedar Point, 

Counties. — Name the counties of Connecticut, What counties border upon New 
York? Upon Massachusetts,' Upon Rhode Island? Upon Long Island Sound? 

Cities^ ^tc^ — Name and locate the capital of Connecticut. Locate the follow- 
ing cities and towns: Hartford, New Haven^ Bridgeport, Norwich, Water bury, 
Norwalk, Middletown, Menden, New London, New Britain, Danbury, Stamford, 
Windham, Groton. Name the shire-town of each county in the state. What towns 
border upon Massachusetts.** Upon Rhode Island? Upon Long Island Sound? 
Upon New York? 


[4rea, 4,990 square mffes. Total popufation, 746^58.] 

Situation. — ^Connecticut, one of the thirteen original states of the 
American Union, is situated between 41 '^ and 42'' 3' north latitude, 
and yi° 55' and y^'^ 50' west longitude. 

Extent. — Its Massachusetts boundary line is about 88 miles in 
length ; its Rhode Island boundary, 48 miles ; its Long Island Sound 
boundary (from the mouth of Byram River to the mouth of Pawcatuck 
River), 100 miles ; and its New York boundary, 82 miles. The aver- 
age length of the state is 86 miles, and the average breadth, 55 miles. 
It is the smallest of the states, except Rhode Island and Delaware. 

The irregularity of the northern boundary' (in Hartford County) is the result of 
an error in an early survey; that at the south-western angle of the state was 
made by agreement with the province of New York in 1713 in order to bring 
the English settlement of Greenwich within the jurisdiction of Connecticut 

Coast. — Connecticut has about 100 miles of seacoast on Long 
Island Sound. The coast of the state is indented by numerous 



bays, which afford excellent harbors, the chief of which are at 
New London, New Haven, Stonington, Bridgeport, and Say- 

Highlands. — The surface is rugged, hilly rather than moun- 
tainous, and is beautifully diversified. The Green Mountains 
of Vermont and the White Mountains of New Hampshire, pro- 
longed through Massachusetts, traverse the western part of the 
state in hill-ranges. From New Haven northward through 
the Connecticut Valley is a series of hills of volcanic formation. 

The eastern section of the state consists of rounded stony hills, with 
narrow valleys. In the western section the surface is rough, with pre- 
cipitous hills that deserve to be called mountains. Mount Brace in 
Salisbury, and the Blue Hills in Southington, are among the highest 
elevations in the state. 

River- Valleys. — Three principal river-valleys constitute the 
greater part of the surface, extending north and south across 
the state. These are the Valley of the Thames (with its tribu- 
taries, the Yantic, Quinebaug, etc.) in the east, the Connecticut 
Valley in the center, and the Valley of the Housatonic in the 


River System. — The rivers of Connecticut belong to the 
Atlantic system ; and of these, three principal streams drain 
the greater part of the state, — the Connecticut, the Housa- 
tonic, and the Thames, all of which flow in a general south- 
easterly direction into Long Island Sound. 

The Connecticut, the longest river in New England (length about 450 
miles, 70 of which are within the state), is navigable for vessels 
drawing eight feet of water, to Hartford, 50 miles from its mouth. 

The name " Connecticut " is a corruption of the Indian word Quonek- 
tacat^ signifying iong river. The valley of the Connecticut is cele- 
brated for its beauty and fertility. 

The Housatonic (length about 150 miles) is na\ngable for small vessels 
to Derby (13 miles), to which point the tide ascends, and where the 
Housatonic receives its principal affluent, the Naugatuck. 

The Thames is navigable its whole length (15 miles), to Norwich, the 
meeting-point of its two constituents, — the Yantic and Quinebaug. 
From its mouth to New London it forms the best harbor in the state. 

The name ** Thames '* was given to this stream by the early settlers, 
because they thought the locality corresponded with that of London 
in facilities for commerce. 


Characteristics. — The climate, though changeable (and 
near the coast exceedingly variable), is remarkably healthful, 
and is milder than in northern New England ; the temperature 
in winter and summer being less extreme. 

Details. — The mean temperature in winter is about 30**; in spring, 
46° ; in summer, 70® ; and in autumn, S3<>. Mean annual tempera- 
ture, 50®. 


Soil. — The soil is generally good ; but the greater part of 
the land is better adapted to grazing than to tillage. 

The soil of the a11u\Hal bottom-lands is a rich loam of remarkable 
productiveness. Much of the land in the valleys is composed of a 
light sandy or gravelly soil, and the hillsides are excellent for grass- 
growing. Of the total area of the state, about 1,700,000 acres are 
improved, and about 2,200,000 unimproved land. 

Forests. — The mountainous regions, unfit for cultivation, 
furnish wood and timber for domestic use and for buildings 

and ships. The woodland area is over half a million acres, and 
this IS rapidly extending by tree-planting. 

Of the great variety of forest-trees, the most common are oak, chest- 
nut, walnut, butternut, birch, beech, ash, elm, maple, poplar, bass- 
wood, whltewood, and cedar. 

Minerals. — The state has valuable mineral resources, which, 
for the most part, are only partially developed. 

At Portland, opposite Middletown, is quarried in immense quantities 
the valuable '* brownstone " (that is, red sandstone, or freestone), — 
a building-material much prized. 

Iron ore of superior quality (hematite ore) is found in the north- 
western part of the state, especially Canaan, Kent, Stafford, Rox- 
bur}% and Salisbury. The extensive iron-works at the last-named 
place have long been celebrated. 

Copper is found in Granby, Bristol, and elsewhere, but is not at present 

The Simsbury mines, in the present town of Granby, were worked 
early in the history of the colony, and were made famous by being 
converted into a state prison, the first in the state. 

Other mineral and quarry products are lime (New Milford, etc.), marble 
(New Preston, Washington, etcX cement (Southington, Berlin^ flag- 
stone (Bolton, Haddam), feldspar (Middletown), and barium sulphate 
(Southington, Cheshire). 

Fish. — New Haven and other ports have extensive oyster- 
fisheries ; and the catch of menhaden for manufacturing oil and 
fish-guano is very important. 

During the past few years much attention has been given to fish-culture 
and to the protection and restoration of the various fishes of the state. 
The principal ponds, and many of the rivers, have been stocked with 
shad, salmon, and black bass ; and a large and increasing source of 
wealth has thus been opened up. 


Manufactures. — Manufacturing forms the leading industry 
of the state ; and it has been truly said that " Connecticut is 
rapidly becoming a vast workshop." Though it ranks fifth in 
the amount, it holds the first place in the variety, of its manu- 

The great stimulus given to manufacturing industries is 
partly due to two advantages (fine water-power and cheap 
transportation of coal and iron from Pennsylvania), and partly 
to the remarkable ingenuity and inventive talent of the people. 

DetaUs. — Connecticut produces one-half the rubber goods, more than 
half the hardware, and nearly all the clocks, used in the United States. 
Besides clocks and rubber goods, among the most important items 
of manufacture are paper, fire-arms, carriages, cotton, woolen, and 
silk goods, machiner}% gunpowder, carpets, hosiery, leather, furni- 
ture, boots and shoes, sewing-machines, straw goods, saddlery, 
fertilizers, pianos, tools, and many small ardcles (as buttons, pins, 
fish hooks, etc.) known as " Yankee notions." 

Agriculture. — Agriculture is the second industry of the 
state, and the existence of a large number of manufacturing 
towns affords a ready market for all farm-products; but the 
grain-crop is sufficient for home consumption. 

The principal staples are corn, rye, oats, potatoes, hay, and 
the products of the dairy and the market -garden. 

On the rich alluvial bottoms of the Connecticut Valley tobacco is 
extensively raised. Garden seeds, also, are largely produced. 

Other Industries. — The mining of iron, the quarrying of 
brownstone, granite, limestone, marble, and flagstone, ship-, 
building, and the fisheries and oystering of the rivers and 
Sound waters, are minor but important industries. 



Commerce. — In addition to a very extensive domestic trade, 
Connecticut is largely interested in foreign commerce. 

It has five customs districts, of which the ports of entry are Fairfield, 
Middletown, New Haven, New London, and Stonington. 

Transportation. — Transportation is partly by the numerous sailing- 
vessels and steamers upon the rivers and the Sound, and partly by 
an extensive network of railroads. There are within the state more 
than a thousand miles of railroad. 


The legislative department, or General Assembly, con- 
sists of a Senate of twenty-four members, elected from the 
senatorial districts for a term of two years, and a House of 
Representatives of two hundred and fifty-two members, elected 
for one year. 

The executive officers are a governor, a lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, a secretary of state, a treasurer, and a comptroller. They 
are elected for two years. 

The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Errors, the 
Superior Court, courts of common pleas, district courts, and 
probate courts, together with police and justice courts for the 
adjustment of local affairs. 

National Representation. — The state is represented in 
Congress by two senators and four representatives, and hence 
has six electoral votes. 


Public Schools. — The public school system of Connecticut 
has a deservedly high reputation. The general supervision 
of the schools is intrusted to a State Board of Education, con- 
sisting of the governor, lieutenant-governor, and four members 
appointed by the Legislature. The board elects a secretary, who 
performs the duties of state superintendent of public schools. 

The local supervision of the schools of each town or city is in the 
hands of school vbitors or committees elected by the people. 

The public schools consist of district schools, graded schools, and high 
schools. The State Normal School is at New Britain, and a Nor- 
mal Training School at Willimantic. There are many privately 
endowed free schools, as the Morgan School at Clinton, the Nor- 
wich Free Academy, the Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven, 
the Episcopal Academy at Cheshire, and the Connecticut Literary 
Institute at Suf¥ield. 

CoUeges, etc. — Yale University ii New Haven (established in 1701) 
is one of the most celebrated seats of learning in the United States. 
Connected with it are a law school, theological seminary, and the 
Sheffield Scientific School. Trinity College at Hartford (established 
in 1 823) and Wesleyan University at Middletown (established in 1831) 
are also excellent institutions for the higher education. 


The Connecticut River was first explored by the Dutch from 
New Netherlands (New York), and in 1633 a party of traders 
from New Amsterdam made a settlement at Hartford ; but the 
Dutch in a few years sold out to the English. 

In 1634-36 permanent settlements were made at Wealhersfield, Hart- 
ford, and Windsor by companies from Massachusetts. In the fol- 
lowing year the three towns formed themselves into the "Connecticut 
Colony," to which, in 1644, was added the separate settlement of 
Saybrook. In 1638 the independent colony of "New Haven "was 
settled by a company of Puritans from England. "Connecticut" 
and " New Haven " remained separate communities till 1665, when 
they united under a charter obtained from Charles II. in 1662. 

This charter was the most liberal ever given to any American colony, 
allowing the people to elect their own governor and representatives ; 

and the colonial history of Connecticut is for the most part the record 
of a period of remarkable prosperity. In 1687 Sir Edmund Andres, 
royal governor of New York, attempted to abrogate the colonial 
charter in the king*s name. When, however, Andros went to Hart- 
ford for the purpose of seizing the charter, the lights in the assembly- 
room were extinguished, and the charter was removed, and concealed 
secretly by Capt. James Wadsworth in a hollow tree, — the " Charter 
Oak," — which stood till 1856. 

Connecticut took strong ground in favor of independence 
during the war of the Revolution, and in that struggle she fur- 
nished more aid, proportionately, in men and money, than any 
other province. The distinguished part taken by the state in 
the war of secession, 1861-65, is recorded in the pages of history. 


Counties. — The state is divided into eight counties ; namely, 
Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, Windham, Fairfield, New Haven, 
Middlesex, and New London. 

Subdivisions* — The eight counties are subdivided into towns, includ- 
ing within their limits seventeen cities, and a number of boroughs 
and incorporated villages. 
The cities are (in order of population). New Haven, Hartford, Bridge- 
port, Waterbury, Meriden, New Britain, Norwalk, Danbury, Nor- 
wich, Stamford, New London, Ansonia, Derby, Middletown, Willi- 
mantic, Rockville, and South Norwalk. 

Hartford (population, 53,230), the county-seat of Hartford 
County, is the capital of the state. It is the center of a popu- 
lous country, whose numerous and rapid streams are dotted 
with mills and factories largely supported by the capital of 
wealthy citizens of Hartford. The many fine private resi- 
dences and public buildings are of the most substantial char- 
acter, being built of granite, iron, and brick, as well as freestone 
from the Portland quarries. 

The state-house, which occupies a commanding site in Bushnell Park, 
is a beautiful Gothic structure of white marble. The Trinity Col- 
lege buildings, the new post-office, the state arsenal, the high 
school, and the numerous bank and insurance buildings, exhibit 
much taste and elegance. 

Hartford is a great center of the insurance business, having a larger 
amount of capital so invested than any other city of equal size in the 
United States. The manufactures are varied and very extensive, 
and the leading items are fire-arms, machinery, hardware, plated 
ware, bicycles, forgings, screws, type-writers, electrical appliances, 
wire mattresses, belting, tools, books, and envelopes. 

Trinity College, the Hartford Theological Institute, the fine system of 
common schools, and the numerous excellent private schools and 
seminaries, together with the several fine libraries, give to this city 
a deservedly high literary and educational reputation. 

Hartford became in 1873, by an amendment to the constitution, the 
sole capital of the state. 

New Haven (population, 81,298), the county-seat of New 
Haven County, and the largest city in the state, is situated on 
a level tract of country at the head of New Haven Harbor, an 
important arm of Long Island Sound. The city is attractively 
laid out in wide, well-shaded streets, squares, and parks. The 
magnificent elms which line many of the thoroughfares have 
given to New Haven its title of the "City of Elms." 

The industries of New Haven are extensive, and exhibit 
much diversity. The chief manufactures are those of clocks, 
carriages, rubber goods, fire-arms (Winchester rifles), cutlery, 
jewelry, musical instruments, needles, and an immense variety 
of iron and steel products. In addition to the active inland 
trade of this city, the coastwise and foreign commerce is great 



and increasing. Lines of steamers give daily communication 
with New York City. The great arterial railways of New Eng- 
land have here an important junction, and several minor rail- 
roads their terminus. 

New Haven is a center of great educational activity. Yale 
University is attended by more than one thousand students. 
The Hopkins Grammar-School takes a high rank among pre- 
paratory schools, and has peculiar interest from its early foun- 
dation, having been established in 1660. The thriving com- 
mon-school system of New Haven embraces more than thirty 
public schools. 

New Haven was one of the capitals of the state up to the 
year 1873. 

Bridgeport, situated on an inlet of the Sound, is a thriving city, and one 
of the county seats of Fairfield County. From Seaside Park a fine view of the 
Sound is presented ; and the eminence to the north-west, known as ** Golden 
Hill," is the site of many beautiful residences. Bridgeport is on the New 
York and Boston trunk line, is the southern terminus of the Housatonic 
Railroad, and has a considerable coasting- trade, and daily steamboat com- 
munication with New York City. Among the leading articles of its active 
manufactures may be mentioned carriages, sewing-machines, hardware, 
machinery, leather, ammunition, woolen goods, pumps, and steam-engines. 

Waterbury is a beautiful and thriving manufacturing city of New Haven 
County, on Naugatuck River, at the junction of two railroads. It is hand- 
somely laid out, and has numerous elegant public and private buildings. It 
is noted as a center of very active and widely diversified manufactures. A 
large part of all the brass made in the United States is manufactured here, 
as well as most of the pins. Other principal articles are clocks, watches, 
buttons, wire, files, suspenders, plated ware, pearl goods, machinery, hooks 
and eyes, cutlery, lamps, rubber goods, and paper. 

Meriden, an inland manufacturing city of New Haven County, is built 
on high ground on the Hartford and New Haven Railroad, about midway 
between those cities. The leading articles of manufacture are of silver- 
plated ware, in which it exceeds any other city in the world. Here is 
located the State Reform School, which occupies an imposing structure. 

Danbury, a city in Fairfield County, is noted for the production of hats, 
— an industry which has been established there for a century, and which 
employs a large amount of capital. It has a fine public library. 

New Britain is an enterprising manufacturing city of Hartford County, 
and seat of the State Normal School. It is widely celebrated as the center 
of the manufacture of builders' hardware, especially of locks. Other articles 
made here are cutlery, hosiery, jewelry, levels, planes, and rules. 

Norwich is a beautiful and flourishing city, and one of the county seats 
of New London County, situated at the junction of Yantic and Shetucket 
rivers. It occupies a picturesque and elevated site between those streams, 
and on both banks of the Thames. Nonvich has excellent facilities for 
railroad and river and coastwise trade, is connected with New York by 
lines of steamers, and is the center of commerce in eastern Connecticut. 
The superior water-powers are utilized in numerous and extensive manu- 
factures. The leading items are cotton goods, iron goods, printing-presses, 
paper, locks, fire-arms, and rubber goods. 

New London, one of the county seats of New London County, is built on 
a fine harbor at the mouth of the Thames River. It is one of the oldest 
places in the state, and was at one time a center of the whale-fisheries' in- 
terest. It is now a well-known summer resort. Here is a naval station of 
the United States. The fisheries and coastwise trade are an important 
interest ; and among manufactures may be mentioned sewing-silk, hardware, 
and machinery. 

Middletown, county seat of Middlesex County, is beautifully situated on 
the west bank of the Connecticut River. Two raUroads intersect, and 
another terminates, at this place, and the river is here spanned by an iron 
railway bridge. There is daily steamboat communication with Hartford and 
New York during most of the year. Middletown is a widely known educa- 
tional center, being the seat of Wesleyan University and of the Berkeley 
Divinity School. On an elevation one mile to the south-east are the impos- 
ing buildings of the State General Hospital for the Insane. Manufactures 
are very active. The leading articles are pumps, cotton goods, britannia- 
ware, and sewing-machines. 

South Norwalk is a manufacturing city in the town of Norwalk, in Fair- 
field County. The chief articles of manufacture are felt hats, locks, shoes, 
paper boxes, woolen goods, hardware, pumps, and pottery. This place has 
excellent steamboat and railroad facilities. 

Rockville, a city of Tolland County, beautifully situated among the hills 
on the Hockanum River, which affords ample and never-failing water-power. 
Prominent among the industrial pursuits is the manufacture of woolen, silk, 
and cotton goods. 

Stamford in Fairfield County, contains the handsome borough of the 
same name. Its attractive, healthful location, and proximity to New York, 
have made it a favorite residential town. The extensive works of the Yale 
Lock Manufacturing Company are located here. 

Ansonia, in New Haven County, near mouth of Naugatuck River. 
Incorporated in 1889. An active manufacturing center containing brass 
and copper factories, iron foundries, and clock factories. 

Qreenwicb, in Fairfield County, in the south-western corner of the state, 
is a pleasant, picturesque town ; it contains the borough of the same name, 
a favorite summer resort. 

Windham, in Windham County, contains the village of Windham, 
a beautiful rural hamlet, and the borough of Willimantic, noted for its 
extensive manufacture of thread, cotton goods, and silk. 

Manchester, in Hartford County, an enterprising manu^sicturing com- 
munity. South Manchester is a manufacturing village. Silk, paper, book- 
binders' materials, electrical machinery, and woolen goods are produced. 

Bethel >- town in Fairfield County, containing 
borough of same name. Chief industries, 
agricultuie and manufiicture of hats. 

Branford — in New Haven County, on Long 
Island Sound. Manufactures of locks and 
malleable iron-work. Good schools. 

Bristol — in Hartford County, is engaged in clock 
making. Underwear, lamp-burners, spoons, 
springs, small bells, trunk hardware, and 
foundry castings are also manufactured. 

Derby — in New Haven County, contains the 
flomishing manufacturing borough of Bir- 
mingham, which produces pins, corsets, 
woolen underwear, fbrgings, castings, etc. 

East Hartford-^ in Hartford County, oppo- 
site the city of Hartford. A thriving com- 
munity largely engaged in cultivating to- 
bacco and manufacturing paper. 

Enfield — in Hartford County, on the east bank 
of the Connecticut, contains the two man- 
ufacturing villages of ThompsonviUe and 
Hazardville, — the former noted for its car- 
pet-factories, the latter for its powder-mills. 

Qlastonbury — in Hartford County, south of 
East Hartford, is engaged in tobacco cul- 
ture and the manu&cture of paper, woolen 
goods, cutlery, plated ware, soap, etc. 

Qroton — in New London County, at the mouth 
of the Thames. Agriculture and fishing. 

Hamden — in New Haven County, north of the 
city. Among the manu&cturea are carriage 
hardware, axles, bells, pruning shears, sus- 
pender web, augers, guns, etc. 

Huntington— in Fairfield County. In the 
borough of Shelton are many manufactories 
where paper, paper boxes, woolen and cot- 
ton goods, pins, tacks, hooks and eyes, 
hardware, plated ware, corsets, combs, print- 
ing-presses, and plows are made. 

KiUingly— in Windham County, on Quincbaug 
River, contains several factory villages. 
The borough of Danielsonville has large 
cotton and woolen mills. 

Litchfield— in the hill region of Litchfield 
County, is a &vorite summer resort, and b 
largely devoted to agriculture, stock-raising, 
and dairy fanning. 

Milford — in New Haven County, at the mouth 
of the Housatonic The raising of seeds, 
shell-fishery, and the manufacture of shoes 
and straw hats, are leading indtistiies. 

Naugatuck— in New Haven County, in the 
Naugatuck valley. Manufactures India- 
rubber goods, knit underwear, malleable 
iron, buttons, and steam- pumps. 

New Milford— in Litchfield County, is largely 
engaged in raising and packing tobacco and 

in the manufacture of hats, tfle-pipes, pot> 
tery, and silica paints. 

Orange— in New Haven County, on New Haven 
Bay. Among the chief industries is the 
manufacture of buckles, ke]rs, tin goods, 
carriages, and ship-building. 

Plainfteld — in Windham County, on Quinebaug 
River. Chief industries are agriculture and 
the manufiicture of cotton and woolen goods, 
bricks, and carriages. 

Portland — an active town on the Connecticut, 
in Middlesex County. Largely engaged in 
quarrying and shipping brown building- 
stone. Other indtistries, spar mining, ship- 
building, and tin-stamping. 

Putnam — situated in Windham County. Manu- 
&cturescotton, woolen and silk goods, shoes, 
steam heaters, cutlery and castings. 

Salisbury— in Litchfield County, in the north- 
west comer of the state. Fine scenery. Iron 
ore is mined and smelted, and car wheels 

Southington — in Hartford County, manufac- 
tures bolts, carriage hardware, tools, cutlery, 
and paper bags. Fruit and tobacco culture 
are also important industries. 

Stafford— in ToUand County, has good water- 
power, and is a summer resort The borough 
contains fine medicinal springs, and manu- 
factures woolen goods. 

Stonington — in New London County, in the 
south-eastern corner of the state, contains 
the borough of Stonington, which has a 
fine harbor protected by bqsakwaters, and 
several villages along the Mystic River en- 
gaged in ship-building and woolen manu- 

Thompson— in Windham County, in the north- 
east comer of the state. Agriculture and 
the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods 
are leading industries. 

Torrington — with high and healthy location, 
in Litchfield County, manufactures sheet 
and rolled brass, plated goods, castings, 
needles, machinery, furniture, nails, and 
woolen goods. 

Wallingford —in New Haven County, is beau- 
tifully located in Quinnipiac valley. Prin- 
cipal manufactures of the borough are silver- 
plated and light brass goods, rabber goods, 
wheels, etc 

Westport — on Long Island Sound, in Fairfield 
County. Agriculture and manufacture of 
leather, twine, satchels, plows, buttons, etc. 

Winchester — in Litchfield County, contains 
borough of Winsted. Manufiictures of cof- 
fin-trimmings, clocks, scythes, cutlery, etc 




[Mreu, f,250 square mffes. Totaf population, 345.506.} 


Situation. — Rhode Island, one of the thirteen ori^nnal states 
of the American Union, is situated between 41^ 9' and 42^ 3' 
north latitude, and between ji'^ B' and 71^ 53' west longitude. 

Extent and Population* — It is the smallest state in the 
Union, the faui^ surface being but 1,085 square miles. The 
northern boundary line is twenty-two miles ; the western, forty- 
eight miles. 

Comparing the land-surface with that of the largest state, 
Texas, the latter is two hundred and forty times as large as 
Rhode Island. 

Although the smallest state, Rhode Island is the most 
densely populated^ there being 276 persons for each square 

Coast. — The coast is deeply indented by Narragansett 
Bay, within which are Rhode Ishnd (Aquidneck), which 
gives name to the state, Canonicut, Prudence, Patience, Hope, 
Perry, Dutch, and other islands ; off the coast lies Block Island. 

Chief Islands. — The Island of Aquidneck, or Rhode Island, is fifteen 
miles long, from three miles to three miles and a half wide,-and has 
an area of about fifty square miles. It comprises the city of New- 
port, the town of Middletown, and the greater part of Portsmouth. 
The early Dutch called this island /^ootU Eylandty that is, Red 

Canonicut is seven miles long and about one mile wide, and forms 
the town of Jamestown. Prudence Island, the next in size, forms 
part of the town of Portsmouth. 

Block Island, in the Atlantic, about ten miles south of Point Judith, is 
eight miles long by from two to five miles wide, and forms the town 
of New Shoreham, Newport County. It was named after the 
Dutch captain, Adrian Block, who visited it in 1614. 


General Features. — The surface is pleasantly diversified, 
being hilly in the northern and north-western sections, and 

sloping in hill and dale toward the bay. The southern part is 

quite level. 

Details. — Strictly speaking there are no mountains in the state. The 
highest elevations are Woonsocket Hill in North Smithfield (five 
hundred and eighty feet above the sea-level), Hopkins Hill in West 
Greenwich, and Mount Hope in Bristol, the seat of the famous In- 
dian King Philip. 

ill. RIVERS. 

Drainage. — The northern part of the state is drained by 
Blackstone River and its tributaries ; the central part by the 
Pawtuxet ; and the south-western part by the Pawcatuck (navi- 
gable to Westerly). 

Providence River, so called, is an estuary, the northern 
arm of Narragansett Bay. It is about eight miles in length, and 
is the outlet of Woonasquatucket, Moshassuck, and Blackstone 
rivers. It is navigable for large vessels to Providence. 


Blackstone River rises in Massachusetts, and flows southerly to Paw- 
tucket, where it has a fall of from thirty to forty feet, below which it 
bears the name of Seekonk River. 

The Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck flow into Providence River 
within the city of Providence. 

Water-power. — The rivers of the state, though all small, 
have considerable falls, and are of immense value on account of 
the water-power they afford for manufacturing purposes. 

The Blackstone furnishes water-power for various manufacturing vil.- 
lages in the towns of Woonsocket, Lincoin, and Pawtucket 

The Woonasquatucket furnishes water-power for various manufac- 
turing villages in Smithfieldy Providence^ and Johnston, 

The Pawtuzet furnishes water-power for various manufacturing vil- 
lages in Scituate^ Coventry^ and Warwick. 

The Pawcatuck furnishes water-power for various manufacturing 
villages in Richmond^ Hopkinton, and Westerly. 


General Character. — The influence of the waters of Narra- 
gansett Bay (which is generally open) tempers the extremes of 
temperature felt in other parts of New England in the same, 

A medical authority says, " The air is at all times pure ; and the lon- 
gevity of the inhabitants, as indicated by the census, is a true indi- 
cation of its salubrious qualities." These facts have long made the 
maritime section of the state a favorite summer resort 


Manufactures. — Manufacturing is the leading industry ; and, 
in proportion to its area, Rhode Island exceeds any other state 
in the extent and value of its manufactures. As motors, water 
and steam are used to about an equal amount. 

The branches of manufacture, in order of importance, are, 
first, cotton manufactures, including dyeing, bleaching, and 
calico-printing ; second, woolen manufactures of all kinds ; 
third, iron manufactures, including steam-engines, locomotives, 
machinery, fire-arms, stoves, screws, nails, etc. 

In printing cotton and woolen goods, and in the manufacture of screws, 
Rhode Island exceeds every other state, and she ranks second in 
the manufacture of cotton goods, and of cotton and woolen ma- 
chinery, and in bleaching and dyeing. 

Among other important items of manufacture are rubber and leather 
goods, jewelry and silver-ware, brass, copper, and tin-ware, hair- 
cloth, carriages, furniture, fish-oil and guano, chemicals, patent 
medicines, etc. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture is the second industry in impor- 
tance. The soil of Aquidneck and of the bay towns is highly 
cultivated ; but most of the land in the interior is better 
adapted to pasturage than to tillage. 


I. Bound Rhode Island. Between what degrees of latitude and longi- 
tude does it extend ? What large bay enters the state ? What is the largest 
island in Narragansett Bay t Name other islands in this bay. What island 
in the Atlantic Ocean belongs to the state ? 

II. What river drains the northern part of the state ? The central part ? 
The south-western part ? Name any tributaries of these rivers. Name any 
smaller streams. 

III. Name the counties in the state. Name and locate the two capitals. 
What are the principal towns and villages of Providence County? Of 
Kent County? Of Washington County? Of Newport County? Of Bris- 
tol County? 

Market-gardening, dairying, milk-farming, etc., are profitable 
employments, owing to the demand from the large number of 
manufacturing towns. The leading articles of farm-produce 
are hay, potatoes, garden-vegetables, butter, eggs, poultry, etc. 

Maritime Pursuits. — The fisheries form an industry of 
growing importance, and employ a large number of vessels of 
light tonnage in taking cod, mackerel, scup, tautog, bass, blue- 
fish, herring, shad, etc., with which the bay and coast waters 
abound. Great quantities of shell-fish, including oysters, qua- 
haugs, clams, scallops, and lobsters, are gathered. Menhaden 
are extensively caught for the manufacture of oil and guano. 

Minor Industries. — Among the minor industries are the preparation 
of forest products (wood, timber, charcoal, etc.), the mining of coal 
(in Portsmouth and Cranston) and iron (in Cumberland), and the 
quarrying of granite, limestone, etc. 

Commerce. — The state has an extensive domestic and 
interstate commerce, based on the exchange of her varied 
manufactures for raw material, coal, food, and luxuries. 

The direct foreign commerce, though not large, is increasing. 
The state is divided into three customs-districts, — Bristol and 
Warren, Newport, and Providence. 

Transportation. — Transportation facilities are aflforded by 
the coast waters and numerous railroads (more than a dozen), 
with a total length of over two hundred miles in the state. 


The official designation of the state is " The State of Rhode 
Island and Providence Plantations;*' and the government is 
intrusted to three departments, — the legislative, the executive, 
and the judicial. 

The legislature, or General Assembly, consists of a Senate 
of thirty-six members (one from each town and city), and a 
House of Representatives, the members of which must not 
exceed seventy-two. The General Assembly is elected annually 
by the people. It organizes and holds a short session at New- 
port each year, beginning on the last Tuesday in May, and an 
adjourned session during the winter, at Providence. 

The executive officers are the governor, lieutenant-governor, 
secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and attorney-general. All 
(except the auditor) are elected annually by the people. 

The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, and a 
court of common pleas, twelve district courts, and a probate 
court in each town. 

National Representation. — The state is entitled to two sena- 
tors and two representatives in Congress, and to four electoral 


Public Schools. — An efficient system of public schools is 
supported by state, town, and district taxes. The schools are 
under the supervision of a State Board of Education, consisting 
of the governor, lieutenant-governor, and six other members, 
elected by the General Assembly for the term of three years. 
The secretary of the board is the commissioner of public 
schools. Each town and city has its local committee and 

In most of the larger towns excellent high schools are 
supported. The State Normal School is located at Provi- 



Colleges and Academies. — The most important institution 
of learning is Brown University at Providence, founded in 1764. 
There arc also many excellent academies, denominational and 
private schools. 

Among these may be mentioned Greenwich Academy at East Green- 
wich, the Friends' School, University Gram mar-School, and the 
Academy of the Christian Brothers at Providence. 


Settlement — It is believed that Rhode Island was the 
ancient " Vinland " which the Northmen discovered, and on 
which they made a temporary settlement as early as 1000 
A.D.; and it is known that Narragansett Bay was visited by 
Verazzani in 1529. 

Rhode Island was first settled at Providence (so called in 
grateful acknowledgment of "God's merciful providence to him 
in his distress") in the year 1636, by Roger Williams, who 
had been banished from Massachusetts for maintaining opin- 
ions in political and religious matters deemed " new and dan- 
gerous " by the rulers of that colony. 

At this time the region was inhabited by two powerful tribes of 
Indians, — the Narragansetts and the Wampanoags. From the 
chiefs Canonicus and Massasoit, Williams bought land, and organ- 
ized a community, — the first of the kind in America, — with •* lib- 
erty of conscience " as its fundamental law. 

In 1638 William Coddington and some others, who were also forced 
to leave Massachusetts for '* heretical" ideas, purchased from the 
Indians the Island of Aquidneck, and formed a settlement from 
which sprung the towns of Newport and Portsmouth. A third 
settlement was formed at Warwick in 1643. 

In 1643 Roger Williams went to England, and returned in the follow- 
ing year with a charter, which he obtained from the English " Long 
Parliament," and under which he united these settlements into one 
colony. In 1663 Rhode Island obtained from Charles II. a royal 
charter, which was very liberal in its provisions. It granted all the 
rights and privileges of the parliamentary charter, and remained in 
force as the fundamental ** Rhode Island and Providence Planta- 
tions" till 1842, when the present state constitution was adopted. 

From the commencement of the eighteenth century Rhode 
Island enjoyed a career of general prosperity. Newport early 
became a commercial town of great wealth and refinement. 

In the war of the Revolution, Rhode Island took an active part. 
Indeed, the earliest open resistance made by any American colony 

«.to the tyranny of Great Britain was the capturing and burning of 
the British war schooner "Gasp^e" in Narragansett Bay in 1772. 
Among the most prominent officers from this state during the Revo- 
lution were Commodore Hopkins, who commanded the first naval 
squadron sent* against the enemy, and Gen. Nathanael Greene, 
" next to Washington in ability and in the esteem of the nation." 

Rhode Island was the last of the thirteen colonies to adopt the con- 
stitution of the United States, her assent being given May 29, 1790. 
In the war of 18 12, one of the sons of Rhode Island, Commodore 
Oliver Hazard Perry, won the great naval victory of Lake Erie. 

In the civil war of 1861-65, Rhode Island took a distinguished part, 
contributing to the Union army about twenty-four thousand troops. 


Counties. — The state is div^ded into five counties; namely, 
Providence, Bristol, Newport, Kent, and Washington. 

Subdivisions. — The counties are subdivided into four cities 
and thirty-two towns, and one district. 

Providence (population, 132, 146), the joint capital with New- 
port, is the metropolis of the state, and the second city of 

New England. It is situated at the head of Providence River, 
and Is the center of extensive interstate traffic. 

The cit}' is the center of an immense manufacturing industry 
of the most varied kind, including silverware, jewelry, tools, 
steam-engines, corset and shoe laces, and lamp wicks. 

The city is delightfully situated: it has many imposing 
public buildings and elegant private residences, and claims the 
finest system of water- works and sewers in the country. 

Providence has an admirable public-school system, and many 
excellent private and denominational schools, seminaries, etc. 
Brown University, the State Normal School, numerous libraries, 
the Athenaeum, the Historical Society, etc., are among the 
other literary advantages of this city of wealth and culture. 

Pawtucket has a fine water-power, on Blackstone River, in 
Providence County. It is particularly noted for the manufac- 
ture of cotton goods and for the printing of calicoes. Among 
its other manufactures are steam fire-engines, leather, machine- 
ry, thread, ropes, spools, and many other articles. 

Woonsocket, on the Blackstone River, near the northern state 
boundary, has ample water-power employed in driving exten- 
sive woolen and cotton mills. Incorporated as a city in 1 888. 

Newport (population 19,457), also one of the capitals, is 
situated at thte southern extremity of the Island of Aquidneck 
(Rhode Island), near the entrance to Narragansett Bay. It has 
a capacious harbor, deep enough for the largest ships. 

Newport was in early times the most important place in 
Rhode Island, and one of the most important in the colonies. 
It is now chiefly noted as being one of the finest and most popu- 
lar watering-places in the country. Among objects of interest 
are the " Round Tower " in Touro Park, the Redwood Library, 
the Old State House, Fort Adams, etc. Its schools are un- 
surpassed in excellence. 

Towns op Providbncb County. 

Bast Providence, connected by bridges widi 
Providence City, is a thriving residential 
town: extensive chemical works are lo- 
cated here. 

Lincoln, located on the right bank of the 
Blackstone, contains several manufacturing 
villages. Cotton, woolen, and thread fac- 
tories and large bleacheries. 

Cumberland, on the Blackstone, is a beautiful 
hill-town. It has coal and iron mines, and 
is largely engaged in cotton manufacture. 

North Smithfield and Burrillville are 
traversed by Clear River, which supplies 
water-power for several villages largely en- 
gaged in the manufacture of cotton and 
woolen goods. 

Smithfield, North Providence, and John- 
ston contain many manufacturing villages 
located on the Woonasquatucket River. 
Market-gardening is also largely carried on. 

Cranston contains manufiBu:tories, mills, and ex- 
tensive print-works. The reservoir for the 
Providence water-works is in this town. 

Gloucester, Poster, and Scituate are agricul- 
tural towns. The last-named also manu- 
fiictures cotton and woolen goods. 

Towns of Kent County. 

Warwick, traversed by Pawtuxct River, which 
supplies abundant water-power to cotton 
and woolen mills. 

East Greenwich, the county seat, is a manu- 
facturing and residential town, beautifully 
situated on Greenwich and Narragansett 

Coventry is an agricultuml and manufacturing 

town (cotton and woolen goods). 
Greenwich is a rural town. 


Towns of Washington County. 

North Kingstovirn, situated on Narragansett 
Bay, is a residential and manufacturing^ 
town (woolen goods) : it has a good harbor 
at Wickfbrd village. 

South Kingstown contains the village of Kbgs- 
town, the county seat, besides several con- 
siderable manu&cturing villages. Narra- 
gansett District contains Narragansett 
Pier, a &mous summer resort. Charles- 
tovirn is a farming town. 

Westerly has extensive granite-quarxies and 
cotton and woolen mills. 

Exeter is a farming town. Richmond and 
Hopkinton are agricultural and manu- 
facturing towns. 

Towns of Newport County. 

Middletown and Portsmouth, on Aquidneck 
Island, are pleasant rural towns, prindpaUy 
engaged in raising form products for ihc 
city markets. At the latter place is a valu- 
able coal mine. 

Jamestown, Tiverton, and Ldttle Compton 
are engaged in fuming and the fisheries. 

New Shoreham comprises Block Island. Fish- 
ing is the chief local interest. It has a 
harbor protected by a breakwater. 

Towns of Bristol County. 
Bristol, the county seat, is a beautifully situated 

residential town, wiA extensive cotton and 

rubber factories. 
Barrington and Warren are pleasantly located 

shore-towns, engaged in msnufiicturing and 

the fisheries.